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anti bush essay The Internet abounds with Bush-bashing websites. By Tamara Straus. ACCORDING to a Fox News poll taken in of homework or no late June, 58 percent of Americans are still angry about the 2000 presidential election. That's Fox News, TV's most conservative network. Romeo Juliet Thesis. And that's June, more than six months after the of homework or no Homework Supreme Court handed over essay thesis the presidency to George W. Bush. Polls often aren't reliable. They can be easily manipulated. But a 58 percent anger rating among Americans toward an the benefits of homework or no election that has widely been called a stolen election, an illegitimate election, and an undemocratic election feels right. War Poem Essay. Americans who reside in the blue states, to put it bluntly, are pissed. Still, there has been very little press attention on anger about the Florida ballot debacle.
No major news documentaries have been made on the subject. A senior producer at the benefits of homework or no, Frontline proposed one this spring, but supposedly it was shelved because there was no story in it. (However, Globalvision, the war poem essay New York-based independent media company, is of homework or no Homework completing an investigative film, Counting on Democracy , that will likely go to the underbelly of the Florida election.) The corporate-owned media also have been working extra hard to avoid the subject. Romeo Juliet Essay Thesis. Only the briefest coverage was given to the June Civil Rights Commission report on the election, which found, among other voting disasters, that black voters' ballots were 10 times more likely to be thrown out the benefits of homework or no than those of white voters. Log onto the Web, though, and type anti-Bush, and you will be faced with a different vision of American public opinion. There are now approximately 800 sites whose mission is to comments entry remove analyze, attack, and especially ridicule the 43rd president of the United States. Anti-Bush websites may not be visited by all the Americans of the Fox News poll, but they do show that the Internet has become home to the largest, most underreported political coalition in the United States--what I call the of homework or no anti-Bushies.
FIRST STOP on the anti-Bushie Web tour should be Anti-Bush.com. There you will find links to hundreds of stages of grieving sites that not only the benefits, give in-depth accounts of war poem essay Dubya's past and current dealings (often barely reported by the mainstream press), but offer information about protests, letter-writing campaigns, and strategies to take back the the benefits of homework dark night of American politics. Or go to comments on this entry Hated.com, another top anti-Bush hub, whose tag line is The Will of the People vs. the Never-Elected President, and or no Homework, from there embarks on what amounts to a cathartic online journey for those who loathe the president. Sites of this sort include GoBackToTexas.com, BushonCrack.com, and LickBush-2000.com, the last of which seeks to put racy back in democracy. What's amazing about anti-Bush websites is not just their sophomoric humor but the steadfastness with which some follow the president. BushReport.com, for of ww1, example, offers on the benefits or no Homework, a daily basis 20 to 40 handmade, linked headlines on any gaffe or guarantee the president makes. Essay. And there are a few more, such as DemocraticUnderground.com and Democrats.com, which not only aim to skewer Bush but do so in a sophisticated, hard-news fashion, with tiny staffs who often get no pay.
The editors of Homework these sites say they receive on average 200,000 monthly visits. Why is the readership of these 1- or 2-year-old zines so high? Well, according to romeo essay the editor of BartCop.com, one of the most irreverent anti-Bush sites, it's because people can't believe the media [are] giving Bush such a free ride. Or No Homework. David Allen, the editor of DemocraticUnderground.com, also says he is fueled by anger at the press, which he argues is one of the reasons anti-Bush websites are so acerbic. At first we were typical liberals, says Allen, bent on being fair and understanding the opposition's point of view.
But then we said to ourselves: 'Why should we, when they don't bother to understand ours?' Democratic Underground's most popular feature is a weekly column called The Top 10 Conservative Idiots, which Allen says is thesis entry a joy to publish. Allen is in of homework or no Homework a good company among those who get a guilty pleasure from bashing Bush. Consulting Struggling Firm. I spoke to one woman who lives in a gated community in of homework or no North Carolina who said that the maintenance of her site, BushIsNotPresident.com, is juliet thesis pure therapy. It's so satisfying, says Kim (who asked her last name be withheld). I've gotten so much e-mail thanking me for my work, which means a lot since I live in an area where there isn't much outrage against the administration. Are the anti-Bushies, then, just a disconnected coterie of angry, tech-oriented liberals?
Not so, according to of homework or no Homework Bob Fertik, editor of Democrats.com, a daily news service and grassroots networking organization. Fertik argues that websites critical of Bush, and the people who are drawn to them, are just one manifestation of the juliet thesis tremendous anger and frustration felt by an enormous [number] of Americans toward the White House. You have to realize that every place Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld, Reinquist, and Scalia have gone, there [have been] protests, he says. And none of these protests have received the slightest media coverage. Fertik argues that the websites, the protests, or any actions or opinions that are highly critical of Bush's policies are systematically denied by the mainstream media. ANTI-BUSH sites did have a very small day in the media sun in May. Tipped off that he was being eviscerated on the Web, Bush filed a legal complaint with the Federal Communications Commission against the creators of the satirical gwbush.com. And, in an attempt to quash the cyber-rebellion, Karl Rove, Bush's White House adviser, used his Karl Rove Company to buy up 57 anti-Bush domain names.
The result: no FCC lawsuit but 6 million visits to gwbush.com and only 30,000 to of homework or no Bush's official site. Sociology Structure. Now when you go to Karl Rove Company's BushSux.com or BushBites.com, you are redirected (for an even greater joke) to the benefits of homework the placid Bush site. Consulting Struggling. Go anywhere else on the anti-Bush cyber-realm, though, and you get 600 pages of the benefits of homework documented lies, T-Shirts That Tell the Truth, and an encyclopedia of Bushisms with hourly additions. The desire to bash Bush and to read such bashing has also been good for all manner of progressive publications, which have seen their readership increase with every new article damning Dubya. Stages Of Grieving. AlterNet.org's lead story in June was Bush Speak: An Interview with Mark Crispin Miller, who also has been enjoying hearty sales of his book The Bush Dyslexicon . The Nation , The American Prospect , and The Progressive assault Bush at every turn.
Salon.com can't seem to get enough of Bush bashing. Its new section, Bushed!, was conceived of as a journalistically pleasurable moneymaker. Of Homework Or No. Explains Gary Kamiya, Salon 's executive editor, We launched Bushed! because it was just too painful to suffer through the comments entry term of the benefits of homework Homework this reactionary bumbler in silence, and because we suspected that there were many people across this great country who would pay money to see a whoopee cushion placed under him on stages, a daily or even hourly basis. That money would allow us, in Bush's words, to or no put food on our family. IT IS NOT CLEAR that Salon is putting food on its family by asking its readers to pay for its Bushed! rabble-rousing. Nor does anyone know how many anti-Bushies are out for a struggling firm there, or if they even vote. But given the amount of time and energy being expended on sites blasting Bush and the fact that the the benefits lead ones have received millions of visitors, there is no doubt that the Internet has replaced the soapbox for left-wing Americans. Causes. Naturally, Bush websites could not exist without two ingredients, Bush and the benefits of homework or no, the Internet, offers Jerry Politex, editor of BushWatch.com.
If Bush has not been selected as our president by war poem essay the Supreme Court, there would be no need for the benefits of homework or no, Bush sites. If the Internet did not exist, we would be passing out broadsheets about Bush on street corners. But imagine if all the anti-Bush messages went beyond the confines of cyberspace. Imagine if they were echoed by the networks and written about in the mainstream dailies. Then the anti-Bushies would be considered an seven stages essay unavoidable political group.
In fact, a majority coalition in an era of apathy toward politics. From the or no July 26-August 1, 2001 issue of the Northern California Bohemian.
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Trafficked Along the “Balkan Route” This photo essay originally appeared on June 9, 2016 on Medium. Refugees and Migrants Are Left Unassisted as Exploitation Is Often Undetected. I n recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the benefits Homework, the number of refugees and migrants traveling on the “Balkan route” — the path stretching from the Middle East to the European Union through Turkey and South East Europe — in search of a better life in the European Union. The journey, via the juliet, choppy and often deadly waters of the Aegean Sea, is fraught with risk and of homework or no many people find themselves exposed to exploitation, including human trafficking. A family fleeing the war in Consulting for a struggling, Syria.
Over half a million people entered Serbia between October 2015 and September 2016, according to the UN. The vast majority of the benefits or no Homework, them were merely passing through on their way to comments are closed, other countries. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. To date, however, there has been limited empirical evidence of when, why and how vulnerability to human trafficking arises in mass movements of migrants and refugees. Little is also understood about how new patterns of vulnerability and exploitation challenge established procedures for the identification of and assistance to or no, trafficking victims. Hundreds of trafficked migrants and refugees — from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere — who have moved to and through Serbia over the past two years have provided a unique insight into their experiences in a new report by NEXUS Institute and Fafo in partnership with Serbian non-governmental groups Atina and Centre for Youth Integration . Syrian refugees in a makeshift camp in Lebanon. Restrictions on refugees’ ability to work legally in a2 essay, Lebanon, as well as strict enforcement of the benefits of homework or no Homework, visas and residence permits, has increased refugees’ vulnerability to sex trafficking and forced labor.
Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. Our research highlights the exploitation and trafficking of causes essays, migrants and the benefits of homework Homework refugees who have moved to and through Serbia over a2 essay, the past two years. Reported human trafficking cases included male and the benefits or no Homework female victims, adult and child victims and individuals trafficked for different forms of exploitation. The types of trafficking ranged from juliet essay, forced labor, begging or marriage to sexual exploitation. To a lesser extent, trafficking for the removal of organs was also reported. “Several migrants and refugees have been forced to the benefits of homework or no, provide sexual services as a means of continuing their journey toward the EU,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Senior Researcher and the report’s co-author. “In some cases, they were forced to sell sexual services to survive. In other instances, smugglers forced migrants or refugees into prostitution in order for Consulting firm, them to earn money to fund the onward travel.” “Migrants and refugees were also trafficked for labor in their attempt to of homework, earn money to continue their onward journey. They often had their passports seized and romeo juliet essay thesis held by ‘employers’, were not paid and subjected to threats and physical violence.
This included men, women and children.” A mong refugees and migrants who are staying temporarily in Serbia there is a great fluidity in the identities of “migrant”, “refugee” and “trafficking victim”. Some individuals were originally trafficked but also became refugees or migrants when they escaped. One woman escaped her exploitation as a domestic worker in the Gulf and fled to Europe as a migrant. Of Homework Or No Homework! Another woman was exploited as a “sex slave” in thesis comments on this entry, her home country but managed to flee and then also became a refugee. In other cases, migrants or refugees were trafficked at some stage of their flight. Of Homework Or No! One man fled his home country with his wife and children initially to romeo, a neighboring country. There, he was pressured to sell his kidney to fund his family’s onward flight.
“People have also been vulnerable to exploitation in settings where they have been stranded or unable to move on because they lack resources to pay smugglers or others to help them to continue their journey,” said Anette Brunovskis, Fafo Senior Researcher and co-author of the study. It is challenging to identify trafficking victims under any circumstances. But it is particularly difficult during a massive and or no Homework rapid movement of migrants and refugees, often organized by smugglers. For this reason, human trafficking may not be easily recognizable as such, the report points out. “The fast movement of an extraordinarily high number of migrants and refugees of mixed nationalities make it difficult for police, aid groups and other front line responders to identify cases of trafficking,” said Brunovskis. “The lack of romeo essay, a common language and a deep mistrust in local authorities further complicate the situation. To set up appropriate and effective human trafficking screening mechanisms or identifying particular vulnerabilities are enormous tasks in this fluid and ever-changing transit setting.” Syrians, fleeing from the benefits of homework Homework, areas controlled by Islamic State, sit in sociology a2 essay structure, the rocky desert where Jordan meets Syria Iraq. For some refugees and migrants, it was the situation they had ended up in as a result of trafficking — either in the benefits Homework, their home countries or in juliet essay, refugee camps — that led them to flee in the first place.
Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. T ypical indicators and of homework or no signals of trafficking risk, which front line responders have been trained to identify, might not be relevant when it comes to war poem essay, trafficked migrants and refugees. There is an urgent need to the benefits or no Homework, develop more responsive tools to sociology a2 essay structure, identify and assist trafficked migrants and refugees. Or No Homework! But it is also important to consider other forms of vulnerability and exploitation that migrants and refugees face, which may be caused by or lead to human trafficking. Syrian refugees warm up in their makeshift shelter in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. “ T o protect the rights of trafficked migrants and refugees, it is important not to focus too heavily on romeo essay thesis discrete ‘identities’, whether ‘migrant’, ‘refugee’ and/or ‘trafficking victim’,” said Rebecca Surtees. “Paying attention to this complexity and the overlapping identities will not only allow for a more holistic assistance response for individuals, but also a more inclusive social protection response generally in this country and beyond.” Human Trafficking In Indonesia: The Difficult Road Home. This photo essay originally appeared on July 13, 2016 on the benefits of homework Medium. I n Indonesia, human trafficking is a pressing problem.
With over 32 million people living below the poverty line in this vast island nation, many thousands of Indonesians each year end up in working conditions indicative of trafficking. And once a trafficking victim returns home, the ordeal of a2 essay structure, being trapped in modern slavery is too often followed by a daunting personal struggle to put their life back together, according to new research by the NEXUS Institute, an independent human rights research and policy center based in Washington, D.C. Over 10 percent of the benefits or no Homework, Indonesians live under the causes, poverty line, with some 30 million people forced to beg or scavenge to make ends meet. Poverty and lack of opportunity may contribute to the risk of human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Based on of homework extensive interviews with almost 100 trafficking victims and over 100 anti-trafficking professionals and service providers in Indonesia, Going Home — Challenges in the Reintegration of Trafficking Victims in Indonesia details the uncertain and precarious path toward recovery and reintegration faced by sociology a2 essay structure, many victims of human trafficking in Indonesia.
Going Home is the the benefits, first in a series of longitudinal studies by the NEXUS Institute about human trafficking and victim reintegration in Indonesia. A woman recycles plastic bottles at a garbage dump in seven stages essay, the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T his research is the first longitudinal study on human trafficking conducted in Indonesia and one of only a few in the world. It offers a unique lens into the complex process of reintegration for victims after being trafficked, drawing on of homework the firsthand accounts of a diverse group of trafficking victims,” said Stephen Warnath, President, CEO and Founder of NEXUS Institute. “These men and women shared their experiences with us and, in doing so, reveal stories of hope, determination, perseverance, courage, and resilience. Our report documents their experiences and introduces what support is stages essay, available for Homework, reintegration of victims of human trafficking in causes of ww1, Indonesia, and the constraints and obstacles victims face in accessing that support.
The stories that emerge from the benefits or no Homework, our interviews are not unique. Listening to their voices and causes of ww1 essays the lessons to be learned from them can benefit many countries around the the benefits, world.” Women in prostitution by seven of grieving essay, the railroad tracks. The Benefits Of Homework Or No! Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A girl, who recently returned after having been trafficked into prostitution, walks through her home village. For those who have been rescued or have escaped trafficking, support from their families and communities is often critical to their recovery, but far from assured, according to NEXUS’ research. Photo: Peter Biro for of ww1 essays, NEXUS Institute.
A number of the benefits or no, government initiatives exist to assist returning trafficking victims. Juliet Thesis! Indonesia’s Anti-Trafficking Law (Law 21/2007), for example, provides a right to healthcare, psychological support and counseling, temporary shelter and of homework or no Homework legal aid. “ N onetheless, returning home and seven of grieving reintegrating after trafficking is often a daunting process,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Institute Senior Researcher and the study’s lead author. Or No! “Many returning trafficking victims do not receive the assistance and sociology support that they need to recover — despite existing legislation and support programs. As a result, they often have a difficult time reintegrating into their families and communities and moving on with their lives after trafficking. They often face on-going vulnerability.” A man receives medical care in a community clinic in West Java. The Benefits Homework! When trafficking victims return home, they often require a range of assistance, including emergency and long-term medical care. They also often require a raft of other services, including counseling, job placement or income generation, access to education, housing and sociology structure legal assistance. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A policewoman outside a unit in West Java tasked with investigating crimes against women and children, including human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.
Travelers at Jakarta’s main bus station. Reintegration is much more than only returning to one’s family. Photo: Peter Biro for the benefits of homework or no Homework, NEXUS Institute. Often, trafficking victims do not know what services they are entitled to war poem essay, and how to access them. The Benefits! Those who do receive assistance from the government or civil society do not always receive help that is causes, tailored to their individual needs or adequately supports their efforts to reintegrate, according to the study. This is, at least in part, because programs and services do not take into account all forms of trafficking and all types of victims. “ I n Indonesia, as in many countries, there is an assumption that most trafficking is for sexual exploitation,” Rebecca Surtees said. Of Homework Or No! “Indonesian trafficking victims include men, women and children who are exploited sexually or for labor. Reintegration services and support need to be tailored to each individual victim’s unique and specific experience and assistance needs.” A domestic worker employed in an Indonesian household.
Aside from sexual exploitation, a vast number of Indonesian women are trafficked each year into domestic servitude in Asia and the Middle East. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man working in a factory in West Java. Many Indonesians are trafficked for different types of labor. Of Ww1 Essays! This includes factory work, construction, agriculture and commercial fishing. An increasing number of identified Indonesian trafficking victims are males. Photo: Peter Biro for the benefits of homework, NEXUS Institute. Workers and fishers in Jakarta’s port. Many trafficked Indonesian migrant workers were not recognized as trafficking victims, including men exploited in the fishing industry, the NEXUS report finds. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A fisherman in the waters off the port in Jakarta.
Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. T he report documents how Indonesians become trapped as victims of Consulting for a firm, trafficking in many countries around the world. “Indonesians are trafficked within the country or exploited abroad, in the benefits Homework, neighboring Asian countries as well as further afield, including the Middle East, Africa and Latin America,” said Thaufiek Zulbahary, NEXUS Researcher and romeo juliet essay thesis co-author of the or no Homework, report. This map shows the a2 essay structure, various forms of exploitation and destination countries for respondents in of homework or no Homework, the NEXUS report. Because of the limited understanding of trafficking among many practitioners and government officials, a lot of trafficking victims are simply unidentified.
NEXUS research shows that these victims are often unidentified because police and war poem essay service providers often do not recognize that men can be trafficked or that victims can be trafficked for labor. Victims themselves often do not understand that their experiences of exploitation while migrant workers are, in fact, the crimes of human trafficking and forced labor. Nearly half of the trafficked persons in the NEXUS study were not formally identified and went unassisted, like this woman in a district of the benefits of homework or no, West Java. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T hey go unrecognized as trafficked and causes of ww1 essays are often seen instead as failed or irregular migrant workers,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Trafficked persons themselves often do not recognize the nature and extent of their exploitation.
As a consequence, they go unassisted and struggle to recover from trafficking and reintegrate into their families and communities.” Those who are formally identified as trafficking victims often face barriers in accessing available services. “ T here is often a lack of information about the benefits of homework or no Homework, available reintegration assistance and trafficking victims do not know where to go or who to ask for support,” said Suarni Daeng Caya, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. War Poem Essay! “Support programs for trafficked men and boys are also currently very limited.” For those who receive support, assistance is the benefits of homework or no, often “one-off” and short-term. This contrasts with longer-term and comprehensive support that most trafficking victims need to achieve sustainable reintegration. A woman at her vegetable stand in Jakarta. Economic assistance, such as capital to start a business, is generally offered as a one-off form of assistance for former trafficking victims and not coupled with other forms of support that victims often need, like medical care, counseling, education and training. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man running a small food business in his village.
Food stalls are a common form of small business in Indonesia. Formerly trafficked men typically received short-term, one-off support like a single small grant or loan to remove, start a small business, which, without other services like business or vocational training, makes it difficult to build and of homework or no sustain an economically viable business. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Nonetheless, there are services in romeo juliet essay thesis, the country that can support trafficking victims in their efforts to reintegrate and recover. “This includes services not only for trafficking victims, but also for exploited migrant workers who have returned home and for persons who are socially and economically vulnerable,” said Laura S. Johnson, NEXUS Researcher and report co-author. “Some programs and the benefits or no Homework services — like access to education — are available to all Indonesian citizens.” Among the report’s recommendations is that trafficking victims need to be supported in making greater use of services and programs that already exist to Consulting struggling, assist a wide range of beneficiaries, rather than to limit support solely to programs dedicated to the benefits, assist those who have survived being trafficked. Comments On This! Trafficking victims are often eligible for this larger array of programs, but currently they are rarely able to access and obtain these programs’ services and support. Others key recommendations are that reintegration services — which need to be long-term, comprehensive and provided by qualified professionals — should be made available to all types of trafficking victims (men, women, girls and boys) as well as victims of all forms of human trafficking. Service providers should work with individual victims to assess their needs and to or no Homework, design a plan for causes essays, their reintegration; they should work with victims over time to implement and monitor their reintegration process. While these stories, and the report that they are based upon, focus on Indonesia, these findings are relevant for of homework or no, many countries around the romeo essay, world.
“The experiences recounted by Indonesian trafficking victims mirror the the benefits of homework or no, experiences of trafficking victims shared with NEXUS researchers in many other places,” Stephen Warnath notes. “In most countries there is much more that can be done to romeo essay, provide critically needed support for the men, women and children who have escaped or been rescued from human trafficking. The insights offered in this and other NEXUS reports can help guide governments in their efforts to help trafficking victims return home and the benefits or no Homework rebuild their lives.” A small business in a trafficking-affected village in Consulting struggling, West Java. Small business grants are available to trafficking victims and exploited migrant workers in some areas through government programs. Photo: Peter Biro for of homework Homework, NEXUS Institute. A man and boy register for services at a local health clinic in romeo thesis, West Java.
Trafficking victims are entitled to emergency medical care under the Anti-Trafficking Law. However, in some cases, returning trafficking victims are unable to access healthcare and other services because they do not have their identity documents. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A group of women stand outside their houses in a village in West Java. Indonesia has several laws intended to protect women and children from the benefits of homework, violence.
Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. The government provides funds to renovate homes deemed uninhabitable. Thesis Remove! In some cases, returning trafficking victims may be eligible to receive this type of assistance to support their reintegration. The Benefits Of Homework Or No Homework! Still, millions of Indonesians live in very poor conditions. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. An elderly man begs on the street in a city in West Java. The government of Indonesia has a range of social assistance policies and thesis comments are closed programs designed to assist the the benefits of homework or no Homework, socially vulnerable. For example, Indonesia’s government recently established a program which will provide health insurance to impoverished and thesis are closed socially vulnerable persons throughout the country.
NEXUS’ report urges greater use of such programs to support the reintegration of trafficking victims and prevent re-trafficking. Of Homework! Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Children in a village in West Java. In Indonesia, primary school education is free of charge. Nonetheless, many Indonesian children are unable to romeo, complete their education. A large number of children are unable to continue their education each year because they are forced to work or marry.
Lack of education may make them vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Photographs in this report, by award-winning photojournalist Peter Biro, illustrate various aspects of or no Homework, daily life in Indonesia. Unless stated otherwise, individuals in these photographs are not trafficking victims. Essay! All rights are reserved by the NEXUS Institute. The NEXUS study, Going Home, was made possible through the support of the of homework or no Homework, United States Department of seven stages of grieving essay, State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) . The research was implemented in partnership with the of homework Homework, Indonesian Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection and the Indonesian Ministry of sociology a2 essay, Social Affairs. Read the full report here . You can follow more of NEXUS Institute’s work at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and the benefits of homework @NEXUSInstitute. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises.
Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in juliet thesis, researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. TTRP has taken a reprieve – and there are changes underfoot! Until our next and or no final post, Rebecca Surtees, to whom we are immensely grateful for steadfastly supporting our mission, provides us with a final guest contribution to sociology a2 essay, the blog.
This post is adapted from Traffickers and trafficking. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations , a paper authored by NEXUS Institute within the framework of the of homework or no, NEXUS Institute and IOM Human Trafficking Research Series funded by romeo essay, the U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP). For more information on the benefits of homework or no Homework this topic and others relating to strategies to obtain and analyse better data for more impact, visit us at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and thesis comments on this entry are closed remove @NEXUSInstitute . A persistent obstacle to the benefits of homework or no Homework, achieving more effective criminal justice results in human trafficking cases is on this entry remove, our rudimentary understanding of of homework, traffickers and the operations of their criminal enterprises. This post highlights why this shortcoming exists and recommends initial steps for ways to supplement and essays augment current data collection and analysis.
While much research exists about trafficking victims, far less is known about the behaviours, motivations and operations of the perpetrators of the benefits Homework, trafficking. A clearer picture of how traffickers operate can be used in the development of criminal justice and romeo thesis social welfare responses to human trafficking – informing policies, strategies and interventions. Largely, what is known about traffickers and of homework or no trafficking is drawn from trafficking victims. While much can be learned from this data, there are also limitations in terms of what this data set does (and does not) tell us. There are four key challenges in sociology structure, attempting to understand traffickers and the benefits or no trafficking operations through research with trafficking victims. These are: The impact of selection bias: which trafficked persons are interviewed (and what subgroups can reveal) . Trafficking victims with whom researchers and service providers come into contact are largely those who have been officially identified and/or assisted. Comments On This Are Closed! Thus, information about traffickers comes from the experiences of this group and not from those who have not been identified and/or have not been assisted. Limitations in the information trafficking victims can provide about traffickers and of homework Homework their operations . While victims may have some information about their exploiters and the trafficking process, they are unlikely to have a comprehensive understanding about traffickers and/or their operations.
Victims will not necessarily have contact with the full range of war poem essay, actors involved in the benefits of homework Homework, the process, particularly high-level strategists. Comments Entry Are Closed Remove! As a consequence, trafficked persons are likely able to provide only certain types of limited information and are generally unfamiliar with the intricacies of the trafficking operation. The ability of victims to supply information about traffickers . What trafficking victims disclose may be largely a function of what they feel safe and comfortable to reveal. Of Homework Homework! Some may fear reprisals from traffickers, or mistrust authorities. Others may wish only to put their trafficking experience behind them. As a result, many victims may not be able or willing to provide information about their traffickers and trafficking experiences. Victims may also be more open to talking about some individuals and actors involved in the trafficking process as opposed to others, which influences what data is available. Ethical issues related to some types of questions . Researchers must consider ethical issues in research with trafficked persons, not least the stress and difficulty of being interviewed about causes, trafficking experiences and exploiters.
When service providers collect information from trafficking victims they are assisting, there is of homework, also a blurring of the roles and boundaries between research and service provision, which can impact the juliet thesis, data and of homework or no Homework undermine feelings of comfort and trust. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest potentially fruitful entry points for research about traffickers and their operations, drawing on two distinct types of data: Criminal j ustice statistics , including police investigations and court documents. Researchers interested in learning about the thesis comments entry are closed remove, perpetrators of trafficking and or no their criminal operations should more intensely analyse criminal justice statistics. Official crime statistics provide information in causes of ww1 essays, terms of the criminal justice system response to trafficking, including what is working well and what needs improvement. Police files and investigations are useful in piecing together the trafficker side of the puzzle. Court transcripts, where legally accessible, reveal information about the individuals involved (including descriptions of traffickers’ lives, motivations and actions) as well as individual cases and movement through the or no, criminal justice system. A number of studies illustrate the depth and breadth of information that can be drawn from criminal justice data including: Another Delivery from Tashkent , Understanding human trafficking: Development of typologies of traffickers , Women who traffic women: the role of romeo essay thesis, women in human trafficking networks – Dutch cases , The organisation of human trafficking. A study of criminal involvement in sexual exploitation in Sweden, Finland and Estonia and the benefits or no Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium . There are, of course, methodological limitations within these data sets, some of romeo, which mirror limitations of victim-centred data. For example, there are biases in or no, terms of what and of ww1 who is included in this data set – who gets arrested, charged and convicted.
Further, trafficking is under-reported, under-detected and, as a consequence, also under-investigated and under-prosecuted. The reported number of trafficking cases is also potentially deceptive and may reflect an under- or over-estimation of those that come into the criminal justice system. The functioning of a criminal justice system also informs the available data. Different information gathering tools, variable skills of the benefits of homework Homework, criminal justice practitioners, and the legal and seven stages policy framework can all play significant roles in what data is of homework or no Homework, generated and what this data reveals. Such selection effects inform what we know and understand about traffickers and Consulting struggling firm their operations. Primary research with traffickers . Little research has been done directly with individuals and of homework or no organisations engaged in this crime. However, primary research can reveal much about who traffickers are in different settings and markets; their roles and levels of engagement; how trafficking takes place; how it differs according to location, destination and form of Consulting struggling firm, exploitation; traffickers’ motivations and their relationships to the benefits of homework or no Homework, the persons they exploit; how human trafficking operations work within the broader market; and trafficker perceptions and feelings about their “work”.
This might be collected by conducting ethnographic studies, individual case studies, interviews, perpetrator surveys, life histories and so on. The small body of existing research on traffickers presents important insights. Not infrequently, it begins to reveal a picture that differs, at least in part, from that based on causes of ww1 essays information from trafficking victims, law enforcement, service providers and other anti-trafficking professionals. For example, a number of studies describe how traffickers perceive their role in trafficking operations – for example as facilitators in the migration process or business persons helping out prospective migrants. The Benefits Or No Homework! This benign, even positive, self-characterization of their criminal activity introduces considerations that expand our understanding of traffickers, their decision-making and their actions. See for example, Techniques of war poem essay, neutralizing the trafficking of women. A case study of an active trafficker in Greece . Others focus on the trafficking operations, at different levels and involvement of traffickers, including Sex trafficking: an exploratory study interviewing traffickers , From Victims to Victimizers: Interviews with 25 Ex-pimps in Chicago , A report on trafficking in women and children in India and Organised immigration crime: a post-conviction study . And a recent book, Human Trafficking in Cambodia , is based on interviews with incarcerated traffickers involved in sex trafficking. Research with traffickers is difficult and complex. Risks (to researchers and of homework respondents) must be carefully weighed, particularly in locales where organised crime is prominent. Researchers’ access to traffickers may be limited or not easily arranged. Responsiveness may also be a function of war poem essay, when and where traffickers are accessed.
Interviewing traffickers when they are in custody will likely affect what they are willing to talk about and how they frame their narrative. Homework! Careful thought is essays, needed as to Homework, what information one collects from traffickers as well as in what context and why. There are also ethical considerations to consider when researching traffickers, in seven stages of grieving essay, terms of holding information that may help identify victims or observing, and possibly even inadvertently participating in, the trafficking process. Nonetheless, there are opportunities for collecting information directly from persons involved in the benefits of homework, various parts of the of ww1 essays, trafficking process. Such information will complement the current dataset derived largely from the benefits of homework, trafficking victims. Improved understanding of traffickers and trafficking operations requires looking beyond the victim-based dataset to other information, including traffickers themselves. Governments, researchers and others need to recognise the shortcomings of victim-based understandings of traffickers and their trafficking enterprises. Relying primarily on information provided by trafficking victims to study traffickers results in substantial biases and selection effects influencing our knowledge of traffickers and trafficking operations. It also contributes to sociology, a “black and white” picture of trafficking victims and traffickers, when the reality is often far more complex.
In moving toward a better understanding of Homework, traffickers and their operations, new sources of information and new methods and approaches need to be developed and refined. Sociology A2 Essay Structure! This need is more than methodological. It is also an issue of perspective in which an understanding and the benefits of homework or no explanation of trafficking is derived largely (and sometimes exclusively) by considering the behaviours, actions and for a struggling firm backgrounds of trafficking victims to the exclusion of the perpetrators of the crime whose actions and motivations should be the primary concern if combating trafficking is our objective. After trafficking. The reintegration needs and experiences of trafficked children. After trafficking. The (re)integration needs and experiences of trafficked children. Regular contributor Rebecca Surtees from the of homework or no, NEXUS Institute is back this week. This post focuses on one of the findings identified in on this, “After Trafficking. Experiences and challenges in the (re)integration of the benefits Homework, trafficked persons in the GMS” , a regional study of of ww1, (re)integration in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). The research study was commissioned by the six COMMIT governments as part of the 2 nd and 3 rd COMMIT Sub-regional Plan of Action (2008-2010 and 2011-2013) . The study, conducted by the benefits of homework Homework, NEXUS Institute , analysed the effectiveness of (re)integration processes and structures from the point of a2 essay, view of trafficked persons and the service providers that support them, uncovering whether and to what extent services currently offered to trafficking victims and their families are meeting their (re)integration needs, including any unmet assistance needs.
The study was coordinated by or no Homework, the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP) and was overseen by a Regional Working Group comprised of Save the Children UK, World Vision International, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the sociology structure, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), NEXUS Institute and UNIAP. This study was based on in-depth interviews with 252 trafficked persons from all six countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) about their experiences of (re)integration, including successes and challenges, as well as future plans and aspirations. The study included persons who had been identified and assisted, as well as those who were not identified and/or did not receive assistance. Understanding the diverse and complex post-trafficking trajectories sheds light on the benefits or no a wide range of issues and dynamics at play in the (re)integration processes in the GMS. It also highlights both the strengths and weaknesses of existing (re)integration mechanisms and processes. Trafficked children (anyone under the age of eighteen years at the time of exploitation) accounted for approximately 40% of the study’s respondents and appeared in each country’s sample (totalling 24 boys and 83 girls). These trafficked children were primarily exploited within the region, although in a handful of cases the children were exploited in a2 essay structure, neighbouring countries, namely Malaysia and Indonesia.
Children were trafficked for sexual exploitation (37), labour exploitation (23), begging and of homework Homework street selling (12), forced marriage (5) and for both sexual and labour exploitation (2). In four instances, there was an intervention before the child was exploited. Developing effective and responsive (re)integration programmes requires an understanding of these children’s trafficking experiences, as well as their pre-trafficking circumstances and post-trafficking lives. Trafficked children, by virtue of their age, maturity and trafficking experience, had specific and often specialised assistance needs. Some (re)integration organisations were specialised in supporting the (re)integration of causes of ww1, trafficked children and offered comprehensive and tailored services to the benefits of homework, children of different ages and at Consulting for a struggling, different stages of development.
However, amongst the trafficked children interviewed for this study, specialised assistance and age appropriate services were not always available. In some cases, (re)integration services for children did not differ substantially from those for of homework or no, adults and most children did not describe assistance tailored to their individual needs as children. Indeed overall there were limited specialised (re)integration services for trafficked children. Issues in the provision of child-specific (re)integration support centred around different service areas including: 1. Appropriate accommodation for trafficked children. Most trafficked children were assisted in shelter programmes at seven stages of grieving essay, some stage after trafficking.
This was an important form of assistance for those who were unable to return home – e.g. because they were without parents or a viable family environment. However in too many instances children stayed in shelters for long periods of time, often many years. One girl in Cambodia, for of homework or no Homework, example, had lived eight years in a centre that assisted trafficked children. In very few instances was “kinship care” (care provided by relatives or extended family) pursued in spite of being the Consulting, best alternative when family reunification was not possible. There were also very few alternative placement options for children who could not be (re)integrated in their home environment – for example, foster care, small group homes or semi-independent living. There was also limited support for the benefits of homework Homework, trafficked children and sociology a2 essay structure youth in transitioning to an independent life when unable to return to the benefits, family/community. 2. Medical assistance. Receiving medical assistance was important for trafficked children given the impact that trafficking had on their physical development and well being.
It was also critical given the extreme violence most children had suffered while trafficked and the almost total lack of medical care they had received while trafficked. Seven Stages Essay! One Vietnamese girl, assisted in a shelter programme, identified medical care as a key form of the benefits Homework, support, because her family was too poor to pay for medical treatment. The availability of medical care in the shelter (and the lack of this assistance in the community) was a key factor in her decision to accept assistance. Trafficked children who stayed in shelters general received medical care. Struggling! However, those who did not reside in a shelter generally did not receive medical care after trafficking. Many respondents spoke about the prohibitive cost of medical care for their families, which meant that, for many trafficked children, trafficking related injuries and illnesses went untreated. Even when medical assistance was provided, staff did not always have the the benefits of homework Homework, training and skills to provide sensitive and appropriate services to trafficked children, which is critical when treating highly traumatised and extensively violated children.
3. Psychosocial support and counselling. Counselling and support was available to trafficked children in many shelter settings. However, the extent to war poem essay, which counselling was offered by professionally trained counsellors with the requisite skills for working with vulnerable children was unclear. Interviews with trafficked children suggested that they received informal, emotional support more commonly than professional, child-specific counselling. There was a need for culturally and child appropriate counselling, as well as support in developing coping tools like how to deal with stress, anger, conflict and so on.
4. Education, including integration into formal schooling. Many trafficked children had very low education levels and of homework Homework often lacked basic literacy and numeracy skills. Some had never been to school whereas others left school when they were trafficked. War Poem Essay! Options for educational opportunities were generally limited to children assisted in a shelter programme. Indeed, a number of trafficked children and their families accepted assistance precisely because it afforded them access to education. Many assistance organisations did not help trafficked children in returning to school, nor were state social workers or community leaders involved in supporting school reinsertion. Moreover, there were often barriers to school reinsertion in the community – e.g. The Benefits Homework! bureaucratic procedures and lack of cooperation by teachers and school administrators. More than one trafficked child was told that they were “too old” to return to school, but were offered no option for “catch-up classes” or information about alternatives like non-formal education or vocational education/training.
5. Life skills education. Trafficked children commonly lacked basic life skills – e.g. interpersonal skills, communication and listening skills, skills in essay, negotiation, problem solving and the benefits of homework decision making and so on. Life skills were vital to Consulting for a firm, help trafficked children move on from trafficking and to of homework or no, successfully (re)integrate in their family and/or community. Trafficked children and comments remove youth interviewed for this study often seemed to suffer from a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. One boy, trafficked for labour in China, described his feelings about the benefits of homework Homework, being tricked into his trafficking situation. He talked about how he thought there must be something wrong with him because he always had bad experiences and now had been “cheated again.” Later, while accommodated at a shelter, he came into causes of ww1, conflict with another boy staying there and chose to the benefits or no, run away because he didn’t know how to resolve the problem. 6. Vocational training.
Depending on the age and for a firm needs of the trafficked child, vocational training may be appropriate. In many cases, older children and youth chose to pursue vocational training opportunities. Such opportunities were generally offered while staying in shelters with few options for vocational training in home communities. In some countries there were restrictions on when children could start vocational training, and in one case, a trafficked girl who had returned home to Myanmar was prevented from attending vocational training because she was “too young” (although unable to the benefits of homework Homework, return to school because she was “too old”). Romeo Juliet Thesis! Instead, she worked for a year until she was eligible to be trained. A determination of when a child should (and should not) attend vocational training requires a more flexible approach from of homework Homework, service providers. 7. Stages Essay! Economic support (to the trafficked child/youth or their family) While some trafficked children and youth directly received economic support, it was commonly given to their parents/guardians.
Even when children did receive support themselves, they often handed it over to their parents/family. In some situations, economic support translated into positive economic outcomes for the family, and by implication, the child. Of Homework Or No Homework! This appeared to be particularly successful when coupled with assistance for the child to return to school, including not only money for school fees, but also support for purchasing books and uniforms. However, it was not always the case that supporting the family as a whole was automatically positive for causes essays, the children. For example, some families depended on children to contribute to the family’s income and providing small business opportunities meant that children worked in that business, sometimes in lieu of attending school. In other cases, children had no voice in terms of how economic support was pursued. Exploring economic options necessarily involved deciding when to work directly with the child toward his/her skills development and or no economic empowerment, as well as when and seven how to of homework or no Homework, work with the child’s parent or guardian. For example, one boy, trafficked internally in Myanmar for labour, was assisted to return to school by seven stages of grieving, a local community-based programme. He was also provided with assistance for his family to set up a poultry farm, but the farm could not meet his family’s needs. His father was ill and unable to the benefits or no, work every day. Therefore the Consulting firm, boy also needed to continue to contribute to his family’s income.
As he explained, the education assistance was important but it was not a complete solution to his situation. The overarching factor, ultimately, should have been a determination of the child’s best interest, which could only have been assessed by involving the child in this decision-making process. 8. Legal assistance and support during legal proceedings. Many trafficked children, including some who were very young, were involved as victim/witnesses in legal proceedings against their traffickers and there seemed to be limited options to the benefits of homework or no Homework, decline to be involved. Juliet Essay Thesis! One girl from Myanmar, exploited in a factory in Thailand, explained that she did not want to give testimony in court but the police “encouraged her strongly”. Trafficked children, like adults, generally gave testimony and statements on multiple occasions through translation and in an environment where they did not understand the the benefits or no, language. Moreover, victim/witnesses were often accommodated in shelters for essay thesis, long periods of time while legal proceedings were pursued, with little to no contact with their family members. 9. Family mediation, counselling and support. Many trafficked children came from problematic family environments and were unable to return to live there because problems were unresolved.
In some cases returning to the family environment may have been possible with appropriate mediation and counselling by service providers and practitioners. This form of assistance was generally lacking in the region. Of Homework Homework! Some organisations worked with children while they lived in the family/community setting, as an juliet essay thesis, alternative to shelter-based care. While not an option for all trafficked children (some originated from very unhealthy and the benefits or no Homework difficult environments), it was a constructive approach for families, which, when supported during (re)integration (e.g. through family mediation, monitoring, financial assistance), helped to forge a functional family environment. 10. Case management and follow-up after (re)integration. Children were likely to require a longer period of monitoring and sociology a2 essay follow-up as part of or no Homework, (re)integration given their specific situation and vulnerabilities and because they were not in a position to care for war poem essay, themselves as children. In addition, the types of assistance needed by children – e.g. education – are longer term, often a matter of several years.
One Vietnamese girl, who was trafficked internally for labour, was first assisted to the benefits of homework, return to school in 2008. When interviewed in 2012 she was still receiving support and was in regular contact with the NGO staff that supported her. By contrast, some trafficked children received little to no case management and monitoring. 11. Child-specific protocols and procedures in the provision of (re)integration support.
Many trafficked children had been victimised from a very young age and over long periods of time. Interacting with them required tailoring support to their age, maturity and developmental stage. In many programmes, child victims were assisted alongside adults with no discernible difference in the handling of these cases. The implementation of war poem essay, child-specific protocols and procedures appeared to have been very limited. It was also concerning that children were not consulted about of homework Homework, their assistance in many cases, with the needs of causes, trafficked children determined solely by service providers, or by service providers in consultation with their parents or guardians.
One girl from Myanmar, trafficked for begging and street selling in Malaysia, was assisted by an organisation upon her return, assistance that she very much needed and was grateful to receive. The Benefits! However, when asked whether she had any concerns about receiving assistance, she expressed frustration at not having been actively involved in decision making about the assistance she received and plans for her (re)integration and life over the longer term. She explained that when assistance staff came to meet her, they spoke only to her mother. They did not consult with her. Trafficked children were significantly represented in this study, signalling that children in the region are at high risk of exploitation and human trafficking. While children seemed to accept assistance when they perceived it would benefit them, overall assistance upon return was lacking and frequently was only offered in connection with shelter stays. Greater attention (and resources) are needed to more adequately support the romeo thesis, specific and diverse needs of trafficked children in moving on from their trafficking experiences, particularly in the long term and in their home communities. This will involve not only improving the capacity of anti-trafficking professionals working with children, but also mainstreaming (re)integration services for trafficked children into the social protection framework which should, in principle, be equipped with specialised skills in working with vulnerable children. Critically, trafficked children need to be (voluntarily) involved in the development and monitoring of (re)integration programmes designed to assist them. Only with their participation and input will (re)integration programmes and of homework Homework policies in thesis comments on this are closed remove, the region be able to meet their needs and interests. Trapped at sea.
Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea. Trapped at sea. Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea. Once again, we welcome Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute. This post is adapted from “ Trapped at sea. Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and of homework or no Homework Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers ”, published in 2013 in the Groningen Journal of International Law. Vol.
1, No. War Poem Essay! 2: Human Trafficking. The article was prepared in the context of the NEXUS/IOM project entitled: Taking stock and moving forward. Considering methods, ethics and approaches in the benefits Homework, trafficking research and data collection, funded by U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP). The original article is causes of ww1, also available at or no Homework, www.NEXUSInstitute.net and a2 essay structure www.WarnathGroup.com . Recognition of the diversity of trafficking for the benefits, forced labour in recent years has included increased attention to exploitation within the seafaring and commercial fishing industries.
It is clear, based upon our research, not only that human trafficking takes place, but that such cases are aided by war poem essay, sector-specific aspects that heighten levels of the benefits Homework, risk and vulnerability for seafarers and fishers that may lend themselves to abuses, such as isolation at sea, lax regulation, oversight and enforcement, and limited contact with authorities on land and at sea. Trafficked seafarers and fishers in various regions of the world are exposed to a range of hardships, including: the lack of sociology a2 essay structure, basic necessities like food and water for extended periods; substandard and often inhumane conditions; long work hours, sometimes days on end, with only a few minutes of break in this time; lack of any compensation; restricted or no freedom of movement; and violence against them. Given that research by NEXUS Institute has documented a spectrum of abuse against seafarers and fishers as well as a context of heightened risk and vulnerability, greater understanding is needed of the full range of abuse at the benefits of homework or no, sea experienced by seafarers and fishers – including cases that rise to the level of human trafficking. Addressing exploitation in these sectors requires an struggling, effective and appropriate transnational legal and regulatory framework, which is of homework Homework, enforced across jurisdictions. Understanding the various legal and regulatory opportunities to prevent and combat trafficking at sea is an essential starting point for future discussion and intervention. International law that may be used to combat trafficking at sea falls generally into war poem essay, three areas: 1) International anti-trafficking law : including human rights law as it applies to trafficking-related exploitation. Primary instruments of international anti-trafficking law include the United Nations Protocol to of homework Homework, Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol) and the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in for a, Human Beings (CoE Convention); 2) International maritime law : the Homework, body of laws, conventions and treaties that govern international private business or other matters involving ships and shipping; and.
3) The international law of the romeo juliet thesis, sea : the of homework or no, body of public international law that primarily draws on sociology the United Nations Convention on the Law of the of homework or no, Sea (UNCLOS); almost universally recognised as establishing the regime of law and thesis on this entry are closed order in the world’s oceans and seas. Understanding the laws that can be used to improve the situations of fishers and seafarers requires parsing these complex bodies of international law relevant to the benefits of homework Homework, trafficking at sea. “Trafficking at sea”, in the context of this discussion, involves seafarers and fishers undertaking at-sea activities , including the transport of cargo, fishing, fish processing and transportation while on vessels, rafts, fishing platforms or otherwise offshore. It does not include other examples of trafficking in the shipping or fishing sectors nor does it include shore-based operations (e.g. Romeo! port-based work, shore-based fish harvesting or fish/seafood processing and packaging). The definition of a fisher is found in the benefits, the ILO Work in Fishing Convention (subsequently referred to as the WIF Convention); in lay terms, a fisher is any individual who is a member of the crew on board a fishing vessel. This differs from struggling, a seafarer, who according to the Maritime Labour Convention (subsequently referred to as MLC) is “any person who is employed or engaged in any capacity on board a ship to which this Convention applies”.
The MLC applies to all ships, publicly or privately owned, ordinarily engaged in of homework or no, commercial activities, other than ships engaged in fishing. There may be an overlap between seafarers and fishers, particularly in relation to fish carriers. For example, in our study of trafficked seafarers from war poem essay, Ukraine, a number of the benefits of homework or no Homework, men were trafficked on vessels engaged in illegal crabbing in the waters off of Russia. The overlap is evident here as the men used their training as seafarers to operate the crabbing vessels, but also worked as fishers directly responsible for war poem essay, the crab catch. That being said, as all of their work took place on board a fishing vessel, they would be considered fishers as they fall under the definition of Homework, fishers according to the WIF Convention.
Distinguishing between seafarers and fishers according to the type of vessel (fishing or merchant) on which they work is important because maritime law offers different protections for individuals on board, depending on the classification of seven essay, a ship. The Benefits Of Homework Or No Homework! Under maritime law, fishing vessels are less regulated than merchant fleets and crews aboard fishing vessels are, arguably, more vulnerable to abuse and thesis entry exploitation, including human trafficking. Moreover, a different legal and regulatory framework for trafficked persons exists at sea than on land. Trafficking at sea often differs in how prevention, protection of victims and prosecution of trafficking crimes may (or may not) take place and by whom. Trafficked seafarers and fishers may find themselves aboard vessels that are unflagged or flagged to the benefits or no, another State, ashore in a foreign port or never entering port, and/or suffering abuse and exploitation on romeo essay the high seas or in waters that fall within the territory of or no, one or various States. The issue of jurisdiction is particularly relevant in the context of trafficking at sea given the increased likelihood of trans-jurisdiction, with merchant and fishing vessels moving easily and sociology often between jurisdictions. Determining which State(s) has (have) legal and regulatory responsibilities to address trafficking at sea not only depends on the nationality of the victim and of the trafficker(s), but also on of homework where the vessel is (i.e. the ports and waters it may enter) and Consulting struggling firm the country to which the vessel is registered. On the high seas jurisdiction is reliant on the system of flag State control . All vessels must fly the flag of the country to Homework, which they are registered: the State under whose protection the ship sails and to whose laws it must adhere. This is known as flag State responsibility.
In reality, many vessels fly what are known as “flags of convenience” (FoCs). This refers to the business practice of registering a merchant ship or fishing vessel in a sovereign State different from that of the ship owners to reduce operating costs or avoid certain regulations. FoCs are from States with an open register that usually are unable or unwilling to take seriously their flag State responsibilities, either in terms of enforcing their existing national laws or in terms of implementing laws that comply with their responsibilities under the treaties they have ratified. This, then, provides space for the perpetration of a raft of sociology, potential violations, including the exploitation of seafarers and fishers in ways that constitute human trafficking at sea. Lack of regulation further limits opportunities for identification of those already aboard vessels or for escape from trafficking. Liberia, for example, is the benefits of homework, a commonly used FoC. The Liberian Registry is one of the for a firm, largest and most active shipping registers, with approximately 4,000 ships registered to the Liberian flag in 2013. But, according to the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report issued by the U.S. The Benefits Or No! Department of State , the Government of Liberia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. The Liberian government only recently achieved its first trafficking conviction using its 2005 anti-trafficking law and, overall, has made only thesis on this, minimal efforts to protect trafficking victims.
If a trafficking situation were to be identified on a ship flying Liberia’s flag on the high seas, Liberia’s anti-trafficking legislation would apply and the protection of trafficked seafarers or fishers on board would depend on the Government of Liberia’s ability or willingness to enforce that legislation. It is concerning that the most common FoCs, like Liberia, are those of States that have not brought their national laws and anti-trafficking efforts in accordance with the requirements of the Trafficking Protocol and, where relevant, the CoE Convention. A further complication is that seafarers and fishers are often recruited through crewing agencies that may or may not have an official presence in their home countries. In this regard, while there are crucial differences between cases of trafficking at sea and other forms of trafficking exploitation that must be taken into account, there are also important parallels and the benefits or no Homework similarities underlying this form of trafficking that can be noted. For example, trafficked fishers and seafarers may pay hefty recruitment fees to of grieving, find work on board vessels.
Issues of fraud and deception in contracts and/or the recruitment process, subcontracting, and the benefits or no Homework multiple levels of culpability from crewing agencies to vessel owners complicate problems for fishers and seafarers who find themselves in exploitative situations. The lessons that can be learned in addressing such challenges (e.g. requiring recruitment fees to be borne by the employer or ensuring that trafficked persons are not criminalised for crimes they commit as part of their exploitation) can and should be applied to exploitation in other sectors. The quality of thesis comments entry are closed remove, current national legislation in many States remains a limiting factor in the benefits or no, terms of States’ ability to combat human trafficking and States need to bring their legislation in line with their obligations under anti-trafficking law and causes essays maritime law (and enforce their laws on or no Homework their vessels as required by war poem essay, the law of the sea). A commitment is also needed by States to implement and enforce the existing obligations from international anti-trafficking law, international maritime law and the law of the sea to combat trafficking at sea. This will require education and training of those working in the anti-trafficking and fishing and the benefits of homework or no Homework seafaring sectors as well as cooperation and coordination between the different sectors. It will also require monitoring and enforcement by and of States, and also likely incentives and thesis are closed remove sanctions for those States who do not live up to their obligations to prevent and combat trafficking at sea. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Experiences from the Balkans. Ethical principles in the re/integration of of homework, trafficked persons. Experiences from the Balkans. This week we welcome back Rebecca Surtees.
Rebecca is Senior Researcher at comments entry, NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC. NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. This post is written in conjunction with a newly released report on developing common ethical principles within anti-trafficking re/integration. In the Balkan region, human trafficking continues to be a pressing issue. The Benefits Of Homework! One central aspect of anti-trafficking work is comments are closed remove, re/integration; the process of recovery and economic and social inclusion following a trafficking experience. Re/integration services are often key to trafficked persons’ ability to recover and move on with their lives. And yet few organisations and programmes have developed ethical principles according to which their re/integration work is or no Homework, implemented, monitored and evaluated. In response to this gap, a set of ethical principles for re/integration programmes and policies have been developed in the Balkan region. These principles – a new and significant development in re/integration work – were developed by NEXUS Institute in sociology a2 essay structure, collaboration with eleven re/integration NGOs supported under the Trafficking Victims Re/Integration Programme (TVRP), funded by the benefits Homework, the King Baudouin Foundation and GIZ.
These principles, grounded in direct re/integration work and developed collaboratively from the bottom-up, aim to hold re/integration practitioners and policy makers to a higher standard and to war poem essay, be accountable in the benefits of homework or no, their work. They are a first step for all of us working on re/integration toward enhanced re/integration support for trafficked persons. Ethical principles provide a foundation for the development, implementation and evaluation of a rights-based re/integration response to human trafficking. Principles underpinning re/integration work relate to Consulting struggling firm, attitudes, rights and duties about human welfare – for example: “respect for the benefits or no Homework, the autonomy of seven of grieving essay, service users” or the Homework, “promotion of human welfare”. Principles are much broader in scope than standards , which are, very generally, a set of rules for ensuring quality re/integration programming and regulating a professional and accountable system of re/integration service provision. Standards serve as the foundation for the development of practical guidelines that are used by service providers in their day-to-day re/integration work with trafficked persons, in a variety of care settings. Guidelines are instructions on how to do something; they are the instruments that service providers use in order to put standards into operational practice. Standards and guidelines exist in some places and not in others. In any case, ethical principles are the sociology, starting point from which standards and guidelines get articulated and underpin the theoretical framing of re/integration. Professional ethics concern matters of right and wrong conduct, good and bad qualities of character and the professional responsibilities attached to relationships in a work context.
Ethical principles are intended for use by any professional working in the field of the benefits or no, anti-trafficking re/integration, whether for GOs, NGOs or IOs, from a range of different fields including social work, psychology, medicine, law enforcement, law and so on. Because ethical principles are the foundation of a human rights based response to trafficking and sociology a2 essay structure re/integration work, they are relevant for policy makers and legislators as well as service providers and practitioners. Some of these ethical principles are mandated by international and national legislation, making their safeguarding not only an issue of ethics but also a legal requirement. For example, there are a range of legal issues associated with the collection, transfer and sharing of sensitive data (sometimes the subject of legislation on data protection), such as data collected in the benefits of homework or no Homework, the context of re/integration case management. In some cases, re/integration programmes and activities may be governed by multiple legal and ethical codes – for example, the country of the organisation managing the Consulting, programme, the country where the programme is being implemented (if different from the former) and/or the country funding the of homework or no Homework, programme – making implementation challenging. Twelve ethical principles in Consulting struggling, the re/integration of trafficked persons. Principle #1. Of Homework! ‘Do no harm’. Re/integration programmes and policies should “do no harm” to trafficked persons. Principle #2. Informed consent.
Trafficked persons have the right to full and accurate information about causes, re/integration assistance and their consent in accepting this support should be fully informed. Principle #3. Confidentiality. Trafficked persons’ confidentiality must be strictly guarded in the context of re/integration work. Principle #4. Anonymity. Re/integration professionals must ensure that all information shared is sufficiently anonymous to prevent trafficked persons from being identified.
Principle #5. Privacy. Trafficked persons have the right to privacy, to of homework Homework, be free of unwanted or unsanctioned intrusion at all stages of their re/integration. Principle #6. Non-discrimination . Trafficked persons should not be treated unfavourably or face negative or prejudicial attitudes due to their trafficking experience. Principle #7. Safety and security. Trafficked persons’ safety and security is causes of ww1 essays, paramount and must be assessed (and responded to) throughout the re/integration process. Principle #8.
Sensitivity. Trafficked persons must be treated with sensitivity and respect throughout the re/integration process. Principle #9. Empowerment. Trafficked persons should be equipped with the skills, ability and confidence to recover and lead an the benefits or no Homework, autonomous life. Stages Essay! Empowerment should be fostered throughout the the benefits Homework, re/integration process. Principle #10.
Beneficiary participation. Beneficiaries should be (voluntarily) involved in their own individual re/integration plan as well as, where appropriate, the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the re/integration services, programmes and policies. Principle #11. Data protection . Data collected about trafficked persons in the context of re/integration must be strictly protected in adherence with national and firm international legal standards. Principle #12. Child protection and the “best interests of the of homework Homework, child” . Re/integration programmes and policies should ensure that trafficked children are protected and war poem essay their best interests are the primary consideration. These ethical principles are often interrelated and so will often be considered in combination. For example, confidentiality and anonymity are complementary in that keeping the identity of programme beneficiaries anonymous is one means of the benefits Homework, maintaining confidentiality when working toward re/integration.
Similarly, protecting confidentiality is essential to war poem essay, ensure both the safety of victims and also data protection. Maximising beneficiary participation is often central in ensuring non-discrimination. And practising non-discrimination and approaching victims with sensitivity are elements of ensuring that the re/integration ‘does no harm’. The real life impact of ethical principles on the re/integration of trafficked persons in or no Homework, the Balkans. Supporting beneficiary participation and empowerment.
One re/integration organisation spends a great deal of a2 essay structure, time resolving administrative issues with beneficiaries – e.g. civil registration, obtaining new documents and so on. Caseworkers explain to of homework or no Homework, beneficiaries the different steps involved in the process – e.g. what office to contact, how to get there, how to fill in forms and causes how to submit documents. The Benefits Or No Homework! The organisation supports this process but requires beneficiaries to directly undertake this process to learn how to take on this responsibility themselves. Gaining informed consent. “Fadila” was offered to stay in Consulting for a, a shelter because she faced conflict in her family and of homework or no Homework discrimination from family members. For A Struggling! However, she declined this assistance because she was told that the shelter was closed and she could not have contact with her family while there. The Benefits Of Homework! The state social worker, the police officer and the social worker from the re/integration programme spent time with her and her family to explain the programme, including that it was voluntary and she could leave at any time. They provided both written and verbal explanations of the programme and services offered. War Poem Essay! Eventually she agreed to the benefits, enter the programme.
Breeching the principle of ‘do no harm’ “Emina”, a trafficked girl, was involved in two legal proceedings related to comments entry remove, her trafficking experience – one for human trafficking, the other for rape. Staff from the Centre for the benefits of homework, Social Work arranged for Emina to provide testimony in both cases on the same day to save time and reduce travel costs. Emina, however, was heavily traumatised by having to cope with both cases at the same time as well as facing both her trafficker and rapist. Consulting For A Struggling Firm! Afterward, she suffered a nervous breakdown and tried to commit suicide. Breeching confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, child protection and data protection. One organisation working on re/integration faced a situation in which it was legally obliged by the state social services to share case files of their child beneficiaries. However, the staff subsequently learned that these case files had not been securely and confidentially stored but rather had been left in boxes in of homework Homework, the corridors of social services’ offices, accessible to anyone who wished to look at them. Breeching sensitivity, privacy and confidentiality. “Marija” was a trafficking victim who approached the national employment agency in her hometown in an effort to find a job as part of her re/integration. A clerk at the admissions desk recognised her and thesis comments are closed began asking her questions about her life. The clerk also told the social workers who were accompanying her very personal things about her family and private life, many of which were negative and which Marija found embarrassing.
After this incident, Marija chose not to register with the national employment agency and, moreover, expressed a wish to leave her hometown and be integrated in another community instead. While ethical principles have often been implicit in the work of re/integration organisations, there is great value in identifying and of homework explicitly articulating them. This includes how an organisation’s ethical principles’ can be operationalised in day-to-day re/integration work and if/how organisations face challenges in adhering to these principles. It will also be important to continue to discuss and adapt ethical principles, not least because re/integration is a dynamic process and regularly involves new issues and of ww1 essays challenges. To ensure successful, sustainable and ethical re/integration programming and policies, new ethical principles (or the the benefits of homework Homework, further articulation of these existing principles) are likely to be needed as well as the tools for implementation and a2 essay structure monitoring of those principles. Researching the unseen: Challenges in the benefits of homework or no Homework, human trafficking research. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research.
TTRP is pleased to have Rebecca Surtees as a guest blogger this week. Consulting Struggling Firm! Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an the benefits of homework or no, international human rights research and stages policy center in Homework, Washington, DC. NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. Recent research studies include: Trafficked at sociology, sea. The exploitation of Ukrainian seafarers and fishers; No place like home. Challenges in the reintegration of trafficked women; Trafficked men, unwilling victims; Out of the benefits or no Homework, sight?
Challenges in the identification of trafficked persons; Leaving the comments entry, past behind: Why some trafficking victims decline assistance; Beneath the surface. Of Homework Or No Homework! Methodological challenges in trafficking research ; and Measuring success of counter trafficking interventions in thesis, the criminal justice sector . Researching the unseen. Much human trafficking research is based on data from trafficked persons who have been formally identified and assisted by anti-trafficking organisations and professionals. This type of research reveals a great deal about their pre-trafficking situations and vulnerabilities, their trafficking experiences and their assistance experiences and needs, all of which is essential in informing policies and interventions to prevent and or no Homework combat trafficking. However, there are certain biases in terms of the information that we get from trafficking victims who have been identified and assisted, which means that our picture of trafficking is only partial.
That is, not all trafficked persons are offered (or accept) assistance and there are also differences in for a struggling firm, terms of which trafficked persons researchers will have access to and why. Moreover, there is an implicit assumption that information from identified and assisted victims is the of homework or no Homework, same as what we would learn from trafficking victims who are not identified and assisted. And yet the seven stages, little research that has been done with unidentified or unassisted victims suggests systematic differences between the two groups. Unidentified and unassisted. Identified victims are those who have been determined to be “trafficked” according to formal identification procedures involving designated authorities. Assisted trafficking victims are those who are identified as trafficked by relevant authorities and assisted within the anti-trafficking framework or the more general social assistance system. Many trafficking victims are identified but not assisted – for example, they decline to be labelled “trafficked”, are unsatisfied with available assistance, do not wish to return home, do not trust service providers, do not need assistance or have other forms of the benefits of homework, support.
Many others are never identified – for example, because of comments entry are closed, poor identification processes, limited capacity of anti-trafficking professionals, specific legal or administrative procedures, not understanding their experience as “trafficking” or because they avoid being identified. These two groups – identified but unassisted victims and unidentified trafficking victims – are generally of unknown sizes, boundaries and nature. It is unclear the extent to which they are (and are not) represented by or no, the experiences and characteristics of romeo juliet thesis, assisted victims, including how these experiences might fluctuate from the benefits of homework or no Homework, place to sociology a2 essay, place and over time. Factors which influence who does (and does not) come into of homework, the anti-trafficking framework are diverse and context specific. They include not only individual or family characteristics (e.g. Comments Remove! attitudes to and knowledge of the benefits of homework Homework, assistance, access to other forms of support, (not) needing assistance, (positive or negative) family relations and so on) but also social or cultural norms, policy or legislative frameworks, how programmes are designed and funded and political commitment to seven stages essay, anti-trafficking efforts within a country. Moreover, these factors may change over time and in response to various external factors such as the broader political environment, donor interest, funding and so on.
Reaching the unreachable. A more rounded and carefully derived picture of of homework Homework, trafficking (and assistance needs) must include not only those who have been identified and assisted but also the for a struggling, unseen – those who have not been identified or assisted. Unidentified and of homework Homework unassisted trafficking victims can be accessed at different stages of their trafficking and stages of grieving post-trafficking lives – while they are still in a trafficking situation (that is, while still abroad or at home); upon or no Homework, return to the home country/community; after trafficking (that is, once they are back in their community and/or some time after their return). Determining the appropriate research method and approach to be used at each stage of Consulting for a firm, trafficking/post trafficking will depend on the scope and nature of the research. But at all stages and with all methods there are challenges to be borne in mind, not least in terms of biases that influence the data and the myriad ethical issues which arise.
Moreover, these experiences are still sub-samples of trafficked persons and their stories must be fit and framed within the broader (and diverse) picture of human trafficking. Researching persons still in trafficking situations. Sampling currently trafficked persons – for example, those still on a labour worksite or in of homework, prostitution – is stages essay, one means of accessing the “unidentified”. However, access to worksites and prostitution arenas differ greatly from setting to setting and some sites of exploitation (arguably the most exploitative ones) are largely inaccessible to researchers. Moreover, access is of homework or no Homework, generally arranged through gatekeepers, which means that access (and the boundaries of the research sample) is informed by the mandate, work and relationships of these agencies or institutions as well as any motives they may have or perspectives they wish to advance – e.g. ideological perspectives of trafficking, positions on prostitution, a desire to highlight certain issues and so on. Struggling! Trafficked persons may also be limited in what they are able (or willing) to disclose while still trafficked, posing risks to the benefits or no Homework, respondents and researchers. Others may not recognise that they have been trafficked. Finally, researchers have an ethical obligation to Consulting for a firm, provide assistance and ultimately an exit strategy to trafficked persons with whom they are conducting research. Researching in the benefits, the return process.
Respondents may be accessed after trafficking ends but prior to or during their return home – for example, while detained, awaiting or following deportation, preparing to or testifying against traffickers or following deportation. Gatekeepers at these stages might include prison officials, immigration authorities, law enforcement and/or lawyers. However, such settings (as well as the stress and anxiety generally experienced in the period after exit from trafficking) are not necessarily conducive to for a struggling firm, full and comfortable disclosure. Moreover, some respondents may not feel able to decline to be interviewed or may hope that participation will lead to Homework, a more positive outcome – for example, some assistance or reprieve in the deportation process. Here too there are ethical obligations for researchers in terms of thesis, providing information about assistance options abroad and/or at home. Researching after trafficking. Accessing unidentified and unassisted respondents in their homes and communities (including after some period of time) can be complicated, particularly in terms of how it can (negatively) influence relations with family and community. There is, for example, the risk of “outing” people as trafficked to their families and of homework Homework communities, which can have serious implications in situations where discrimination and stigma of trafficked persons is commonplace. This type of sampling may be more viable in others settings (for example, where stigma related to war poem essay, prostitution is less and ? or socially manageable) or for other forms of trafficking (for example, less stigmatised forms of exploitation like labour). However, the the benefits of homework, extent to which victims (of different forms of trafficking and in juliet thesis, different contexts) may suffer (different forms of) stigma or discrimination has not been extensively studied and caution is therefore needed. Even if we are able to find and ethically access unidentified and of homework unassisted trafficking victims at this post-return stage, it remains an for a, open question as to what extent these trafficked persons will divulge their exploitation experiences to (unknown) researchers.
Disclosure will be impacted when there may be implications for divulging – for example, retribution from traffickers, fear of stigma, being forced to testify, fear that their story will be made public and so on. Equally, disclosure may increase when there are (at least perceived) benefits to divulging – for example, payment for the benefits of homework, participation, referral for services, helping others from suffering in the future and a chance to talk about their difficult experience. There are additional layers of complication (and ethical considerations) when accessing persons who have proactively avoided identification and assistance. Why research with unidentified and thesis entry unassisted victims matters. Understanding trafficking through the lens of or no, unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons often provides a different picture than is commonly presented in trafficking research and discourse. This generally means including less considered profiles of victims (for example, men and boys, the elderly, older women), other forms of exploitation (for example, different forms of forced labour, forced marriage, begging) and a wide range of war poem essay, assistance and protection needs. The Benefits Or No! It also potentially calls into question some assumptions about trafficking and trafficking risk, which, in turn, will mean reconsidering how some assistance is designed and offered. Interventions designed for identified and assisted victims will not necessarily respond to sociology structure, the needs of other (and all other) trafficked persons.
This is the benefits of homework, of particular concern given that many (and arguably very many) trafficked persons are never identified and/or assisted. Seven Of Grieving! Expanding research to include these under-considered trafficked persons is vital if policies and programmes are to respond to the needs of both visible and less visible trafficking victims. Moving beyond the heavy reliance on Homework research solely with assisted victims has real life implications for unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons and their families. Their stories and experiences and needs must be part of our understanding of, and response to, the issue. They can translate into a2 essay, a more well-rounded anti-trafficking response in identifying the types of programmes and policies that this group of trafficked persons needs and wants as well as more targeted (and appropriate) prevention efforts.
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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Business plan templates come in all forms, shapes and sizes. The beauty of PDF business plan templates, however, is that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in front of of homework Homework them. Seven Stages Essay! Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of starting from the benefits or no, scratch. Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to war poem essay, help you get started. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S. The Benefits Of Homework Or No! Small Business Administration (SBA). The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from war poem essay, sba.gov#39;s 8(a) Business Development Program. This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of the benefits of homework a business, with more than 50 prompts to Consulting for a struggling, help users answer the questions needed for a complete business plan. [ How to Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for starting a business.
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It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of a2 essay structure business terms. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the of homework or no Homework Seneca Nation of are closed remove Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and marketing. After graduating from the benefits of homework or no, UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and a2 essay structure blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in 2013.
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cartoon term papers How to Write Term Papers. Writing a term paper is one of the most common requirements for of homework, an upper-division course such as the one for which this book was probably assigned. Such term papers usually count for a significant part of your final grade. Yet many, perhaps most, students have never received formal instruction about how to write a good research report.
The following pages are meant to help you write an A paper by giving you some guidelines about how to go about your research and writing. Why do instructors assign papers? Answering this question is juliet a good place to start thinking about term papers because if you know why papers are such a common assignment, then perhaps you can approach the task with added enthusiasm and dedication. Two goals usually motivate this assignment. One goal relates to the specific subject of the course; the other goal is based on your professional development.
The first course-specific goal is to increase your expertise in some particular substantive area. The amount that you learn from the benefits of homework or no Homework this or almost any other course will be expanded significantly by doing research and by war poem essay, writing a paper. The effort will allow you to delve into the intricacies of a specific topic far beyond what is possible in the no doubt broad lectures that your instructor must deliver in class. Your research will go beyond the necessarily general commentary found in this text. The second and probably more important goal behind a paper-writing assignment extends beyond the of homework or no specific content of the course. The object is to comments sharpen your analytic and writing skills in preparation for the professional career that you may wish to pursue after graduation. Do not underestimate the importance of such thinking and or no Homework, communications skills. Most professional positions that college graduates seek will eventually require that you find information, analyze it, and convey your conclusions and recommendations to others, including your boss. Of Grieving? You will be judged by your product.
A survey of ranking business executives a few years ago asked them what accounted for the rise of their most successful young subordinates compared to the failure or slow progress of the benefits Homework, other junior executives. Communications skills was one of the causes of ww1 factors most mentioned by the top executives. No matter how smart you are, no matter how much you know, these assets will be hidden unless you can communicate well. The evaluation of your academic and professional work will be based partly on its substantive quality. A well-researched, clearly organized, incisively analyzed, powerfully written report will enhance your professional standing; a poorly done report will cast a shadow on your professional competency. It is also important to the benefits of homework realize that your report will be judged in romeo part by such standards as neatness, grammar, and spelling, and other such technical criteria. It is not uncommon for university instructors to get papers that represent a good research and of homework, analytical effort but that are sloppy, contain numerous grammatical errors, are full of romeo juliet essay thesis, misspellings, or are burdened by of homework Homework, other such technical deficiencies. Such shortcomings make you look bad. It is very difficult for an instructor (or, later on, your boss) to be dazzled by Consulting struggling firm, your intellectual acumen while being simultaneously appalled by your English usage. Also do not delude yourself with the common refrain, When I get on the job, I will do it right.
It takes practice to do things well. That is true for rollerblading, shooting baskets, and playing the guitar. It is also true for doing a research paper. Now, in college, is the time to practice and learn. Your instructor is likely to be more patient and helpful than your boss will ever be. Most successful efforts require some planning. The Benefits Of Homework? Here are two hints about what to do before you begin to seven stages do research on, much less write, your paper. Both hints are tritely obvious; both are regularly ignored to the student's disadvantage. 1. Follow instructions. Your instructor will (or at least should) let you know what is expected. Far too often, students write papers that do not fulfill the assigned task.
If you do not understand the assignment, if you have any doubts at all, discuss it with your instructor. It is the benefits of homework or no Homework not uncommon in class or on the job for a person to get instructions, to not understand them, but to be reluctant to ask for clarification for thesis comments on this, fear of seeming dumb. This is a significant error. In the first place, your boss will probably not think less of you for asking for clarification. In the second place, asking for supplementary instructions is the benefits far, far better than doing a report that does not meet the needs of your boss and sociology, is not what he or she wanted. That really makes you look dumb. 2. Do not wait until the last minute.
Last-minute efforts usually read like last-minute efforts! Plan backward from the date the paper is due to allow plenty of time to get it done. A good paper requires careful preparation, research, critical thinking, and writing. The Benefits Or No Homework? These steps take time. Also, allow time for the unexpected. Seven Of Grieving Essay? Computers crash or files get erased; printer toner or ribbons run out and have to be replaced; personal crises arise. You need to be able to or no cope with these and still get the paper done on comments time. My hard disk crashed is one of the of homework or no modern excuses of choice; it is no more acceptable than the classic, My dog ate my paper. Being late with reports in class or on the job is a very, very bad idea. The next step in your progress toward an award-winning research paper is to choose your topic carefully.
If you are responsible for choosing your own topic, put some thought into this decision. First, as mentioned, make sure any topic you select fulfills the paper assignment. Second, if possible pick a topic that interests you. The more interested you are in a topic, the easier it will be for you to devote time and energy to studying it and to writing about it. Thesis Comments Entry Are Closed? Third, ensure that you select a topic that fits the length of the paper that you intend to write, the of homework research resources that are available to you, and your analytical tools. Length: If you attempt to of grieving write a 10-page paper entitled The President and Congress Struggle for Power: Two Centuries of Constitutional Conflict, then your paper is of homework or no Homework destined to be a mile wide and an inch deep, as they say. It is better to do something more narrowly focused and to do it well than to give a superficial treatment of a large subject.
Research Resources: Trying to write a paper on Secret Military Operations in the Persian Gulf War would also be a mistake because the of ww1 government has not released the the benefits of homework relevant information. You should take the holdings of your library into account. Structure? If you are at a major research university, you can probably find whatever you need. Of Homework Or No? Even at large libraries, however, you may have trouble finding good sources to support a research paper on U.S.-Sri Lankan relations or U.S. Juliet Essay Thesis? policy regarding international cooperation in the development of mining technology. As your library holdings decrease, your ability to study unusual or narrow topics decreases as well. So be careful not to of homework or no Homework choose a topic that destines you to fail. Analytical Tools: If you are going to pick a topic such as The Use by the Federal Reserve of the Discount Rate to Influence Monetary Relations, then you had better be sure you have the juliet essay thesis background to understand the complexities that you will encounter. Similarly, ensure that you have the of homework or no Homework proper statistical skills if you are going to juliet thesis analyze votes in Congress to see whether length of service, party affiliation, constituency interest, or the the benefits of homework or no margin of on this entry, victory is most closely associated with a senator's support of presidential proposals. For all of of homework or no, these issues, rule number 1 here and throughout this writing guide is check with the instructor if there is a2 essay any doubt in your mind. Indeed, it is a very good idea to write a paragraph on what you intend to analyze, show it to the professor, and get his or her reaction. Now the project begins in earnest.
Good research is the foundation of the benefits or no Homework, your paper. It stands to thesis reason that without a solid foundation, the paper you build will inevitably be weak. As a general rule, your paper will be stronger if you use a good variety of the most up-to-date, and the benefits of homework, the most specific and expert, resources. The Library: The place to do research is the library. Do not be intimidated if the library on your campus is big and unfamiliar. Even the most experienced faculty member needs help sometimes, particularly when using such specialized sources as government documents. The good news is that assistance is readily available. This appendix will presently outline some of the main resources you may find in your library. The list can serve only as a very brief introduction, however, so it is important to make use of the library's staff. When you get lost, as we all do, ask the nearest librarian for thesis comments remove, help.
Actually just standing around and or no, looking confused will suffice sometimes to summon aid. Research Strategies: When you are doing your research it is important to be creative. Here are a few tips: 1. Start out by reading a general study or two on your subject. This will give you a broad grasp of your topic and thesis comments are closed remove, will help you identify what is important and on what you need to focus your research. Of Homework Homework? Simply jumping in and beginning to do research in specialized studies can often waste a considerable amount of Consulting firm, your time. Textbooks can also be helpful. For many topics, one starting point might be a U.S. diplomatic history text such as American Foreign Policy (Paterson, Clifford, Hagan, 1991a, b). A general introduction to international relations such as International Politics on the World Stage (Rourke, 1995) might also prove helpful to gain an overview of a topic.
2. Treat research like a detective story. The Benefits Or No Homework? Search under a variety of war poem essay, subject headings when looking for sources in the physical or computerized card catalog, in an index, or any other finding aid. Of Homework Homework? If, for example, you are doing a paper on Vietnam, do not limit yourself to looking under V for Vietnam. Juliet Essay? Other likely subject headings might be Asia, Southeast; Ho Chi Minh; Kissinger, Henry; Johnson, Lyndon B.; Nixon, Richard M.; U.S.-Foreign Relations; or U.S.-History. 3. Look at the most recent books and of homework or no Homework, journal articles first.
These sources will usually contain a bibliography and notes that list earlier works on the subject. This can be an causes of ww1 invaluable as well as a time-saving step in locating supplementary source material. 4. Photocopy important material. If you can afford it, photocopying is the benefits of homework or no much faster than taking notes and there is romeo juliet thesis less chance for error. If you take written notes, use index cards. Larger cards are better than smaller ones. Of Homework Homework? Use one card for each quote, statistic, or other piece of research that you collect. Cards work well because they can be arranged easily. For topics with distinct parts, you might even want to try a different color card for a2 essay, each part.
Some people use portable computers to take notes. If you do, be sure to make a backup copy on a floppy disk. 5. Make a careful and complete notation of the source of your material. Later on we will cover why and how to cite material, but there is nothing more frustrating than having to go back to the library to look up a citation that you should have noted clearly and completely in the first place. Your library contains many types of the benefits or no Homework, resources that you can utilize to do your research. The following list is a mere beginning. Use it, but also go to are closed your library, wander about a bit looking at its various sections and the resources that each contains, and ask librarians about what is available. You may be surprised at how many resources you discover. Reference Works: One of the the benefits of homework or no Homework most important places in war poem essay your library is the reference room.
We will mention some of the the benefits of homework Homework resources you will find there, but if you follow our advice about stages exploring this resource area, you may save yourself many hours later on. The materials in the reference room are valuable resources for beginning to structure the basic outline of your topic. Of Homework? Political science encyclopedias and dictionaries are one type of resource. There are many. A2 Essay Structure? For an American foreign policy course you might wish to look at sources such as the Dictionary of American Diplomatic History (Findling, 1989) or, at or no the most general level of political science, you might wish to romeo thesis consult The Encyclopedic Dictionary of American Government (Dushkin, 1991). There are similar works, such as The Oxford Companion to the benefits or no Homework Politics of the World (Krieger, 1993), that are global in scope.
Then there are resources such as Editorial Research Reports , the romeo juliet essay thesis Political Handbook of the World , or the Index to International Public Opinion that deal with particular topics, give summaries of various governments, or take other specialized approaches. Such works are normally acceptable sources; general-purpose encyclopedias (such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica , the World Book , etc.) typically are not suitable, although the bibliographies they include with individual topics may prove helpful. In a U.S. foreign policy class, an of homework or no Homework often overlooked place to start is the series of works published by Congressional Quarterly. Stages? Weekly updates come in the form of the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Reports . Information on an annual basis comes out in the Congressional Quarterly Almanac . Multiyear summaries called Congress and the Nation are available as well. These contain the basics of most U.S. foreign policy actions.
Besides coverage of or no, congressional policy making, summaries of presidential or executive branch actions are included as well. The reference room also has bibliographies of seven stages essay, works on the benefits of homework or no Homework various subjects. Seven Stages Essay? These are classified under Z. Check with the Homework reference librarians. They may save you time. Books: Use your library's computer access system or card catalog for books on your subject. A good place to start is with the Library of Congress Subject Headings for ways to of ww1 cross-reference your search for the benefits Homework, books. In the Library of Congress system, most U.S. history is under the letter E. For economics, look at H; for world history, consult books under D. Under H, the subsets of HC, HG, and HJ are particularly good for economics. The letter J encompasses most works on political science. As subsets, the letters JK focus on causes essays U.S. politics; JL, JN, and JQ cover other parts of the world; and JX covers international politics.
Military affairs are under U. It is valuable to know these letters because sometimes it is worthwhile to simply go to or no the stacks where those letters are shelved and browse a bit to uncover resources that you may have missed in your computer or card catalog search. The shelves in the reference room are partly arranged using the seven essay Library of Congress system. Older books are also sometimes catalogued under the of homework Homework Dewey decimal system with the 300s and 900s of especial relevance to political science and for a, history. Scholarly Journal Articles: Some topics, like U.S. The Benefits Of Homework Or No Homework? diplomacy during the recent fighting in war poem essay Bosnia-Herzegovina, may be so contemporary that there are few or no books yet available. Of Homework Or No Homework? In such cases, scholarly journals are more likely sources of information and analysis. A2 Essay? You should consult journals even for noncontemporary topics because scholars may have found new information or conducted new analyses. The places to find journal articles are the Public Affairs Information Service , the Social Sciences Index , the the benefits of homework or no Homework S ocial Sciences Citation Index , and the ABC Pol Sci . Essay Thesis? You should be able to find most, if not all of these, in the benefits or no your library's reference room. Just a few of the Consulting for a struggling leading journals in foreign policy and international affairs are Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, International Affairs, International Organization, International Security, International Studies Quarterly, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of International Affairs, Orbis, and the benefits, World Politics. There are also many journals such as the American Political Science Review that contain general political science research. Government Publications: You may also find valuable information that has been published in a report of a governmental agency, in hearings or reports of a congressional committee, or in the transcripts of the proceedings of Congress. On This Entry Remove? The United Nations and a number of other international organizations also publish proceedings and of homework Homework, reports.
There are several indexes available. The Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications provides a comprehensive list of sources. The CIS/Index by the Congressional Information Service abstracts and indexes congressional hearings and reports. Debates and other proceedings of Congress are found in the daily Congressional Record. Consulting For A Firm? At some schools, accessing government documents can be a challenge. See your reference librarians for of homework or no, help with government publications. Newsmagazines and Newspapers: If you are covering a current topic or need to have a day-by-day account of events and cannot find one elsewhere, you may be forced to turn to Consulting for a firm newsmagazines and newspapers. Of Homework Or No Homework? Be sure, however, to check with your instructor to war poem essay ensure that these are considered acceptable sources for your assignment. Mostly they are useful for the benefits of homework or no Homework, facts or for contemporary quotes and are usually not good sources of analysis.
Your library may have a computerized access system such as InfoTrac to assist you. The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature also helps access this material. Additionally, major newspapers like the New York Times, Washington Post, and Los Angeles Times are indexed. Some are now available on CD-ROM, allowing you to use the computer to search by subject and then print out the seven stages of grieving essay relevant stories. For instance, InfoTrac is one CD-ROM-based system that among other things indexes the New York Times, Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, Wall Street Journal, and Los Angeles Times. The Lexis/Nexis computer database will not only provide you with indexed citations of journalistic articles, but also with the text of the the benefits of homework or no Homework article in most instances. See the reference librarians for war poem essay, help with such resources. There are sources such as Facts on the benefits File and Keesing's Contemporary Archives that are compilations of weekly news events and are indexed. World Wide Web (WWW) Electronic Resources: Over the past few years it has become increasingly easy to find research information by using the Internet. Until recently the Gopher system of data archives was the dominant form of Internet information access, but now most governmental and nongovernmental organizations, universities, and causes essays, even many businesses have developed access to their research resources over the graphic environment on of homework or no the World Wide Web.
The following are a number of struggling firm, Web sites that will get you started in searching for information you may need in writing your research paper. Although some of the Uniform Resource Locators (URL) listed below are for specific information sources, most provide you with hot-linked lists that will get you to where you might want to of homework or no look for information. It is important to Consulting struggling note that URLs change frequently. If any of these do not work for you, double-check the URL or contact the organization sponsoring the page. Miscellaneous Sources: Our listing here can only begin to cover what is in your library. There may be a map room.
There may also be an audio-visual section. Some libraries contain archives or a rare book collection. The Benefits Of Homework Or No Homework? Talk to a librarian or your professor for added information. Also realize that no library has everything. Consequently, you may find references to sources that are not found in your library. You can usually order such sources from other libraries through the interlibrary loan program. Check with your reference librarians to learn how to use this service. Be advised, however, that interlibrary loans take some time. Thesis? So order any needed sources as early as possible. External Sources: Knowledge is not confined to the benefits of homework or no Homework libraries or even campuses. Romeo Essay? A surprising number of students know someone who knows something about the specifics of or no, some U.S. foreign policy issue.
Even if you do not know someone personally, you might find it interesting and seven stages, possible to the benefits of homework or no conduct an war poem essay interview with a decision maker or some other relevant person. Some students have been known to telephone the State Department for information successfully. Others have called the United Nations Missions or local consulates of other countries involved to get information from the benefits of homework them. Essays? For advice on unconventional sources, see your instructor. The keys to effective papers are good organization and presentation of ideas and error-free technical skills. There are a number of sources that you can access to help you both organize and write your paper. Some are: Writer's Guide: Political Science (Biddle Holland, 1987); The Chicago Manual of the benefits of homework or no Homework, Style (1993); The Write Stuff (Cronin, 1986); Writing with Power (Elbow, 1981); The Elements of sociology a2 essay structure, Style (Strunk White, 1979); and A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and of homework, Dissertations (Turabian, 1987). Our comments on writing a paper that follow may prove helpful to you, but they are not substitutes for war poem essay, the fuller discussions you will find in these writing guides. There are three organizational issues to consider. They are the outline, the the benefits of homework Homework parts of the sociology structure paper, and the approach. Outline: No one would think of the benefits of homework Homework, building a house, computer, or other important and complex project without a plan.
Students regularly write papers without a plan. Stages Of Grieving Essay? As a result, poor organization is a common weakness of undergraduate term papers. The best way to the benefits of homework or no construct your plan and to organize information for maximum effect is to put together an outline. An outline serves to entry are closed lay out or no Homework, your paper's structure, to ensure that it is complete and logical, and to prevent you from getting off the causes of ww1 track. Determine what you wish to accomplish in the paper; then prepare an outline specifying every step from Introduction to Conclusion. Of Homework Or No? Linear writing is crucial in professional papers and reports.
A good outline also serves to help you later: It ensures that you stay on track, write an accurate summary for your conclusions, and cover all of the thesis comments on this remove relevant information and arguments. Parts: All papers should have three basic parts: an introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. The introduction is the key to letting your reader know where you are headed and what you will accomplish. Remember always that while the organization of your paper may be clear to you, it is not clear to your reader. The Benefits Of Homework Or No? Therefore, the introduction is war poem essay something like a road map that acquaints the reader with the journey ahead. This will make it easier for the reader to understand what follows and will improve the reader's evaluation of or no, your work. Seven Essay? Tell the the benefits or no Homework reader in concise terms (1) what the war poem essay subject of the paper is, (2) what it is that you hope to find out, and (3) how you will go about it. If you are writing an advanced, theoretical paper, your introduction might well also include a review of the existing scholarship on the subject, a section in which you identify how you collected your data and other information, and a discussion of the methodology you will use. Wolfinger (1993) is a guide for the benefits of homework, such advanced papers. The main body is the thesis largest part of the paper. It should have a logical organization.
Especially if the paper is long, it is often a good idea to divide the main body into or no Homework sections designated by headings and subheadings. Look at almost any text, including this one, and you will see that it uses headings to help keep the reader aware of the organizational structure. Also with regard to your main body, do not assume knowledge on the part of the on this entry reader. Include all important information, explain its significance, and detail your logic. Homework? Write your paper as though its reader will be a reasonably intelligent and informed person but not an expert on sociology a2 essay your topic. Your instructor wants to know what you know and will not read into the paper information that is not there. The conclusion should sum up what you have found and stress the evidence that supports your analysis.
There is something very human about wanting to have things summed up, so do not leave your reader hanging without a conclusion. Approach: There are several ways to approach your paper. A common organizational approach is a chronological one. The advantage of this approach is of homework that it uses the passage of causes of ww1 essays, time as its organizing mechanism. The disadvantage of a chronological approach is that it can easily become a laundry list of events, both important and unimportant. Students often list everything they find, leaving it to the reader to determine which factors are most important. Chronologies are also no substitute for analysis. There is nothing wrong with a chronological approach if it is done well; just be sure to put more emphasis throughout on why things happened than on what happened. A more analytic approach would be organized around a set of factors, or variables, that are important to the subject of the the benefits or no Homework paper. Theoretical approaches can also be used to war poem essay organize a paper. See Allison's (1971) Essence of Homework, Decision for an illustration of such an Consulting for a struggling firm analytic approach.
Whatever approach you choose, bear in mind that a cardinal rule is, analyze, analyze, analyze! Summarizing your findings in the conclusion does not mean that this is the only place to put you in the paper. Your analysis should appear throughout the the benefits of homework or no Homework paper. Romeo Juliet Thesis? A big error that many novice writers make is to use the main body of the paper to create a heap of of homework Homework, facts and to wait until the conclusion to say what they mean. This approach is boring and will not impress your readers with your analytical ability. The best papers by far are those that draw data, events, and causes of ww1, other material together and the benefits, interpret them throughout.
Besides organization, the other hallmark of a good paper is clarity in a2 essay writing. Remember that if a paper fails to communicate well, then its research-no matter how well done--will have little impact. There is an the benefits of homework or no Homework old piece of advice that says, write like you speak. This is terrible advice, at least for formal papers. Good written communication is causes somewhat different from good spoken communication. When you speak to someone, especially face to face, you can convey meaning through voice inflection, gestures, and other methods in addition to your words. These methods are not available in written communications. Therefore, choice of words, punctuation, and other considerations are particularly vital when you write. Good writing can be divided into three parts: effort, style considerations, and technical matters. Effort: Thomas Alva Edison once supposedly commented that Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration. The Benefits Of Homework Or No? That is comments on this entry are closed remove true whether one is inventing the lightbulb or creating an essay, a report, or a book.
Writing and polishing drafts of a paper take time and effort. They cannot be done the night before the the benefits Homework paper is due. War Poem Essay? If you sit down at your word processor the night before your report is due and write it into the wee hours of the morning, you will almost certainly leave your reader as bleary-eyed when he or she reads the paper as you were when you wrote it. Two things to do are to write drafts and to get others to read your paper. 1. Write a draft, preferably more than one. No professional writer would dream of of homework, sending a manuscript out for review or to sociology press without writing multiple drafts. Indeed, the the benefits or no more one writes, the more one feels the a2 essay structure need to or no Homework do drafts. Only undergraduates have the hubris to keyboard a paper into the computer, print a copy out, hand it in, and wait confidently for that rave review and an A grade from the instructor. A better idea is to write a first draft. Note here that the adjective rough does not precede draft. On This Entry? Your draft should be complete and carefully done.
Once your smooth draft is the benefits or no Homework done, put it aside for a few days so that you can gain perspective. Then reread it. You may be surprised at how many ways you find to improve what you have written when you look at it with fresh eyes. The same is Consulting for a firm true for your third and subsequent drafts. 2. Get help.
There are many people who can help you write a first-rate paper. One person is your instructor. Discuss your topic and or no, your ideas with your professor. He or she may be able to thesis help you refine your topic, avoid pitfalls, identify resources, or plan the paper's organization. Submit drafts to your professor far enough ahead of the deadline to give the instructor time to suggest revisions. It may prove helpful also to of homework or no ask a classmate, a family member, or someone else to read your paper. Romeo Essay? Most people are not good judges of their own writing. We tend to read what we meant to say, not what we actually wrote. A fresh reader will be able to point out technical errors and lapses in the benefits or no your argument and organization.
Writing centers are another source of help at juliet thesis many colleges and universities. You may have already paid for such assistance with your tuition dollars; you might as well use it. Style Considerations: It may take innate talent to become a great literary figure, but achieving a reasonably pleasing literary style is possible for everyone who exercises a little care. A few suggestions should help you write a paper that has literary, as well as intellectual, merit. 1. Watch your sentence structure. Students and scholars too often seem to assume that long, complex sentences are symbolic of profundity. They are not; they are mostly just cumbersome. Simple, subject-verb-object sentences are best. They are powerful.
Still, if you do not vary them occasionally, numerous short sentences do not read well. So, after several simple sentences, add a longer one. Or No? But do not go too far the other way. Consider Rourke's Rule of 2s: Sentences more than two lines long or with more than two commas are probably too long to be understood easily, especially if there have been two in a row. 2. Rely on stages of grieving essay active tense, action verbs. Avoid the passive tense (No: Politicians are disliked by many people. Yes: Many people dislike politicians.). The Benefits Of Homework Homework? Similarly, action verbs (made, jumped, went) are better than verbs of seven stages of grieving, being (is, are, were).
In general, active/action verbs generate more interest. 3. Use standard English. The Benefits Of Homework? Colloquial English typically does not make a good impression unless you are writing fiction. Obscenities and other forms of thesis on this entry remove, gutter English are almost never acceptable. 4. The Benefits Or No Homework? Avoid starting too many sentences with adverbial or adjectival clauses or phrases. These are the short phrases (such as In the morning, we went. Comments On This Entry Are Closed? ) that are often followed by a comma.
Also shun beginning or ending sentences with words or phrases such as: however, though, for example, for instance. 5. The Benefits Or No? Watch your paragraph length. Paragraphs over one page in length are usually too long. They may contain redundant statements or more than one major idea. Rework such paragraphs to delete unnecessary text or to separate ideas into additional paragraphs. At the other extreme, one-sentence paragraphs are not acceptable. Remember that each paragraph should have a topic sentence and several others that explain or develop that topic.
6. Rely on transitions between paragraphs. Conventions like On the other hand, Still, Also, Nevertheless, Thus, However, or As a result help the reader get from one thought to another. They smooth the reading process. 7. Avoid clichés. They fought like cats and dogs over which policy to adopt. Ugh!
8. Get to the point. Do not beat around the bush; save a tree; avoid word pollution. Technical Matters: Your paper must be free of common writing mistakes. Cautions about some of of ww1, these are: 1. Avoid sentence fragments. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb. 2. The Benefits Or No? Check your spelling. Misspelled words make you appear uneducated, careless, or both. Keep in causes of ww1 essays mind that misspelled words and of homework, typographical errors cannot be distinguished from each other by a reader. Both are unacceptable. Some professional proofreaders read a manuscript backwards to check for spelling.
Try it. Do not rely on just your own sense of how words are spelled. Use a dictionary, a spell check program if you have a computer, and a second reader to proofread your drafts. Beware of spell checkers, though! Consider this sentence: Its necessary to thesis on this get there attention or we may loose the vote. These three mistakes (its for it's, there for their, and loose for lose) are common ones that would not be caught by most spell check programs.
Thus it is crucial to have a human scan your words. 3. Make sure subjects and verbs agree. Subject-verb disagreement is of homework or no Homework most likely to occur when the two are separated in the sentences by several other words. 4. War Poem Essay? Be careful of verb tense. Many poor writers use only present tense.
Use past tense, future, and other tenses as appropriate. Also be careful to keep verb tense consistent within paragraphs. 5. Make pronouns mean what they say. Misuse of pronouns is the benefits of homework Homework very common. A pronoun refers to the last noun of the for a same person and gender. Consider the sentences, John F. Kennedy was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald, who was subsequently also shot and the benefits of homework, killed.
Many Americans wept at his death. What this means literally is that many Americans wept when they heard of war poem essay, Oswald's death because his refers to the closest prior singular masculine noun (Oswald). Of Homework Or No Homework? Also, do not normally use pronouns more than twice in a row to refer to the same noun. Use the noun or a variation thereof again for clarity. While we are on the subject of pronouns, it is seldom correct to for a struggling use a gender-specific pronoun (he, she, him, her) to refer to the benefits of homework an inanimate object. The United States, for example, is an Consulting it, not a she. 6. Do not split infinitives.
Except when absolutely necessary to avoid misinterpretation, to and the verb should not be separated by an adverb. 7. Or No Homework? Avoid the use of contractions. Words like can't, won't, or don't are too informal for a formal writing assignment. 8. Be careful of abbreviations. Do not start sentences with abbreviations or numbers (unless spelled out). For countries, avoid using the abbreviation as a noun (No: The U.S. did. ); but the of ww1 abbreviation is acceptable as an the benefits adjective (Yes: Current U.S. foreign policy. ). The first time you name someone, give his or her full name and the title if appropriate. Also do not use an acronym unless it is very common without first spelling out the full name, as in, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
9. Do not end sentences with prepositions. This rule is being relaxed, but repetitive use of prepositions at the end of sentences is essay thesis indicative of poor sentence structure. 10. Know when and how to use specific punctuation. Of Homework Homework? The various style manuals mentioned earlier elaborate on the proper usage of commas, colons, semicolons, parentheses, brackets, and thesis comments remove, the like. All good research papers rely on information compiled by and analysis done by others. If you write a research paper without consulting other works, then you have written an essay, not a report. If you do rely in part on the work of the benefits or no Homework, other people and you do not cite them, you have failed in your responsibilities.
A research paper must cite the work of others. There are two reasons that citations are mandatory. The first is to allow the reader to explore the subject further by consulting the works that you have utilized. Without regular and for a struggling, complete citations, such further exploration by your reader is difficult or impossible. Second, intellectual honesty requires citations. The Benefits Of Homework Homework? Failure to use them is plagiarism, which is unacceptable in juliet essay any form. Plagiarism is the theft of the thoughts, facts, or knowledge of others by not giving them proper credit.
When to Cite: Follow these guidelines to protect yourself: 1. Anytime you quote or paraphrase the the benefits of homework Homework thoughts or work of war poem essay, others, cite the source. It is incorrect to believe that only quotations require citations. The Benefits Homework? You should also insert a note whenever you are relying on someone else's thoughts or research, even if you are only paraphrasing (putting it in your own words). 2. Romeo Essay Thesis? Simple, commonly known facts need not be footnoted. A rule of thumb is that if you did not know the information before you started the paper, then you should use a citation to show where you found the the benefits of homework or no Homework information. Also, even if you know something when you start, you should cite the source of any controversial fact (Ireland's St. Brenden and the Vikings came to the New World before Columbus).
3. When in doubt, cite the source. Plagiarism is unethical. War Poem Essay? Instructors and other readers take it very seriously. Grades, reputations, and academic careers have been ruined by plagiarism. Err on the side of safety. The Benefits Of Homework? One citation too many is of ww1 far better than one citation too few. How to Homework Cite: The use of a correct format for Consulting for a, citations used in endnotes or footnotes and in a bibliography often seem a bit complex and cumbersome, but doing so has two good points. Those advantages are completeness and consistency. Most styles fall into one of of homework or no, two categories, notation styles and reference-in-text styles.
Notation style involves the use of numbers to for a indicate each citation. Each number's corresponding note may be at the bottom of the page as a footnote or at the end of the paper as an endnote. In either case, you should provide comprehensive information on each source the first time it appears as a footnote or an endnote, with shortened versions appearing in later footnotes or endnotes. At the end of the paper, a bibliography repeats the full documentation of these sources, listing them alphabetically by author. Bibliographies have their own formatting styles. A number of works demonstrate both citation and of homework Homework, bibliography format styles, including A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian, 1980) and essays, The Chicago Manual of Style (1993). A r eference-in-text style uses the author's name and the year of publication of the work, which are placed in the benefits or no Homework parentheses and inserted at the appropriate place in the text. On This Entry? A page number is also included for direct quotes and in some other cases. Then at the end of the paper or book there is a References or Works Cited section that contains the of homework full documentation for all the sources cited throughout the body of the work. These sources are listed alphabetically by author.
Reference-in-text styles are increasingly the norm in social science, and most are some variant of the style developed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Causes Of Ww1? For details of the benefits of homework Homework, how to use such styles, see the APA's Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1983); Writer's Guide: Political Science (Biddle Holland, 1987); or use this book as an illustration. Whatever citation style you choose, use it correctly and be consistent. Your job is not quite finished. After writing the paper, you must prepare its physical presentation. Unless told otherwise, you should type your paper double-spaced, with one-inch margins on all four sides of each page. Your paper should feature a title page, the comments on this are closed body of the paper, and the benefits, then the bibliography, Works Cited, or References page(s). If your instructor prefers some variation of this model, that will usually be specified in advance. Once again, it is important to stress that a paper is a whole product. Causes? A paper that contains impeccable research, cogent analysis, and brilliant writing will still evoke a negative reaction from the reader if it is wrinkled, printed sloppily, or barely readable because the ink on the ribbon is or no Homework exhausted. Some general guidelines include:
1. War Poem Essay? Printed material is preferable. The Benefits Of Homework? Most instructors will not accept handwritten reports. Even if printing is struggling not mandatory, a printed report has a more professional image than does a handwritten report. 2. Make sure the print is the benefits or no Homework easily legible. When you type or print your report, make sure that the ribbon or ink cartridge is up to par. 3. Do not play the margin, spacing, and font game. Professors are not naive and have read veritable mountains of papers.
Having extra-wide margins; leaving extra spaces between paragraphs, headings, and war poem essay, excerpts; or using larger-size type or fonts to stretch a paper out (or doing the opposite to squeeze it in) are very obvious. You will not fool the instructor or anyone else. So, why bother? 4. Number your pages. Of Homework Homework? It is not uncommon for students to turn in papers with the pages out of order. Numbering the pages cuts down on sociology a2 essay structure this mistake. Also, unbound papers sometimes fall apart and or no Homework, must be reassembled. Numbered pages will facilitate this.
5. Essay Thesis? Securely fasten the paper together. Paper clips are a bad idea. Staples or one of the various types of binders sold by your bookstore are better. 6. Read your paper one last time. Even if the of homework Homework paper seems finished, you can still find mistakes that prior proofreading missed. A last-minute pen-and-ink (never pencil) correction that is inserted neatly is better than an error. 7. Go home and relax.
Get a pizza, watch some television, catch a movie! You deserve it after working hard and writing a great paper. War Poem Essay? Congratulations!
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How To Pick The Right Motor Oil For Your Car. There are many choices when it comes to picking the appropriate oil for or no Homework your car's engine. Our guide breaks down your choices to help you in the quest to change your oil. Choosing the correct motor oil for your car might seem daunting but the best way to start is by checking out the starburst symbol that indicates the oil has been tested and meets the thesis on this are closed remove standards of the the benefits of homework or no Homework American Petroleum Institute (API). In addition, there's a 2-character service designation on stages the container. API's latest service standard is SL. SL refers to a group of laboratory and engine tests, including the latest series for control of the benefits Homework, high-temperature deposits. Your third task is to pick the for a struggling firm viscosity (thickness) that's suitable for the temperatures your vehicle normally operates in (check your owners manual), and of homework Homework you're done. Well, not quite. There's a whole lot more to the story than that. These are the labels you'll find on every container of war poem essay, reputable motor oil.
The API donut on the right tells you if the the benefits of homework Homework oil meets the current SL service rating (C for diesel engines). It also provides the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) viscosity number and tells you if the war poem essay oil has passed the of homework Energy Conserving test. War Poem Essay? The starburst symbol on the left indicates that the oil has passed the tests listed for the benefits of homework Homework SL service. Is oil really the lifeblood of an causes of ww1 essays engine? That's a long-popular analogy, but it's really not an accurate description. Blood carries nutrients to cells, but it's air that carries fuelthe nutritionfor an engine. The Benefits Or No Homework? However, without oil to lubricate and cool moving parts, keep them clean and help to seal the pistons in the cylinders, the causes of ww1 essays engine would run for of homework only a matter of seconds, then sieze. So, yes, oil is thesis entry remove important. Oil is so important that we want no less than the best the engine can getfor a good low price, of course. Now, what if you could custom-blend the oil so it had exactly the characteristics you believe that your vehicle needs for the type of the benefits of homework, driving you do? Sounds pretty neat, and we were given the opportunity to do just that at the Valvoline lab in Lexington, Ky.
When we were finished, we had an oil we thought would be just right for upcoming summer weather in short-trip driving around the New York City area. That was our one shot at playing lubricant scientist, but the experience produced only enough oil for a top-up. So at the next oil change, we'll have to pick from an off-the-shelf assortment--like everyone else. But we think we'll do a better job of selection now, thanks to a short course in engine oil blending from Valvoline Technical Director Thomas Smith. Here's what we learned.
Viscosity (a fluid's resistance to flow) is war poem essay rated at 0 F (represented by the number preceding the W [for Winter]) and at 212 F (represented by the second number in the viscosity designation). Of Homework? So 10W-30 oil has less viscosity when cold and hot than does 20W-50. Motor oil thins as it heats and seven thickens as it cools. So, with the Homework right additives to help it resist thinning too much, an oil can be rated for one viscosity when cold, another when hot. The more resistant it is to romeo essay, thinning, the higher the of homework second number (10W-40 versus 10W-30, for example) and that's good. Within reason, thicker oil generally seals better and maintains a better film of lubrication between moving parts.
At the low-temperature end, oil has to be resistant to thickening so that it flows more easily to all the moving parts in your engine. Also, if the oil is too thick the a2 essay structure engine requires more energy to turn the crankshaft, which is partly submerged in a bath of oil. Excessive thickness can make it harder to the benefits, start the engine, which reduces fuel economy. A 5W oil is typically what's recommended for winter use. However, synthetic oils can be formulated to flow even more easily when cold, so they are able to pass tests that meet the 0W rating. Once the engine is war poem essay running, the oil heats up. Of Homework Or No? The second number in the viscosity rating--the 40 in 10W-40, for example--tells you that the oil will stay thicker at high temperatures than one with a lower second number--the 30 in 10W-30, for example. What's really important is that you use the oil viscosity your car's owner's manual recommends. Look on the shelves in auto parts stores and juliet thesis you'll see oils labeled for all kinds of specific purposes: high-tech engines, new cars, higher-mileage vehicles, heavy-duty/off-road SUVs.
In addition, you'll see a wide selection of or no Homework, viscosities. If you read your owner's manual, you'll know what the car manufacturer recommends for a2 essay structure a brand-new vehicle. The manual may include a reference to of homework or no Homework, Energy Conserving oils, which simply means that the oil has passed a lab test against a reference oil. It's no guarantee of better fuel economy, but most of the leading brands have at least some viscosities that are so labeled. Let's take a look at the different types. How to Choose Between Synthetic and Conventional Motor Oil. Premium Conventional Oil : This is the standard new-car oil. All leading brands have one for service level SL, available in several viscosities. War Poem Essay? The carmakers usually specify a 5W-20 or 5W-30 oil, particularly for lower temperatures, with a 10W-30 oil as optional, particularly for higher ambient temperatures. These three ratings cover just about the benefits Homework, every light-duty vehicle on the road. Causes Of Ww1? Even more important, though, is changing the oil and filter regularly.
A 4000 miles/4 months interval is good practice. The Benefits? The absolute minimum is twice a year. If your car has an electronic oil-change indicator on seven stages essay the instrument cluster, don't exceed its warning. Full Synthetic Oil : The oils made for high-tech engines, whether in a Chevy Corvette or Mercedes-Benz, are full synthetics. If these oils pass stringent special tests (indicated by their labeling), it means they have superior, longer-lasting performance in all the the benefits of homework or no Homework critical areas, from viscosity index to protection against deposits. They flow better at seven of grieving low temperatures and maintain peak lubricity at high temperatures. So why shouldn't everyone use them? Answer: These oils are expensive and not every engine needs them. In fact, there may be some features that your car's engine needs that the synthetics don't have.
Again, follow your owner's manual. Synthetic Blend Oil : These have a dose of synthetic oil mixed with organic oil, and overall are formulated to provide protection for somewhat heavier loads and high temperatures. The Benefits Of Homework Or No? This generally means they're less volatile, so they evaporate far less, which reduces oil loss (and increases fuel economy). They're popular with drivers of pickups/SUVs who want the high-load protection. And they're a lot less expensive than full synthetics, maybe just pennies more than a premium conventional oil.
Higher Mileage Oil : Today's vehicles last longer, and thesis comments are closed if you like the idea of paying off the car and the benefits of homework running the mileage well into six figures, you have another oil choice, those formulated for higher-mileage vehicles. Almost two-thirds of the vehicles on the road have more than 75,000 miles on the odometer. So the oil refiners have identified this as an area of war poem essay, customer interest, and have new oils they're recommending for these vehicles. When your car or light truck/SUV is somewhat older and has considerably more mileage, you may notice a few oil stains on the garage floor. It's about this time that you need to Homework, add a quart more often than when the vehicle was new. Crankshaft seals may have hardened and lost their flexibility, so they leak (particularly at low temperatures) and may crack. The higher-mileage oils are formulated with seal conditioners that flow into the pores of the causes seals to restore their shape and increase their flexibility. In most cases, rubber seals are designed to swell just enough to the benefits or no Homework, stop leaks.
But the causes of ww1 essays oil refiners pick their reswelling ingredients carefully. Valvoline showed us the performance data of one good seal conditioner that swelled most seal materials, but actually reduced swelling of one type that tended to of homework Homework, swell excessively from the struggling ingredients found in some other engine oils. You also may have noticed some loss of performance and the benefits engine smoothness as a result of sociology structure, engine wear on your higher-mileage vehicle. These higher-mileage oils also have somewhat higher viscosities. (Even if the numbers on the container don't indicate it, there's a fairly wide range for of homework or no Homework each viscosity rating and of ww1 the higher-mileage oils sit at the top of each range.) They also may have more viscosity-index improvers in them. The result? They seal piston-to-cylinder clearances better, and won't squeeze out as readily from the or no Homework larger engine bearing clearances. They also may have a higher dose of antiwear additives to try to sociology structure, slow the wear process. If you have an older vehicle, all of these features may mean more to you than what you might get from a full synthetic, and at a fraction the price.
Beyond that, there's plenty more to the oil story. Read on. Resistance to thinning with increasing temperature is called viscosity index. And although a higher second number is good, the oil also has to be robust. That is, it must be able to last for thousands of Homework, miles until the next oil change. For example, oil tends to lose viscosity from Consulting struggling firm shear, the sliding motion between close-fitted metal surfaces of moving parts such as bearings. So resistance to viscosity loss (shear stability) is the benefits of homework or no Homework necessary to enable the causes of ww1 essays oil to of homework or no Homework, maintain the lubricating film between those parts. Unlike antifreeze, 95 percent of for a struggling firm, which is made up of one base chemical (typically ethylene glycol), petroleum-type engine oil contains a mixture of several different types of base oil, some more expensive than others. Oil companies typically pick from the benefits of homework a selection of five groups, each of which is romeo juliet produced in a different way and in different viscosities. Of Homework Or No? The more expensive groups are more highly processed, in some cases with methods that produce a lubricant that can be classified as a synthetic. War Poem Essay? The so-called full synthetics contain chemicals that may be derived from the benefits of homework or no Homework petroleum but they're altered so much that they're not considered natural oil anymore.
Our custom blend contained 10 percent polyalphaolefins (PAO), the type of chemical that's often the primary ingredient in a full synthetic. The base oil package in any oil makes up anywhere from 70 to 95 percent of the structure mix, the rest comprised of additives. Does that mean an oil with just 70 percent base oils is better than one with 95 percent. No, because some of the base oils have natural characteristics or ones that derive from their processing, which reduces or eliminates the need for additives. The Benefits Of Homework Or No Homework? And although some additives make important contributions to lubrication, by themselves don't necessarily have great lubricity. The ingredients in an additive package differ in cost, as we said, but price is sociology just one factor. Some work better in certain combinations of base oils, and some of the Homework less-expensive base oils are a good choice for a blend because of the way they perform with popular additives.
Bottom line: every motor oil has a recipe. Refiners come up with a list of objectives based on the needs of sociology, their customers (the carmakers, for example) and formulate oil to meet those goals as best they can. Now, keeping an oil from the benefits thinning as it gets hot while it takes a beating from engine operation is for a one thing. But it's also important to or no Homework, keep oil from juliet essay getting too thick. Using premium base oils for low volatility--to prevent evaporation--is one approach. Evaporation of the base oil package not only increases oil consumption, it results in thicker oil (which decreases fuel economy). Use of of homework or no, additives is another approach to improving and maintaining oil performance. Seven Essay? High engine temperatures combine with moisture, combustion byproducts (including unburned gasoline), rust, corrosion, engine wear particles and of homework or no Homework oxygen to produce sludge and varnish. The additives not only assist oil in maintaining good lubrication, they also help minimize sludge and varnish, and any damage from their formation. Here are the categories of key additive ingredients and why they're important: • Viscosity-index improvers: Reduce the oil's tendency to thin with increasing temperature.
• Detergents: Unlike the household type, they don't scrub engine surfaces. They do remove some deposits, primarily solids. But their main purpose is to keep the comments on this are closed remove surfaces clean by inhibiting the formation of high-temperature deposits, rust and corrosion. • Dispersants: Disperse solid particles, keeping them in solution, so they don't come together to form sludge, varnish and acids. Some additives work both as detergents and of homework Homework dispersants. • Antiwear agents: There are times when the are closed remove lubricating film breaks down, so the antiwear agents have to the benefits of homework, protect the metal surfaces.
A zinc and phosphorus compound called ZDDP is a long-used favorite, along with other phosphorus (and sulphur) compounds. If you musts know, ZDDP stand for zinc diakyl dithiophosphate. • Friction modifiers: These aren't the same as antiwear agents. They reduce engine friction and, so, can improve fuel economy. Graphite, molybdenum and of grieving other compounds are used.
• Pour-point depressants: Just because the of homework 0 F viscosity rating is low doesn't mean the oil will flow readily at low temperatures. Oil contains wax particles that can congeal and stages of grieving essay reduce flow, so these additives are used to prevent it. • Antioxidants: With engine temperatures being pushed up for better emissions control, the antioxidants are needed to prevent oxidation (and, therefore, thickening) of oil. Some of the additives that perform other functions also serve this purpose, such as the antiwear agents. • Foam inhibitors: The crankshaft whipping through the oil in the pan causes foaming. Oil foam is not as effective a lubricant as a full-liquid stream, so the inhibitors are used to cause the foam bubbles to collapse. • Rust/corrosion inhibitors: Protect metal parts from acids and moisture. You can't necessarily improve an oil by the benefits of homework putting in more additives. Of Ww1 Essays? In fact, you can make things worse. For example, sulphur compounds have antiwear, antioxidation characteristics, but they can reduce fuel economy and affect catalytic converter operation.
Too much of a particular detergent could affect the the benefits of homework Homework antiwear balance. Too much of a specific dispersant could affect catalyst performance and reduce fuel economy. Antiwear and friction-reducing additives also may have ingredients (such as sulphur) that could affect catalyst performance. There's a lot of pressure on the oil industry to reduce sulphur content in oil as well as gasoline. But the industry's resistance is understandable when you consider the delicate balancing act it must perform with each revolution of your car's engine. A Part of seven of grieving, Hearst Digital Media.
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