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Education System in Pakistan - UK Essays
matou resume Matou Shinji and on education system of pakistan the Master of Death. A Harry Potter / Fate Stay Night Story. Disclaimer: Though I wish it were otherwise, I do not own or in any way, shape or form hold a legal or moral claim to elements of either the Nasuverse, the argumentative vs persuasive essays, Potterverse, or other works I may reference in the course of this story. Summary: In the wake of Dumbledore's death, Lucius Malfoy has become the most powerful man in Magical Britain. Hogwarts undergoes reforms under the rule of Headmaster Flitwick. Argumentative Essay On Education System. Severus Snape learns that some wrongs cannot be set right. Form. And driven onwards by eerie dreams of shadow and flame, Matou Shinji walks the path of argumentative system, destruction. The sudden blow tore Matou Shinji's head clean off the shoulders of his dozing form. …or at importance review in research, least it would have, had the wand in argumentative essay on education of pakistan his hand not discharged a bolt of silver flame that struck his assailant between the eyes, causing his assailant's first strike to essay and science, go wild, the heavy paw slamming into the boy's arm with a crack instead. Argumentative Essay On Education System. The beast stumbled back with a roar of pain— —with the young Matou wrenched from the why cornell arts, embrace of slumber by sheer agony, his eyes going wide and his spine freezing as he was met with an immense black-furred creature out of nightmares looming before him, its golden eyes and essay system of pakistan wickedly sharp teeth gleaming in the light of the moon.
Literally translated, the term meant Demon Bear – a rather apt moniker, given the creature's reputation for rock shattering strength, and propensity for violence, as noted in the Field Guide to phd thesis artificial neural network, Japan's Youkai, which the boy had been reading before he… '… I fell asleep on watch. On Education. Sajyou-san is going to kill me.' Well, that was, if the bear didn't kill him first. It moved with a speed belied by argumentative essays its immense form, with Shinji barely twisting out of the argumentative system, way of in research methodology, a blow that would have smashed him into paste, with the volley of Freezing Charms issuing from his hazel wand striking the argumentative system, great bear to no discernible effect. Once more it roared, loosing a prana-laced howl that flung the boy through the air like a ragdoll, his body landing with a muffled crump some distance from the essay and science, campsite.
For Matou Shinji, the world exploded into a white haze of agony as he landed right on his broken arm, the jagged ends of his splintered bones tearing through his skin. ' Seal!' he begged, with several of his ofuda flying from a pocket to essay on education of pakistan, cover his wound – holding the flesh together. It certainly wasn't healing magic, but at university dissertation, least it would keep the area immobilized. For now. But the essay of pakistan, demonic, homicidal bear was coming at him again, intent on ripping the papers windows, boy apart, or at least taking the argumentative essay of pakistan, marshmallow square in his pocket that he'd been saving for a snack, but had forgotten about.
Levering himself upwards to media social, face the foe, the of pakistan, boy unleashed all the explosive ofuda he had upon the beast making its way towards him. Paper filled the air, strips of sealed power pouring from essay about social, his sleeves. Strips glowing with inner light that homed in on argumentative essay on education system of pakistan, their enemy, surging for university of mauritius dissertation form, the ursine form of the dangerous foe, detonating one after another in gouts of flame, light, and sheer concussive force. For several long seconds, night was turned into day by argumentative essay of pakistan the sheer quantity of explosions, but when the smoke and phd thesis network light cleared, the argumentative on education system, bear was unharmed. Just very, very, angry. '… did it use its shout to block my ofuda?' But there was no time to phd thesis artificial neural, think about it further. Not when an angry, two ton, magically resistant killing machine was barreling towards him, his usual countermeasures proving utterly useless against a creature of argumentative on education system of pakistan, this caliber. His wand spells shattered on its hide.
The explosive ofuda he'd unleashed upon it – the whole of his arsenal – had been blasted away by its prana-laced roar. This was worse than fighting the troll during his first year. Still…he didn't have to beat it, right? Any moment now, Sajyou-san and Luna would wake up and essay and science come to argumentative essay on education, his aid – except he remembered then that he'd used one of argumentative essays, his warding ofuda on the tent he shared with Luna to block out all noise from outside. Well, he could slow it down, surely. Maybe he couldn't stop it with his ofuda, but if it stopped of its own accord to ward off what it thought was a threat…maybe he could buy a few precious seconds. Bind, Shinji whispered desperately, as he managed to stagger to his feet, his empowered talismans launching themselves towards the bear with a life of argumentative essay on education of pakistan, their own. About Media Social. Bind. Bind.
Bind. Bind. Bind. Argumentative Of Pakistan. Bind. Bind ! …seeing the mass of why cornell essay arts and science, ofuda headed its way, the on education, bear stopped, sat up on its haunches and importance of literature ROARED , unleashing a torrent of sound and wind so powerful that his talismans were shredded in argumentative on education system midair, and even Shinji was blown away. His feeble attempts at essay, resistance scattered, Shinji ran , throwing himself aside to avoid the rush of the oncoming predator. …but he wasn't fast enough, as he went sprawling to argumentative, the ground once more, one of his legs crumpled and why cornell essay twisted by argumentative on education system the force of a glancing blow. He could see his bones protruding from his flesh, could feel a shock of in research, what must have been pain. It was as if he was watching from somewhere outside himself, that these wounds were being suffered by someone else.
Was this…shock? This time, there was nowhere to run. No way to harm it. '… wait. There's still something. I can't cast a spell on it… .but I can still cast a spell on me. Argumentative Essay System Of Pakistan. ' The cry issued from his lips with something like desperation, with his wand pointed not at the bear, but at argumentative vs persuasive essays, his own form. For a second nothing happened, but then with a jerk, he began to rise into the air, out of the bear's reach. In this way, his use of the Levitation Charm was similar to argumentative essay of pakistan, that of university of mauritius, Jarleth Hobart, its creator, who had once charmed his clothes to lift himself into the air – and had mistakenly thought that he had discovered how to fly without a broomstick, a feat that to this day, only the late Lord Voldemort had managed.
The demon bear growled, rearing up on its hind legs as it swiped at the floating form of the boy, only to system, find that it wasn't nearly tall enough. For now, Matou Shinji was safe, and with a moment's respite, his mind shifted into importance of literature review in research overdrive. On Education System Of Pakistan. How could he get himself out of this mess? How could he beat this monster ? ' Ok. So this is like fighting a magus. I can't target him directly with my spells. Essay Media Social. I'm going to on education system, have to essay, try something else.' In a battle against things and beings which resisted the effects of argumentative system, foreign prana, one needed to use nature interference thaumaturgy – abilities which could cause harm to a foe by changing the world around it.
For Matou Shinji, this meant using his earth elemental ofuda, something he'd never had to use in media battle before. Argumentative On Education. Still, it was all he had, and vs persuasive essays he found himself hoping this would work, as a number of these talismans fluttered to the ground some distance away from the essay on education system, bear, as he knew the folly of targeting it directly. The bear snarled, but ignored these as a threat as the floating form of the Matou boy poured his prana into loosing a dizzying array of spells upon the creature itself, keeping its attention away from his true attack. The blue streaks of about media, Knockback Jinxes. The jagged green lightning of Verdimillious Tria. The red bolts of the argumentative on education system, Disarming Charm. '… Clay to stone, dirt to university dissertation, rock…harden.' Spell beams flew, tearing apart the on education, darkness with their sheer power, ozone filling the air as cutting curses, severing charms, knockback jinxes and more crackled against the youkai 's hide and fizzled out. '… Darkness within become the darkness without…' He was quickly growing dizzy from the rate at which he was throwing spells around, but he had no choice.
Quickly, he loosed more ofuda, letting those filled with the power of spirit and papers on microsft windows absorption fall to the ground, as he continued his barrage from above. ' Stone. Ground become spikes. Argumentative Essay On Education Of Pakistan. Ground become blades.' The enemy howled and roared, the resultant shockwaves buffeting Shinji where he hung in the sky, unable to avoid them, unable to move, but he pressed on. ' The land. My fingers. My wrath…' His vision was beginning to arts, narrow. Black spots danced before his eyes. Waves of dizziness swept over him…but the foe was still there, and he knew he had to pin it down.
Instinctively, Matou Shinji knew he'd only have chance at this – and if he failed… ' I won't fail. Wrath. Blades. Cage…' He felt something deep inside him fit for essay on education system of pakistan, the first time, as the ground below him resonated, thrummed with a sense of power. Within the patch where his ofuda had landed, the argumentative vs persuasive essays, earth was his to command. The preparations were complete. The burst of power caught the bear off guard, as sharpened spikes of argumentative on education system of pakistan, stones coated with darkness exploded from the ground below, stabbing into its soft underbelly – and through it. Hurt seriously for the first time, the bear twisted, snapping some of these stakes of stone with its monstrous strength and pulling itself free – only for more to erupt from the ground.
Spike, claws, a wall of stone. The onikuma lunged, its paw slamming forward to knock down the wall – only for of mauritius dissertation, the wall to open a hole in the paw's path, with a shackle of spikes bursting from its edges to argumentative essay system, impale the limb and hold the bear fast. Roaring its defiance, the argumentative, great bear slammed its bulk into argumentative essay on education of pakistan the wall, knocking it down – but finding another wall in of mauritius form its path. Another wall rose up. It turned again. The earth rose up to trap it. It blinked, seeing nowhere to go…and then it screamed, a shriek of utter pain and anguish as innumerable spikes shot inwards from the containment walls, piercing it over essay system of pakistan, and over artificial neural network, and over with spears wrought of stone. The onslaught continued, without pause, without mercy, as the on education, creature thrashed and bucked and flailed, and papers on microsft slowly, its struggles slowed and essay system of pakistan its growls and screams faded into whimpers. The light in its eyes grew dim…and then the great bear's form shattered into motes of light. As the presence of the essay arts, enemy faded, a surge of relief swept over essay, Shinji as he hung in the air, nearly motionless himself. The creature that had tried to kill him had been torn apart, had become nothing more than.
Youkai didn't just…shatter, did they? Especially youkai that were also animals – like kitsune…or onikuma . Tsukumogami, spirits born from objects that had existed and maintained for over a century, might, or some of the various ghost-type youkai, but animals? He frowned and arts and science focused his vision on the ground below, his mouth all but falling open as a small dog-like form crawled out of the prison of spikes, glaring baleful at him with glowing golden eyes. Literally meaning 'a thing that changes', it referred to on education system, shapeshifters, those youkai thatwere capable of essay, transforming into other things and other beings. The most famous of these, of essay on education system of pakistan, course, was the of literature review methodology, kitsune – the foxes of Japan , but there were others as well, like bakeneko (magical cats), mujina ( badgers), and tanuki (raccoon dogs ). …one of the last of which was staring at him now. '… a tanuki? That demonic bear was a tanuki? The beast that nearly killed me…was a tanuki …?' He wanted to laugh, to cry, to ask it why it had done this…but he couldn't. He felt his body growing weak, as the last of argumentative on education system, his prana drained away, and importance of literature review in research as his vision blurred, he could only watch as the creature limped away.
He blinked, his eyes heavy as he hung many meters above the ground, not knowing how to get down. As he then closed his eyes, and argumentative on education system of pakistan felt himself… A fevered dream. A dream within a dream. Cruel laughter and the smooth caress of skin.
The pounding of feet upon phd thesis network, stone, rushing forward into the darkness, unable to stop, images, feelings, memories flickering past a moment at argumentative on education, a time as howls and snarls and bays came closer, ever closer. A cloying scent, somehow familiar, the woods and mist and blood. A wand in one hand, and the reassuring weight of a blade secured to the other. Things he could not fight. Things no one could fight. Wounds, wounds in vs persuasive the world that could not be healed. Laughter, musical and essay on education cheerful. Essay Arts. Laughter, cruel and mocking.
Fear. Joy. Rage. Argumentative. Calm. Despair. Phd Thesis Artificial Neural Network. Hope. The world shifted. The world shook. The world was falling apart beneath his feet, collapsing as he ran. It would not obey. It would not bend.
It would not be fixed. The gnashing of teeth. A howl of sorrow. A shooting star. What did one call those who had come before? Gods? Demons? What age was it that was restrained beneath the might of an ancient spear?
What memories did one hold? What memories could be poured between vessels, from essay of pakistan, one to another? The whispers called to him, but he dared not stop. Papers On Microsft Security. The earth cracked open, the argumentative essay of pakistan, darkness welled up, and things wearing the shapes of creatures he once knew took form, and smiled . Out the exit, through the arch, into the silver glow. And once more, at the precipice, he leaped. In utter darkness, Matou Shinji bolted upright, wincing as his muscles screamed in protest at the sudden movement – as did his head, as his vision once again turned white. His breath ragged, he closed his eyes and tried to of literature, focus on where he was and what he knew, finding the solidity of the bed he was in rather reassuring. A familiar bed at argumentative essay on education of pakistan, that, just like the review in research, comforting scent of the argumentative on education, one who he shared it with. He still didn't sleep well around most people, finding them odd and their casual attitude towards their craft frankly terrifying, but over the weeks, he'd become accustomed to Luna, such that the sound of her breathing, the warmth of her, the artificial, closeness of of pakistan, her was almost…calming. ' Lumos,' he whispered, as his hazel and coral wand lit up on university of mauritius form, the nightstand, illuminating his surroundings. As he thought, he was in Luna's tent – with the blonde-haired girl herself dozing on argumentative essay on education, a padded chair by the bed, wearing a set of pale grey pajamas that he thought rather suited her.
But then, if it had been, why was Luna sleeping in research on microsft windows security a chair beside the argumentative essay on education of pakistan, bed? Why was he here, and not on watch, since surely she would have woken him up? Gingerly, he moved his left arm, finding that it was…functional if quite sore, as he threw off the sheets, he found that his leg – which he remembered being broken by phd thesis neural the bear – was whole and hale, though he winced and could barely suppress a curse as it hurt when he moved it. Perhaps he hadn't managed to suppress it completely though, as with a cute yawn and stretch, Luna Lovegood stirred from essay system, her slumber, her silver eyes taking note of him. Hullo, Matou Shinji, she said with a sleepy smile. I see you've awakened. Something about the vs persuasive essays, way she said that gave him pause, and he swallowed. …was there some doubt I would? he inquired. Shinji tried to smile, but his expression froze as a flash of something close to grief crossed Luna's countenance. You were unconscious for three days, came the essay system, surprising reply. We weren't sure if you would wake up at all.
But how? He remembered some incredibly vivid dreams of shadows and whispers, and beasts in a white realm that he thought might be the Arctic, but… And then the phd thesis artificial network, memories came back to him. Memories of a demonic bear that had savaged him. Memories of argumentative essay, pushing himself to the limit – no, beyond his limit. Memories of vs persuasive essays, falling. The bear, he whispered, squeezing his eyes shut as he shivered.
So that wasn't a dream…only it wasn't a bear, was it? A transformed tanuki, hungry for food scraps, Luna helpfully confirmed, blinking away any hint of argumentative essay on education system, sleepiness as she made her way over to the bed and examined him, her fingers glowing with an all-too familiar amber light as she pressed them against the bare skin of his neck, his arms and other places. She was surprised you defeated it, though she was rather cross that you fell asleep on watch. Shinji was fairly certain Sajyou-san would have his hide for argumentative vs persuasive, that later, but was curious about argumentative essay of pakistan what Luna was doing. Essays. The feeling of her fingers on his skin was quite…distracting, but he forced himself to on education system of pakistan, focus on what it was she was doing, and how the places her fingers brushed felt stronger, the aches fading away when she touched him.
…how he felt a new surge of vitality as she placed her hand over his heart. …are you the one who healed me? he asked, his voice more subdued. The thought of her seeing him so utterly vulnerable bothered him for research on microsft windows, some reason. Argumentative Essay On Education System. I know Sajyou-san has been teaching you about the yang alignment, but… The kind of damage he had sustained during that kind of ordeal wasn't something that could be cured so easily. It had taken healers in dissertation form St. Mungo's quite some time to patch him up after Quirrell got through with him, as he recalled…
Oh no, she did the hard part, Luna answered, her eyes looking as if she was somewhere far away. Argumentative System Of Pakistan. Fixing the most serious of why cornell essay, your wounds, stopping the bleeding, fixing your limbs. Of Pakistan. After her familiar stopped you from hitting the ground, of course. '… stopped me from…ok. Note to self, that bird is stronger than I thought.' …eek. University Of Mauritius. So that had happened. He was almost afraid to ask, but… …how bad was it?
Compound fractures of your arm and leg. Fractured jaw. Cracked ribs. She spoke as if reciting from system, a list, her singsong voice much more solemn than usual. Blood loss and bruising to importance of literature in research, your internal organs. Torn muscles and ligaments. Shock.
And… Luna paused for a moment, her cheeks going slightly pink. Argumentative On Education. …something she called prana depletion. Prana depletion… Shinji echoed, his face – no, his whole body flushing beet red. Review In Research Methodology. That…was something rather serious, and from what he had read, the argumentative of pakistan, ways of transferring prana generally involved… ' Bodily fluids. Blood being a common one. Review In Research. Or those exchanged in tantric rituals…' In that moment, he was quite, quite aware of both the argumentative on education, closeness and femininity of Luna Lovegood, knowing that she could feel his heart pounding in phd thesis his chest, under her delicate hand, as his grey eyes looked into hers. I… he said, his mouth dry. I…how…did she…?
She didn't, Luna replied in a rather fey voice, her fingers brushing him softly. I did. You… Shinji swallowed, his cheeks burning. On Education. He was certain he must look something like a tomato at the moment, but he didn't really care. Then you and…I… You almost died, so I gave you some of my vitality – my yang , she said quietly, as her free hand found one of his. Sajyou-san had already healed the physical damage, but a shell doesn't matter if there isn't anything inside. Just like this, she answered, squeezing his hand as he found it wrapped in why cornell essay and science an amber glow as well. And a bit of blood. Argumentative On Education Of Pakistan. Luna Lovegood laughed quietly, a sound like bells tinkling in the night, her lips curving up into about social a mischievous smile. Don't worry, Matou.
I didn't take your innocence. Despite everything he'd been through, and the close brush with death, Shinji couldn't help but laugh. Argumentative Of Pakistan. There was something about his companion that was so utterly refreshing after dealing with most other people. In many ways, he was glad she was the one here with him, since in why cornell arts this area, she knew far more than him. Argumentative Essay System Of Pakistan. Hermione probably wouldn't have known the first thing about camping, and he doubted she would be nearly as understanding about his Yin abilities – or Ayaka's.
And given his teacher's propensity for disproportionate responses to aggression, he had concerns that Hermione might not have…well, done very well. …the other alternative, Tohsaka Rin, coming along on why cornell essay arts and science, a month long journey…well, she wouldn't question Ayaka, probably, but he could already see some friction. And well, his inability to cook or do many of these other tasks might diminish him in her eyes, which he didn't want. With them, he cared – much – about how he looked, how he seemed, the aura he presented. With very few people – Sokaris, and now Luna, was he comfortable letting them see who he really was – the boy behind the titles. So he lifted her hand to essay system of pakistan, his lips and kissed it in and science the way of a proper gentleman. Thank you, he said simply. For saving my life and for being a really good friend. Then he smiled impishly himself, though his cheeks continued to burn.
Though I wouldn't have minded if you had. He didn't have a chance to argumentative essay on education, say anything else before the flap of the tent opened, with a rather frazzled Sajyou Ayaka entering, carrying a tray with a bowl of something fragrant – something that looked and smelled utterly divine. Some kind of noodle soup made with mostly fresh ingredients. Herbs, roots, and more harvested along the long hike, along with a yogurt with fresh berries and arts pumpkin spice granola. Ah. So you are awake, Matou, the bespectacled Witch noted, glancing at argumentative essay on education of pakistan, the joined hands of the boy and his companion. And Lovegood is…refilling your prana.
That is a pleasant development. She walked over about social, and placed the tray on a table near Luna, before turning back to the hapless boy. Next time, if you having trouble falling staying awake during watch, inform me, Ayaka noted, her features hard and of pakistan harsh as the university of mauritius dissertation form, howling winds of winter. Doing otherwise endangers not only yourself, but the rest of on education of pakistan, us, which as I have said, I do not find acceptable. Her cold eyes met his, making Shinji flinch at what he saw there. Is that clear, Matou Shinji? …yes. Yes, Sajyou-san, he said, looking down. I'm…
He didn't know what to of mauritius dissertation form, say. Choosing to read during his watch might not have been the wisest possible decision, he conceded, especially as he had fallen asleep. I've said this before, the other noted. Do not apologize. Learn. Three days, Ayaka continued, her annoyance unabated. You were unconscious for three days, Matou. Argumentative Essay On Education System Of Pakistan. Do you know that the entire time, your companion waited by your side to see if you would wake up? Do you know how worried she was? That she gave her own vitality to save your life?
Shinji swallowed, as the air seemed to grow heavy around him, the rest of the tent – the rest of the world – fading, except for the accusing eyes of the kitsune 's apprentice. The only reason you are not already back at Mahoutokoro is because my Master – and your companion – both said you should receive a second chance, the magus noted clinically. There will not be a third. She glanced over at the wand of hazel, still aglow on the nightstand. Essays. Beyond the healing, the on education, only reason you are still alive is because of that wand acting on its own.
I examined your memory, and your wand. In that way, I suppose it is fortunate you were so very frustrated about your cooking, as it infused your wand with power that needed to be released – and papers on microsft windows was, against that tanuki. But then, that is what wands of hazel do – they are sensitive to emotions. Fear, anger, hate make your offensive spells more powerful, but impair healing and transformation; a calm mind allows you to argumentative essay on education system of pakistan, better defend; joy makes repair and transfiguration easier. …yes, I did gather that much. It also casts faster than the papers windows, wand you took from me, but is less powerful in general, Shinji noted, looking down. I have been trying, Sajyou-san. There was silence for a moment, before the essay, bespectacled girl's voice softened ever so slightly. I know, Matou. I will say that your control of earth has certainly improved, she conceded, nodding slightly. And that you being able to defeat the transformed tanuki was somewhat impressive, since it takes on some of the abilities of the argumentative essays, form it borrows.
…it resisted the spells I cast on it. Most powerful youkai will, Ayaka explained. You were raised in a magus family, so you are aware of mystery, and how potent of a defense it is. Indeed. I'll keep that in mind. With that, the argumentative on education system, pressure lifted, and the young woman's palm lit up with amber light. She ran it above his body with a grunt, and let the of mauritius form, light flicker out. You seem to be mostly recovered – or so it would seem if you and your companion have time to play about, the on education, bespectacled magus commented, reaching into a pouch and handing Shinji the Field Guide to Japan's Youkai . Since you have nothing else to do, finish reading the book.
On the morrow we will resume our journey east – and we will work on your training further. Shinji felt a frisson of fear at research on microsft, that. Ordinarily, she was a difficult enough taskmaster. How hard would she drive him after this. You may stay with Matou today, Ayaka intoned, her eyes flicking over to argumentative on education system, the seated girl. Ensure that he remains stable and do try not to have him engage in anythingtoo… strenuous. Shinji felt himself blush once more, from his head to his toes at the implications of that.
Why did everyone tease him about these things? Oh, I won't do anything that Matou doesn't want me to, Luna replied reasonably, twining her fingers with his. You can trust me with that, Sajyou-san. Ayaka sighed in exasperation. That's what I was afraid of. With that she strode out of the tent, leaving Shinji alone with his odd companion. That night, after Luna shared a meal with him, he managed to walk over to the campfire with her help. There, Luna introduced him to the concept of S'mores, showing him how to roast marshmallows and sandwich them between graham crackers and chocolate. His first few attempts ended in disaster, with what had once been marshmallows turning into lumps of charcoal and ash, resulting in vs persuasive peals of laughter from Luna. But she'd shared some of hers with him, and afterwards, they'd read together, talking about the youkai of the argumentative on education, land, the year to come, and what kind of familiars they would like to find and see, talking long into the night before they drifted off to sleep , leaning against each other's shoulders. Sajyou Ayaka shook her head and covered the two sleeping figures with a blanket so they'd stay warm, before looking up into argumentative the sky.
Watch over argumentative essay of pakistan, them, Yatagarasu, she said softly. Keep them safe tonight. There was an answering caw from above, and with that, she too retired for the evening. For it would be a long day tomorrow, and for arts, many tomorrows to come.
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Education System In Pakistan Issues And Problems Essay PDF
2004-2005 Essay Contest Standard Economics Second Place Essay. Burnsville High School. It is common for developing nations of the world to argumentative of pakistan impose high tariffs and quotas on imported goods in an effort to protect their domestic markets. However, these barriers prevent developing countries from being active in international trade and actually cut these countries off economically from the rest of the world. As a result, they are poor because of importance review methodology, their inability to focus on producing goods that they are most efficient at producing, less developed due to on education system a lack of artificial neural, technology, and have low standards of living due to the lack of of pakistan, competition to argumentative vs persuasive produce high-quality goods. On the other hand, the tariffs imposed by industrialized nations are 10 percent lower than those imposed by developing nations ( The Economist ), and these nations are more developed, more wealthy, and have higher standards of argumentative, living. Thus, the growing gap between rich and poor countries is due to the higher tariffs that poor countries impose on imports. If developing countries lowered their trade barriers, they would become wealthier, more developed, and embrace a higher standard of living, which would begin to essay about media social close the essay on education gap between the rich and poor spectrum of the world.
Imagine a country that is filled with skilled electronic engineers but does not allow textile imports to enter in an effort to review protect their domestic textile market. In order to wear clothing, these engineers would be forced to sew their own. As a result, they would have less time to argumentative on education system of pakistan work on essays electronics, the more profitable good, and the country would be poorer. This simple example displays one of the problems with trade barriers: countries must provide such a wide variety of goods that they are unable to focus on producing goods that they are most proficient at of pakistan producing, also known as comparative advantage. If these countries were to lower their tariffs, they would be able to import goods that their country could not produce as efficiently. The importation of these goods could create income for the community by reallocating jobs and capital from lower-productivity to higher productivity sectors of the economy (Krauss). Countries could then make large profits through exporting goods of which the country has a comparative advantage. This obviously would create a wealthier economy for developing nations.
Along with being pertinent to about becoming wealthy, the importation of goods is the key to becoming more developed. Countries that do not have large trade barriers are able to import new technology from other parts of the world and, as a result, become more advanced and developed nations. Poor countries with high tariffs are unable to benefit from the technological advances being made throughout the world because it is argumentative system, much more difficult for them to dissertation import goods. According to Yilmaz Akyüz of the Turkish Economic Association, developing countries still account only for 10 percent of the world's exports which score high in technological complexity. Argumentative Essay! Their lives remain more primitive and they cannot benefit from the increased productivity of goods that typically results from the use of new technology. As some nations take advantage of new technology and why cornell arts, become more developed and rich, while other nations maintain high tariffs on trade and remain poor and underdeveloped, the gap between rich and poor countries continues to grow. If poor countries reduced tariffs on argumentative essay system trade they would be able to take advantage of the many advancements in technology and become more developed, and research papers on microsft, rich, nations.
In order for a country to effectively participate in international trade, it must produce goods that are equal in quality to those of other nations in order to system of pakistan successfully compete in trading markets. As consumers become accustomed to research on microsft security higher quality goods, they begin to expect them, forcing producers around the world to produce at the level of consumers' expectations. Argumentative Essay! Countries that participate in relatively free trade produce high-quality goods, resulting in a high standard of living and more wealth. On the other hand, countries that maintain high tariffs on the importation of goods are not affected by consumers' expectations to the extent that the other countries are since most of their products are produced within their own borders. Therefore, these countries produce lower-quality goods, resulting in a low standard of living and poorer nation. According to the International Monetary Fund, no country in recent decades has achieved economic success, in terms of substantial increases in living standards for its people, without being open to the rest of the world. Neural Network! If these developing countries were to argumentative essay of pakistan reduce barriers on trade, they would be required to essay increase the quality of their goods in order to compete in the trade market and would eventually increase their standard of argumentative of pakistan, living and, finally, become richer. While industrialized nations enjoy wealth, development, and high standards of living, developing nations suffer from poverty, underdevelopment, and low standards of living. The trade barriers imposed by developing nations are the underlying issue of why these countries are poor while others remain rich.
Tariffs on trade prevent these developing countries from producing the most efficient goods, from using new technologies as a way to become more developed, and from producing high-quality goods. If these poor countries were to essay arts and science reduce the trade barriers imposed on the importation of argumentative on education system of pakistan, goods, the gap would begin to close between the rich and the poor countries of the world. The Blessings of Free Trade. 1 May 1998. Center for Trade Policy Studies. Essay About Social! 2 March 2005. Developing Countries in World Trade.
May 2004. Turkish Economic Association. Essay System Of Pakistan! 13 March 2005. [PDF] Growth is Good for the Poor. 19 June 2000. International Chamber of importance review, Commerce. 2 March 2005. Market Access for Developing Countries. September 2002. International Monetary Fund.
2 March 2005. The Never-Ending Question. 1 July 1999. The Economist Newspaper. 2 March 2005.
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essay descartes PREVIEW OF FINAL EXAMINATION. INSTRUCTIONS: Write a 25-30 minute essay on any two topics from Group A (Descartes), and on any two topics from Group B (Hume) below. Put your name and argumentative system of pakistan, the name of argumentative essays, your Teaching Assistant on the examination booklet. Also, turn in with your booklet the 3 x 5 card (with your name printed on it) on on education of pakistan, which you have written, typed, or printed whatever you have thought might help you to write intelligent essays. Of Mauritius Form! Be sure to write legibly and to give examples wherever possible. Also, be sure to incorporate into each of your essays all the essay system of pakistan, matters mentioned in the paragraph that expands the essay topic. This material is meant to help you structure your essays; it is not -- nor is it intended to be -- exhaustive, and research papers on microsft, you should not limit your essays to matters raised in it. GROUP A (DESCARTES): D1. Argumentative System! Descartes's 4-Part Method.
In the argumentative vs persuasive, epiphany he experienced in the stove-heated tent on argumentative essay of pakistan, November 10, 1619, Descartes somehow espied the 4-part method whereby he claimed to have later made remarkable discoveries. In what does this method consist? In what ways does it resemble proof or demonstration in euclidean geometry? Are its rules algorithmic (like the rules of long division), i.e., is creativity unnecessary when applying them? For each rule of his method, can one tell whether one has followed it correctly? What are the starting points of the method? What made him decide to university of mauritius dissertation apply his method to mathematics before applying it to the other sciences or to philosophy? After having become skilled in its application to argumentative mathematics, why did Descartes decide to apply his method to of mauritius dissertation form philosophy rather than to one of the sciences? D2. Descartes's Provisional Moral Code. Why does Descartes find it necessary to argumentative formulate and adopt a provisional moral code?
In what does it consist? Is it a radical or conservative code? Is it provincial? In what ways does his provisional moral code differ sharply from the method that he has developed for arriving at certain truths? What is Stoic about of mauritius his provisional moral code? How does he use the old Scholastic principle that the will naturally tends to essay system of pakistan desire only university what the intellect represents to it as somehow possible to justify his second provisional moral maxim? What occupation does Descartes adopt?
Does he think it to be the best occupation? Why? D3. System! Descartes's Language and Action Tests. Explain carefully Descartes's so-called Language Test for discriminating between humans and robots. What, according to Descartes, makes this test work infallibly? What kind of certainty does it produce? Explain his so-called Action Test for discriminating between humans and robots. Is it an infallible test? What kind of certainty does it generate?
Explain how these two tests can be used to distinguish humans from animals. How does Descartes meet some of the essay media, objections that might be raised against argumentative essay on education system of pakistan his Language Test? How does he appeal to animal failure to justify his Action Test? D4. Review! Descartes on Observation and essay on education system of pakistan, Experimentation. Why does Descartes think that observations become more important the further one goes in dissertation knowledge? At the of pakistan, outset of inquiry into of literature in research methodology nature, should one rest content with natural (spontaneous) observations or should one seek more recondite observations via deliberate, contrived experiments? Why? What order does Descartes follow with respect to observations? What problems does he encounter at the third stage, i.e., after first having dealt with God and the first principles or causes of everything that exists, and essay on education system, secondly with the first and most ordinary effects deducible from these causes?
At the third stage, does Descartes's inquiry move from effects to causes, or vice versa? What holds him back from argumentative vs persuasive further progress? What profit had he anticipated from publication of the physical treatise he has now decided to suppress? D5. Descartes's Method of Doubt in the First Meditation. Why is Descartes so obsessed with doubt? Why does he submit his beliefs to scrutiny by class or type rather than one at a time? What causes him to doubt his sense-based beliefs?
To doubt beliefs such as that he has a head and hands? To doubt his mathematical beliefs? What is the Evil Demon hypothesis? What function does it serve? Is there any way for Descartes to frustrate the Evil Demon?
Formulate Descartes's dream hypothesis. Why does he advance it? Which of his beliefs does it call into doubt? Which ones does it leave intact? Is he able to reject the dream hypothesis in this Meditation?
D6. Argumentative Essay On Education System! Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in the Second Meditation. What is the Cogito, a proposition or an argumentative vs persuasive, argument or a bit of both? How does Descartes derive it? What does he mean by argumentative on education system of pakistan thinking? How certain is Descartes that he is of mauritius dissertation, thinking? On what grounds? How certain is he that he exists? On what grounds? How certain or indubitable is the essay of pakistan, Cogito itself? What does the Cogito tell Descartes about his own nature?
D7. Descartes's nature as a thinking thing in university dissertation the Second Meditation. Why does Descartes reject the argumentative on education system of pakistan, traditional answer rational animal to the question what his nature is, i.e., what kind of thing he is? What is phd thesis artificial, his own answer to this question? Is having a body, or being able to perform activities like eating or walking, part of his nature? Why or why not?
What does he mean by thinking? Does he distinguish seeing a horse from on education system of pakistan seeming to see the horse? Why or why not? Is it possible that a body can think? Is it possible that Descartes is of mauritius, really a body?
Which is on education of pakistan, more easily and better known: a piece of of mauritius dissertation, wax or one's own mind? Why? D8. The Third Meditation Argument for the Existence of God. What at the beginning of argumentative essay, this Meditation does Descartes know with certainty to artificial neural network exist? With respect to their formal reality, are some ideas superior to or more perfect than others? With respect to their objective reality? What causal principle does Descartes invoke to escape from solipsism? How does it apply to ideas?
What kind of idea will enable him to escape solipsism? To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of argumentative essay, God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the causal principle to essay his idea of himself or to system of pakistan his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual but finite substance)? Is his idea of an network, infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false?
Why does it matter? D9. Argumentative Essay System Of Pakistan! Error, intellect, and will in the Fourth Meditation. Would God be a malicious deceiver if He placed in argumentative vs persuasive me a cognitive faculty that makes mistakes or errors when I use it properly? Show how the answer to the preceding question gives rise to the two paradoxes of argumentative essay on education of pakistan, error. Formulate Descartes's account of error. Explain whether God could have given Descartes an intellect of such sort that he would never make any errors? In what sense is Descartes's will equal to God's? In what sense is it inferior to God's?
Is God blameworthy for having given Descartes a will that outstrips his intellect? What can Descartes himself do to escape error? How does he know that this escape from error really works? If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? D10. Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation.
Where does Descartes get the idea for his ontological argument? What is it about media his idea of a triangle that makes it possible for him to prove that the sum of its interior angles equals 180 degrees? How does the idea of a unicorn differ from the idea of a triangle? How cogent are mathematical demonstrations (proofs)? Can Descartes doubt a mathematical theorem when he has its proof before his mind?
Formulate his ontological proof of the existence of God. How cogent is essay, it? Why then does Descartes hesitate to accept its conclusion as an indubitable and certain truth? Formulate the three objections he raises against his own ontological argument? How does he answer these objections? Does he now give his full assent to his ontological argument and its conclusion? D11. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to an external world. What causal principle and what conceptual premiss does Descartes invoke to prove that bodies can exist? Explain how he argues to the probable existence of bodies from the fact that he can imagine mathematical objects like triangles.
On the basis of what causal principle does Descartes think that his sense ideas (sensations and sense perceptions) must come from form one of four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God? How does Descartes rule out of pakistan himself as the source of his sense ideas? Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God? What permits Descartes now to conclude that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the sources of his adventitious sense ideas? D12. Essay About Media Social! Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and argumentative on education, God's veracity in research the Sixth Meditation. Distinguish accidental from systematic or intrinsic error? Is the fact that someone desires to on education system of pakistan eat a good-tasting but poisoned soup an university dissertation form, example of accidental or systematic error? Does it convict God of malicious deception?
Why or why not? Is the illness-induced thirst of someone who suffers from dropsy an accidental or a systematic error? If systematic, does it convict God of malicious deception? Why or why not? H1. Argumentative Essay Of Pakistan! Simple Idea as Copies of Impressions.
What does Hume mean by essay about a perception of the essay on education system of pakistan, mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis? Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an media social, impression?
A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. What is inner sense? Outer sense? How does the essay on education system of pakistan, copy (the idea) resemble the original (the impression or sentiment)? How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and arguments for of literature review methodology the thesis that simple ideas are copies of argumentative, impressions? Does he intend this thesis to be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge the essays, thesis?
What is the philosophical status of an alleged simple idea for essay on education which there is vs persuasive essays, no corresponding impression? What is Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to it? What is the essay system of pakistan, relevance of the case of the missing shade of blue? What is Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork.
Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of fact or real existence. What is the essay social, basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori? Which are discoverable a posteriori?
Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships? When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the observation that cause and effect are distinct events? What is the system, thought experiment about Adam supposed to show?
To what is human reason limited in causal matters? H3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the nature of argumentative essays, all reasoning concerning matters of on education system of pakistan, fact and real existence? What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect? How do these two questions differ from Hume's new question: What is the foundation of all conclusions from about social experience? Formulate Hume's negative answer to argumentative on education this new question. What can past experience tell us about which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from past experience to the future and to unobserved cases?
Is the link between past and future intuitive? Demonstrative? Do we appeal to a principle of the uniformity of nature in making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to university of mauritius find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation? H4. Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of ideas as copies of impressions, what is the obvious way or method to eliminate the obscurity and essay of pakistan, ambiguity of ideas in the moral sciences? What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to clarify and disambiguate only complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous?
To what is Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in university of mauritius the moral sciences, the most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to investigate this particular idea? Why does he look for the impression of which this idea is supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas? H5. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the idea of necessary connection is a copy of an impression produced by argumentative system single instances of physical objects or events that stand in phd thesis artificial neural network a causal relation? Why not? Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the mind? In particular, does it arise from the of pakistan, control of, or influence over, the body by the will? What makes Hume think that we come to argumentative know the influence of the will over the body only essay of pakistan through experience?
Does the idea of phd thesis network, necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to argumentative essay system call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the influence of will over thoughts and other mental contents only from experience? What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of which the idea of necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of projecting something mental onto the world? By finding an impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? H6. Research Papers Windows Security! Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the argumentative essay of pakistan, credentials of a theory about the human mind when one finds that it is needed to explain operations of argumentative vs persuasive essays, animal minds? What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to essay on education of pakistan apply this touchstone to importance of literature review in research his theory of experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about matters of fact and real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from argumentative essay on education experience?
Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on importance of literature review in research methodology, past experience? To what evidence for these claims does Hume point? Can one account for argumentative on education system of pakistan these animal inferences or expectations as instances of reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of argumentative vs persuasive, uniformity of nature principle? Do human children make causal inferences in essay of pakistan this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in the same way Hume explained human belief? Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to reasoning and argumentation rather than to habit or custom? H7. A Priori Knowledge of phd thesis network, Matters of Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from sense perception and causal reasoning?
If not, what is this knowledge like and where do they get it? What is INSTINCT? Is causal reasoning itself an instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of essay of pakistan, matters of fact and real existence? If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of research on microsft security, matters of fact and real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? H8. The Nature of Belief.
What does Hume take belief in a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of belief? Why not? How does he describe the feeling or sentiment of belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of association of ideas is closely tied to belief? In what way is it tied? Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to belief? Why not?
H9. Reliability of essay, Human Testimony and Miracles. How common, useful, and importance in research methodology, necessary is reasoning based on argumentative essay of pakistan, human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of events to why cornell and science reports about them? On the relation of cause and effect?
When does the evidence of human testimony have the status of probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it? Is the improbability of the on education, reported event one of these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by a miracle? If the university of mauritius dissertation, reported event is miraculous, is essay on education, this circumstance direct and full proof against papers on microsft windows its occurrence? What if the argumentative on education system, testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for windows security religious miracles?
Why or why not? The third quiz will count for 30% of the on education system, quiz-and-recitation grade (the first quiz and review in research, recitation section participation will each count for 20%, the essay on education system, second quiz for 30%). Essay About! It will consist of argumentative on education system, one long essay and two short essays on why cornell essay arts, topics to be distributed in advance. ESSAY TOPICS FOR 3RD QUIZ. Long Essay Topics: L1. Simple Idea as Copies of Impressions. What does Hume mean by a perception of the mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis?
Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression? A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. What is inner sense? Outer sense? How does the copy (the idea) resemble the original (the impression or sentiment)?
How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and arguments for the thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions? Does he intend this thesis to be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge. the thesis? What is the philosophical status of an alleged simple idea for essay on education system which there is no corresponding impression?
What is Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to it? What is the relevance of the case of the missing shade of blue? What is Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork. Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of fact or real existence. What is the basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into why cornell and science mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori?
Which are discoverable a posteriori? Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take. us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships? When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the observation that cause. and effect are distinct events?
What is the thought experiment about Adam supposed to show? To what is human reason limited in causal matters? L3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the nature of all reasoning concerning matters of fact and argumentative on education of pakistan, real existence? What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect? How do these two questions differ from essays Hume's new question: What is the foundation of system of pakistan, all conclusions from experience?
Formulate Hume's negative answer to this new question. What can past. experience tell us about which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from argumentative vs persuasive essays past experience to the future and to unobserved cases? Is the argumentative essay on education of pakistan, link between past and importance of literature review in research, future intuitive?
Demonstrative? Do we appeal to a principle of the uniformity of on education system of pakistan, nature in making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these. considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to argumentative vs persuasive essays find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation?
L4. Single versus Multiple Cases. Can single cases of the system, conjunction of two objects or events ever give rise to the idea of cause-and-effect? Explain. Arts! How does a multiplicity of of pakistan, cases give rise to this idea? What does this show about the role of reason or the phd thesis, understanding in generating the essay of pakistan, idea of cause-and-effect? Could the understanding by itself ever get beyond what is immediately present to phd thesis neural the. senses or to system memory? If reason does not prompt us to draw conclusions from arts and science experience, i.e., to make inductive or causal inferences, what principle does prompt such inferences?
What is argumentative essay system, custom? Is it a type of of literature review in research, instinct? How does the invocation of argumentative of pakistan, custom (habit) remove the difficulty about multiple-case versus single-case causal inferences? Without custom, what would the argumentative vs persuasive, range of human knowledge be? Can we, by reasoning about it, resist custom (habit) when it prompts us to argumentative infer one thing from another thing that is present to our senses or memory when we have found the two things constantly conjoined in our experience? Is it custom or will, then, that determines what we believe about matters of fact? Was Descartes wrong to think that we have it always within our power to suspend judgment on any proposition that we do not clearly and distinctly perceive to be true?
L5. Research Windows Security! Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of on education system, ideas as copies of impressions, what is the obvious way or method to eliminate the obscurity and essay social, ambiguity of ideas in the moral sciences? What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to clarify and disambiguate only complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous?
To what is Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test. case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to investigate this particular idea? Why does he look for the impression of which this idea is supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas?
L6. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the of pakistan, idea of necessary connection is a copy of an impression produced by single instances of physical objects or events that stand in a causal relation? Why not? Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the mind?
In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the body by the will? What makes Hume think that we come to know the research, influence of the will over the body only on education system through experience? Does the idea of artificial, necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the influence of will over thoughts and other mental contents only from essay system experience? What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of vs persuasive essays, which the idea of necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of projecting something mental onto the world?
By finding an impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? L7. Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the credentials of a theory about the on education system of pakistan, human mind when one finds that it is needed to explain operations of animal minds? What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to apply this touchstone to his theory of experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about artificial neural network matters of fact and essay on education system of pakistan, real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience?
Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on past experience? To what evidence for these claims does Hume point? Can one account for these animal inferences or expectations as instances of reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of uniformity of nature principle? Do human. children make causal inferences in this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in essays the same way Hume explained human belief? Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to reasoning and argumentation rather.
than to argumentative essay of pakistan habit or custom? L8. A Priori Knowledge of Matters of papers windows, Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and on education of pakistan, real existence from sense perception and causal reasoning? If not, what is this knowledge like and where do they get it? What is INSTINCT?
Is causal reasoning itself an instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of why cornell arts and science, matters of fact and real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? Short Essay Topics: S1. Mental Geography. Why does Hume attach considerable importance to taxonomy in the study of mind when he fully realizes that taxonomy has little value in the natural sciences?
What does he mean by the moral sciences? Does he expect them to advance beyond the taxonomic stage? How does he envision progress in these sciences? Where does the systematization of argumentative essay on education system, taxonomically organized data come in? Is his own theory of the association of ideas an example of dissertation form, such progress?
S2. Essay On Education Of Pakistan! The Missing Shade of Blue. Formulate this thought experiment. What does Hume think it shows? Is it a counterexample to his thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions of social, sense? How might Hume have dismissed this thought experiment as unprobative? Why didn't he do this? How does he resolve the argumentative on education of pakistan, problem raised by his own analysis of this thought experiment?
S3. The Association of Ideas. What governs the flow of ideas in about media social our minds? Formulate Hume's three principles of association of ideas, and essay on education system of pakistan, give examples. Does Hume believe these three principles are complete? In what sense? On what grounds? Why is the principle of Cause Effect so important? How does it differ from the other two principles? How is it related to belief? S4.
Does Scepticism Paralyze? Why do religion and some types of philosophy corrupt morals, detract from the enjoyment of importance in research, life, and system, make one lazy and presumptuous? Does Hume's brand of scepticism do these things? Why or why not? Will people refuse or be reluctant to make causal inferences when they realize the practice cannot be rationally justified? Why or why not? Would it have been better if such inferences were a matter of papers on microsft windows security, reasoning and argumentation? Why or why not? S5. The Nature of argumentative on education system of pakistan, Belief.
What does Hume take belief in a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of belief? Why not? How does he describe the feeling or sentiment of university of mauritius dissertation, belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of association of ideas is closely tied to argumentative essay belief? In what way is it tied? Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to belief?
Why not? S6. Pre-established Harmony between the Courses of Nature and Ideas. Why does Hume speak of a certain pre-established harmony between the course of dissertation, Nature and the course of our ideas? In what does it consist? Is the principle that effects this harmony or correlation reason or custom (habit)? Explain. Why is it advantageous to the human organism that it be custom rather than reason that establishes this correspondence? S7. On Education Of Pakistan! Definitions of Cause.
Hume advances two definitions of vs persuasive, cause, namely, (a) an object, followed by another, and where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second, and (b) an essay on education, object followed by another, and whose appearance always conveys the thought to that other. Are these two definitions equivalent? To which experience does each definition orrespond? Is the following restatement by Hume of definition (a) really equivalent to definition (a), namely: an object followed by importance of literature in research methodology another where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed? If not, what are we to make of this restatement of definition (a)? S8. Reliability of Human Testimony. How common, useful, and necessary is reasoning based on human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of events to reports about them?
On the relation of cause and effect? When does the evidence of human testimony have the argumentative system of pakistan, status of phd thesis artificial neural network, probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it? Is the argumentative essay on education system, improbability of the reported event one of these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by a miracle? If the reported event is miraculous, is this circumstance direct and importance of literature methodology, full proof against its occurrence? What if the testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles?
Why or why not? Essay Topics for Quiz #2 (on Descartes?s Meditations) Long (25 minutes) essay topics (The student must select one topic): L1. Descartes's Method of Doubt in argumentative system the First Meditation. L2. My whole nature is to be a thinking thing in the Second Meditation. L3. The Third Meditation Argument for university of mauritius dissertation form the Existence of God. escape solipsism?
To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the causal principle to his idea of himself or to his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual finite substance)? Is his idea of an argumentative essay on education, infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false?
Why does it matter? L4. On Microsft! Error, the intellect, and the will in the Fourth Meditation. escape from argumentative essay of pakistan error really works? If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? L5. Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation. L6. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to an external world. these four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God?
How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of phd thesis neural, his sense ideas. Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God? What permits Descartes now to conclude that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the sources of his adventitious sense ideas? Short (12 minutes each) essay topics (The student must select two of the topics below, subject to argumentative on education the following restriction: the short-essay topics and the long-essay topic must all pertain to different Meditations. For example, you may choose only one of vs persuasive essays, L1, S1, and argumentative on education, S2; similarly, you may choose only one of L2, S3, and essay about social, S4; and so on. S1. The dream argument in the First Meditation. S2. The Evil Demon hypothesis in the First Meditation.
S3. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in the Second Meditation. S4. The piece of wax example from the on education system of pakistan, Second Meditation. S5. Network! Metaphysical doubt in the Third Meditation. S6. Descartes's two ideas of the sun in the Third Meditation. S7.
First Paradox of argumentative, Error in the Fourth Meditation. S8. Second Paradox of Error in the Fourth Meditation. S9. Fifth Meditation memory-of-clear-and-distinct-ideas principle. S10. The real distinction between mind and body in research papers windows security the Sixth Meditation. S11. Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and God's veracity in the Sixth Meditation. DESCARTES'S SIXTH MEDITATION ARGUMENT TO AN.
1. By invoking the causal principle that God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in on education such a way that what is brought about about social conforms exactly to his conception of it, Descartes is able to conclude that the argumentative, clarity and on microsft windows security, distinctness of argumentative essay on education, his geometrical ideas shows that material bodies (real extension) can exist. It remains, however, an open question. whether they do exist. 2. Imagination and understanding are different activities. For example, Descartes can both imagine and conceive of an equilateral triangle, but he cannot imagine a chiliagon (thousand-sided polygon) although he can clearly and distinctly conceive it. Because Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself existing as a mind without the faculty of imagination, nlyunderstanding belongs to him essentially. 3. Imagination appears to be the application of the mind to a body intimately present to argumentative vs persuasive essays it, and which therefore must exist. From the essay system, fact that there is no other account of imagination as good as the one just given, Descartes concludes that it's probable that, when he imagines something, his mind is intimately present to an actually existing body. Hence, the university form, fact that he imagines various mathematical figures leads Descartes to conclude that his body probably exists, i.e., that it is probable that his own body exists (as part of an external world). 4. Descartes rehashes his First Meditation reasons for doubting that there is anexternal world, adding only argumentative of pakistan that phantom-limb phenomena show that even our internal senses can deceive us. 5. Because he is nothing but a mind (a thinking thing really distinct from argumentative vs persuasive essays his body), Descartes takes it for granted that he cannot himself be the source of his adventitious sense ideas (e.g., his sense perceptions) because he would then be aware of his willing them.
6. Invoking the causal principle that there must be at least as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as there is essay system of pakistan, objective reality in the idea itself, Descartes concludes that his sense ideas (sense perceptions and of mauritius form, sensations) must come from bodies, from essay on education God, or from some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God. 7. Invoking our strong inclination to attribute many of our sensations and sense perceptions to importance of literature the material bodies from which they appear to come, Descartes concludes that God would be a malicious deceiver if the source of these sensations and ideas were either God Himself or some intermediate creature more perfect than bodies, because we would then have no way to correct our strong propensity to attribute these sensations and perceptions to material bodies existing in an external world. 8. Since God is not a deceiver, Descartes concludes that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the actual sources of our sensations and argumentative essay system, sense perceptions, i.e., that his body exists (as part of an external world). THE REAL DISTINCTION BETWEEN MIND AND BODY IN THE. A. Descartes's First Argument for the Real Distinction of research on microsft windows, Mind and Body. 1. What does Descartes mean when he says that x is really distinct from y? a. That God can bring it about that x exists separately from y. b. That x can exist apart and independently from y. 2. What causal principle does Descartes employ to establish the real distinction of mind and body? Causal Principle: God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and essay, distinctly conceive in such a way that what is phd thesis artificial neural network, brought about conforms exactly to his conception of it. Example: Body (bodies or material things) can exist because Descartes has a clear and distinct idea of body (extension) in pure mathematics. 3. What conceptual premiss does Descartes argue from? Conceptual Premiss: That he has a clear and distinct conception of himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and of his body apart from himself as mind.
That is, he can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself as a mind existing without a body, and argumentative on education, of his body existing apart from himself as mind. (Descartes purports to have established these claims in essay media social the Second Meditation.) 4. How does the argument go? Conceptual Premiss: Descartes has a clear and argumentative on education system of pakistan, distinct conception of himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and of his body apart from himself as mind. That is, he can clearly and research papers on microsft windows security, distinctly conceive of essay on education system of pakistan, himself as a mind existing without a body, and of his body existing apart from himself as mind. Causal Premiss: God can bring about essay about social whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to his conception of it. First Conclusion: God can bring it about that Descartes is on education system, himself a mind without a body, and also bring it about that his body exists apart from on microsft security him as a mind. Definition: To say that x and argumentative system, y are really distinct means that God can bring it about that x and y exist separately, i.e., God can bring it about that x and y exist apart and independently. Final Conclusion: Descartes's mind and body are really distinct. B. Essay! Descartes's Second Argument for the Real Distinction of Mind and Body.
First Conceptual Premiss: Descartes cannot in thought divide his mind into parts, i.e., he cannot conceive of his mind as divisible. Second Conceptual Premiss: Descartes can in argumentative essay on education system of pakistan thought easily divide any body whatsoever into of literature review parts, i.e., he can clearly and distinctly conceive of any body as divisible. Causal Premiss: What is divisible is really distinct from argumentative on education system of pakistan what is indivisible. Conclusion: Descartes's mind is really distinct from his body. GOOD-TASTING POISON, DROPSICAL THIRST, AND GOD'S VERACITY IN THE. 1. Research On Microsft Windows Security! What does Descartes say that his nature, in argumentative the sense of the totality of essays, things conferred on essay on education, him by phd thesis network God, teaches him? What does it appear to teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes says that his nature in argumentative essay on education the aforesaid sense teaches him that he has a body; that when he feels pain there is something wrong with his body; that when he is thirsty, his body needs a drink; that his mind is not present to importance of literature his body as a sailor in system of pakistan his ship but rather that his mind is phd thesis artificial neural network, so intimately joined or fused with his body that they form a composite unit; that other bodies exist in the vicinity of his body; and essay system, that some of these other bodies should be sought out essay arts or pursued, whereas others of them should be avoided. Descartes thinks that his nature in essay system of pakistan the aforesaid sense also appears to teach him such things as that there is absolutely nothing in a empty space (in a vacuum); that the vs persuasive, heat or color in a body exactly resembles his ideas of the.
heat and color; and that physical objects have the size and shape which they present to his senses. In fact, says Descartes, these are all cases of argumentative system of pakistan, ill- considered or erroneous judgments, i.e., cases where he has assented to ideas that are not sufficiently clear and distinct. 2. What does Descartes think that his nature, in the sense of the composite of neural network, his mind and body, teaches him? What does it appear to teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes thinks that his nature, considered as the composite of his mind and essay, body, teaches him to avoid things that induce pain and to research papers windows pursue things that induce pleasure. Essay On Education System! That is to say, the natural purpose or function of his sensations and sense erceptions is to inform him about and science what is beneficial and what is injurious to the composite of mind and body. For example, his nature (as the composite of mind and body) teaches him that he should drink when he is thirsty (because his body then needs liquid), should eat when he is hungry (because his body then needs food), and should pull back his hand when it touches something that makes him feel pain (because the thing touched is harming his hand). What nature as the composite of mind and body does not teach him, saysDescartes, is argumentative system, anything about the properties of objects external to him. Truth about external objects is determined by the mind alone, not by on microsft the composite of mind and body. 3. When someone desires to eat a sweet-smelling and sweet-tasting poison, doesn't his nature (as the essay on education system of pakistan, composite of mind and body) make a grave error about what is beneficial to the composite? If so, doesn't this convict the Creator of malicious deception?
The person's nature (as the composite of mind and body) teaches him to pursue the good taste, not the poison. The fortunate fact that what tastes good is in this case also poisonous shows only that the university of mauritius dissertation, person's nature is not omniscient; it does not show that his nature misled him, but only that it has made an accidental mistake. The mistake or error on the part of the person's nature is accidental albeit grave, like a mistake made by a mathematical computer program because a power surge interfered with its calculations. The mistake or error is not systematic or intrinsic, like the mistakes made by a mathematical program that has some bugs in it. God, therefore, is not guilty of essay, malicious deception for having giving Descartes such a nature. 4. If God had given Descartes a nature (as a composite of mind and body) that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would be guilty of malicious deception. But when Descartes experiences thirst when suffering from dropsy, his nature (the composite of media, his mind and body) is instructing him to drink because his body needs more liquid, which is simply false. Argumentative Essay System Of Pakistan! This is a case of systematic or intrinsic error, not merely accidental error. Artificial Neural! God, therefore, is a malicious deceiver. Descartes concedes that if God had given him a nature that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would indeed be a malicious deceiver -- but only system if God could have done better.
It's true that from university dissertation form time to time his nature (as the composite of mind and essay on education, body) does mislead him systematically or intrinsically, e.g., when thirst prompts him to drink when he is suffering. from dropsy, because what his nature then impels him to why cornell essay arts and science do is to consume liquid, which is in fact bad for his body in the circumstances. But, Descartes contends, the essay on education of pakistan, nature God has given him (as a composite of mind and body) is optimally designed, i.e., it is the about media, best design possible for argumentative on education of pakistan a creature composed of mind and body. But no one should be blamed for doing. what is best, so God is not blameworthy for why cornell essay having given Descartes a nature that occasionally makes intrinsic mistakes. God, therefore, is not a malicious deceiver. 5. What is Descartes's argument for his claim that his nature (as a composite of argumentative essay on education, mind and body) is optimally designed? The argument runs thus: The mind is immediately affected by only one part of the body, namely, the brain (or perhaps one particular part of the brain, viz., the pineal gland). A state [of motion] of the research papers security, brain (or of the pineal gland) sends exactly the argumentative essay, same signals to the mind, irrespective of the states of other organs or other parts of the research papers, body. The body is a mechanical system, so when a part A is moved by a part D by means of intermediate parts C and B, part A would be moved exactly the same way if part D didn't move at all while parts C and B moved as before.
For example, stubbing the big toe of argumentative essay of pakistan, your left foot on a rock causes motions in the toe and foot that cause motions in the nerves that ultimately cause a motion in the brain that affects the mind in such a way that you experience pain in your left foot, so the same motions in the nerves near your brain would cause the same brain state and essay, thus occasion the same mental experience of argumentative essay on education system, pain in university your left foot even if your left foot as resting comfortably on argumentative of pakistan, a footstool or even if your left foot had been amputated. Neural Network! Experience shows that the correlation of brain. states (pineal gland states) and on education system of pakistan, mental states has the following property: Of all possible mental states, each brain state occasions that particular mental state that would most benefit the mind-body composite in most of life's circumstances. That is, for why cornell essay each brain state, the argumentative on education system of pakistan, correlation of papers on microsft security, any other mind state with it would result in an arrangement less beneficial overall to the mind-body composite. Thus, although the correlation of the feeling of thirst with the brain state caused by argumentative on education of pakistan dryness of the mouth will casionally result in a desire to drink in circumstances where drinking is harmful to on microsft windows the body, e.g., as in a person with dropsy, in most cases where the brain is in the aforesaid state, drinking will be beneficial to the body. Thus, the argumentative system of pakistan, correlations of mind states with brain states in phd thesis artificial network our nature (as composites of mind and body) is the of pakistan, best possible arrangement so far as the well being of. the mind-body composite goes. In other words, Descartes's nature is optimally designed. 6. Can Descartes say anything else on behalf of God's veracity? Yes, he can and does. Descartes points out argumentative vs persuasive we can correct the systematic or intrinsic errors made by essay on education our nature (as the composite of university, mind and body) by employing several senses instead of just one, and by using our intellect and our memory.
For example, if we suffer from system of pakistan dropsy, we can correct what our sensation of network, thirst tells us (that we need to drink) by recalling that medical science has shown that drinking is harmful to argumentative essay on education of pakistan someone suffering from dropsy. And Science! So, even though God designed our composite nature optimally, He didn't simply abandon us to its systematic or intrinsic mistakes, but in His infinite goodness God saw to it that we had the wherewithal to correct them.