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Summer and Smoke - Roundabout Theatre Company
body writing Toward an essays, Understanding of l'Écriture féminine. Ann Rosalind Jones. France is today the scene of feminisms. The Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF) grows every year, but so do the factions within it: feminist journals carry on bitter debates, a group of essayist women writers boycotts a feminist publishing house, French women at conferences in the United States contradict each other's positions at essays top volume (Monique Wittig to Hélène Cixous: Ceci est un scandale!). But in the realm of theory, the French share a deep critique of the modes through which the West has claimed to discern evidence--or reality--and a suspicion concerning efforts to change the position of women that fail to address the forces in the body, in the unconscious, in the basic structures of culture that are invisible to the empirical eye. Briefly, French feminists in science, general believe that Western thought has been based on a systematic repression of women's experience. Summer? Thus their assertion of a bedrock female nature makes sense as a point from which to deconstruct language, philosophy, psychoanalysis, the social practices, and the direction of patriarchal culture as we live in and resist it.
This position, the turn to féminité as a challenge to male--centered thinking, has stirred up curiosity and set off resonances among American feminists, who are increasingly open to theory, to research science philosophical, psychoanalytic, and Marxist critiques of masculinist ways of seeing the world. (Speakers at summer recent U.S. feminist conferences have, indeed, been accused of being too theoretical.) And it seems to me that it is precisely through theory that some of the positions of the French feminists need to essay about imperialism be questioned--as they have been in France since the beginnings of the MLF. My intention, then, is to pose some questions about the theoretical consistency and (yes, they can't be repressed!) the practical and summer political implications of French discussions and celebrations of the feminine. For if one posits that female subjectivity is derived from women's physiology and aspiration essay+finance bodily instincts as they affect sexual experience and the unconscious, both theoretical and practical problems can and do arise. The four French women I will discuss here--Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Hélène Cixous, and Monique Wittig--share a common opponent, masculinist thinking; but they envision different modes of resisting and summer and smoke essays moving beyond it. Their common ground is an analysis of Western culture as fundamentally oppressive, as phallogocentric.
I am the douglass frontier, unified, self-controlled center of the universe, man (white, European, and ruling-class) has claimed. The rest of the summer and smoke, world, which I define as the Other, has meaning only in douglass frontier, relation to me, as man/father, possessor of the phallus. l This claim to centrality has been supported not only by religion and philosophy but also by language. To speak and especially to write from such a position is to appropriate the world, to dominate it through verbal mastery. Symbolic discourse (language, in various contexts) is another means through which man objectifies the world, reduces it to his terms, speaks in place of everything and everyone else--including women. How, then, are the Institutions and signifying practices (speech, writing, images, myths, and rituals) of summer essays such a culture to be resisted?
These French women agree that resistance does take place in the form of jouissance , that is, in the direct reexperience of the physical pleasures of infancy and of later sexuality, repressed but not obliterated by the Law of the Father. 2 Kristeva stops here; but Irigaray and Cixous go on essayist c 17 to emphasize that women, historically limited to being sexual objects for men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from expressing their sexuality in itself or for themselves. If they can do this, and if they can speak about it in the new languages it calls for, they will establish a point of and smoke essays view (a site of différence ) from which phallogocentric concepts and controls can be seen through and taken apart, not only in theory but also in practice. Like Cixous, Wittig has produced a number of textes féminins , but she insists that the theory and essayist c 17 practice of féminité must be focused on and smoke essays women among themselves, rather than on their divergence from english c 17, men or from men's views of them. Summer Essays? From a joint attack on phallogocentrism, then, these four writers move to various strategies against it. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay? Julia Kristeva, a founding member of the semiotic-Marxist journal Tel Quel , and the author of and smoke essays several books on avant-garde writers, language, and philosophy, finds in aspiration essay+finance, psychoanalysis the concept of the bodily drives that survive cultural pressures toward sublimation and surface in what she calls semiotic discourse: the gestural, rhythmic, prereferential language of such writers as Joyce, Mallarmé, and Artaud. 3 These men, rather than giving up their blissful infantile fusion with their mothers, their orality and anality, reexperience such jouissances subconsciously and set them into play by constructing texts against the rules and regularities of conventional language. How do women fit into this scheme of semiotic liberation? Indirectly, as mothers, because they are the first love objects from which the child is typically separated and summer and smoke essays turned away in the course of sites science his initiation into society. In fact, Kristeva sees semiotic discourse as an incestuous challenge to the symbolic order, asserting as it does the writer's return to the pleasures of his preverbal identification with his mother and his refusal to identify with his father and the logic of paternal discourse.
Women, for Kristeva, also speak and write as hysterics, as outsiders to male-dominated discourse, for two reasons: the predominance in essays, them of drives related to anality and childbirth, and their marginal position vis-a-vis masculine culture. Their semiotic style is likely to involve repetitive, spasmodic separations from the dominating discourse, which, more often, they are forced to english essayist c 17 imitate. Summer And Smoke Essays? 4. Kristeva doubts, however, whether women should aim to work out alternative discourses. She sees certain liberatory potentials in their marginal position, which is (admirably) unlikely to produce a fixed, authority-claiming subject/ speaker or language: In social, sexual and symbolic experiences, being a woman has always provided a means to another end, to becoming something else: a subject-in-the-making, a subject on trial. Rather than formulating a new discourse, women should persist in challenging the discourses that stand: If women have a role to play . it is only in assuming a negative function: reject everything finite, definite, structured, loaded with meaning, in the existing state of society. Such an attitude places women on the side of the english c 17, explosion of social codes: with revolutionary movements. 5 In fact, woman to Kristeva represents not so much a sex as an attitude, any resistance to and smoke conventional culture and language; men, too, have access to the jouissance that opposes phallogocentrism: A feminist practice can only be . at frederick douglass odds with what already exists so that we may say that's not it and that's still not it. By woman I mean that which cannot be represented, what is not said, what remains above and beyond nomenclatures and ideologies. There are certain men who are familiar with this phenomenon. For Luce Irigaray, on and smoke essays the contrary, women have a specificity that distinguishes them sharply from men.
A psychoanalyst and former member of l'École freudienne at papers science the University of and smoke essays Paris (Vincennes), she was fired from her teaching position in the fall of 1974, three weeks after the publication of her study of the phallocentric bias in Freud. Speculum de l'autre femme is this study, a profound and wittily sarcastic demonstration of the frederick douglass, ways in which Plato and Freud define woman: as irrational and summer essays invisible, as imperfect (castrated) man. In later essays she continues her argument that women, because they have been caught in a world structured by man-centered concepts, have had no way of knowing or representing themselves. But she offers as the starting point for sites computer science a female self-consciousness the and smoke, facts of women's bodies and women's sexual pleasure, precisely because they have been so absent or so misrepresented in male discourse. Women, she says, experience a diffuse sexuality arising, for example, from the two lips of the essay about imperialism, vulva, and a multiplicity of libidinal energies that cannot be expressed or understood within the identity-claiming assumptions of phallocentric discourse (I am a unified, coherent being, and what is significant in the world reflects my male image).
7 Irigaray argues further that female sexuality explains women's problematic relationship to (masculine) logic and language: Woman has sex organs just about everywhere. She experiences pleasure almost everywhere. The geography of summer her pleasure is much more diversified, more multiple in sample, its differences, more complex, more subtle, than is imagined-in an imaginary [system] centered a bit too much on one and the same. She is infinitely other in essays, herself. That is undoubtedly the reason she is called temperamental, incomprehensible, perturbed, capricious-not to mention her language in which she goes off in c 17, all directions and in which he is unable to discern the summer and smoke essays, coherence of research papers any meaning. Summer? Contradictory words seem a little crazy to the logic of financial advisor business reason, and inaudible for him who listens with ready-made grids, a code prepared in advance. And Smoke? In her statements-at least when she dares to speak out-woman retouches herself constantly. 8. Irigaray concedes that women's discovery of their autoeroticism will not, by thesis, itself, arrive automatically or enable them to transform the existing order: For a woman to arrive at the point where she can enjoy her pleasure as a woman, a long detour by the analysis of the various systems that oppress her is certainly necessary. 9 Irigaray herself writes essays using Marxist categories to analyze men's use and exchange of and smoke essays women, and in others she uses female physiology as a source of critical metaphors and counterconcepts (against physics, pornography, Nietzsche's misogyny, myth), 10 rather than literally. Yet her focus on essayist the physical bases for the difference between male and and smoke essays physical sexuality remains the same: women must recognize and papers computer science assert their jouissance if they are to subvert phallocentric oppression at its deepest levels.
Since 1975, when she founded women's studies at and smoke essays Vincennes, Hé1ène Cixous has been a spokeswoman for the group Psychanalyse et politique and a prolific writer of texts for their publishing house, Des Femmes. She admires, like Kristeva, male writers such as Joyce and Genet who have produced antiphallocentric texts. 11 But she is convinced that women's unconscious is totally different from men's, and that it is their psychosexual specificity that will empower women to overthrow masculinist ideologies and to create new female discourses. Of her own writing she says, Je suis là où ça parle (A am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks). 12 She has produced a series of american imperialism analyses of women's suffering under the summer and smoke, laws of male sexuality (the first-person narrative Angst , the play Portrait de Dora , the libretto for the opera Le Nom d'Oedipe ) and a growing collection of demonstrations of what id-liberated female discourses might be: La , Ananké , and Illa . In her recent Vivre l'orange (1979), she celebrates the Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector for what she sees as a peculiarly female attentiveness to jane eyre objects, the ability to perceive and summer and smoke represent them in a nurturing rather than dominating way. She believes that this empathetic attentiveness, and career aspiration the literary modes to which it gives rise, arise from essays, libidinal rather than sociocultural sources; the typically feminine gesture, not culturally but libidinally, [is] to produce in order to bring about life, pleasure, not in order to accumulate. Essayist C 17? 13. Cixous criticizes psychoanalysis for summer and smoke its thesis of sites computer science a 'natural' anatomical determination of sexual difference-opposition, focusing on physical drives rather than body parts for essays her definition of male-female contrasts: It is at the level of sexual pleasure in my opinion that the sample business plan, difference makes itself most clearly apparent in as far as woman's libidinal economy is neither identifiable by a man nor referrable to the masculine economy. 14 In her manifesto for l'écriture féminine , The Laugh of the Medusa (1975), her comparisons and lyricism suggest that she admires in women a sexuality that is remarkably constant and almost mystically superior to summer essays the phallic single-mindedness it transcends: Though masculine sexuality gravitates around the aspiration essay+finance, penis, engendering that centralized body (in political anatomy) under the dictatorship of its parts, woman does not bring about the same regionalization which serves the couple head/genitals and which is and smoke essays inscribed only within boundaries. Career? Her libido is cosmic, just as her unconscious is worldwide.
She goes on immediately, in terms close to Irigaray's, to link women's diffuse sexuality to summer and smoke essays women's language-written language, in this case: Her writing can only frederick douglass thesis, keep going, without ever inscribing or discerning contours. She lets the and smoke, other language speak-the language of 1,000 tongues which knows neither enclosure nor death. Her language does not contain, it carries; it does not hold back, it makes possible. The passage ends with her invocation of other bodily drives (pulsions in the French) in career essay+finance, a continuum with women's self-expression. Oral drive, anal drive, vocal drive-all these drives are our strengths, and and smoke among them is the gestation drive-just like the desire to write: a desire to live self from within, a desire for the swollen belly, for language, for blood. 15. In her theoretical and imaginative writing alike ( La Jeune Née , 1975, typically combines the two) Cixous insists on the primacy of multiple, specifically female libidinal impulses in women's unconscious and in the writing of the liberatory female discourses of the future.
What Kristeva, Irigaray, and Cixous do in common, then, is to eyre questions oppose women's bodily experience (or, in Kristeva's case, women's bodily effect as mothers) to the phallic-symbolic patterns embedded in Western thought. Although Kristeva does not privilege women as the only possessors of prephallocentric discourse, Irigaray and Cixous go further: if women are to discover and express who they are, to bring to the surface what masculine history has repressed in them, they must begin with their sexuality. And their sexuality begins with their bodies, with their genital and libidinal difference from men. Summer And Smoke? For various reasons, this is a powerful argument. We have seen versions of it in the radical feminism of the United States, too. In the French context, it offers an island of hope in the void left by the deconstruction of humanism, which has been revealed as an ideologically suspect invention by men. Essay American? If men are responsible for summer and smoke essays the reigning binary system of meaning-identity/other, man/nature, reason/chaos, man/woman-women, relegated to the negative and passive pole of this hierarchy, are not implicated in the creation of its myths. (Certainly, they are no longer impressed by them!) And the immediacy with which the body, the sites computer, id, jouissance , are supposedly experienced promises a clarity of summer perception and a vitality that can bring down mountains of phallocentric delusion.
Finally, to the extent that the aspiration, female body is seen as a direct source of female writing, a powerful alternative discourse seems possible: to write from the body is to re-create the world. But feminité and écriture féminine are problematic as well as powerful concepts. They have been criticized as idealist and summer and smoke essays essentialist, bound up in sites research papers science, the very system they claim to undermine; they have been attacked as theoretically fuzzy and as fatal to constructive political action. 16 I think all these objections are worth making. What's more, they must be made if American women are to sift out and use the positive elements in and smoke, French thinking about douglass, féminité . First off, the basic theoretical question: Can the body be a source of summer essays self-knowledge? Does female sexuality exist prior to or in c 17, spite of social experience? Do women in fact experience their bodies purely or essentially, outside the damaging acculturation so sharply analyzed by women in France and elsewhere? The answer is no, even in terms of the psychoanalytic theory on which many elements in and smoke essays, the concept of féminité depend. Feminists rereading Freud and career aspiration essay+finance Jaques Lacan and feminists doing new research on the construction of sexuality all agree that sexuality is not an innate quality in women or in men; it is developed through the individual's encounters with the nuclear family and with the symbolic systems set into motion by summer and smoke essays, the mother-father pair as the parents themselves carry out socially imposed roles toward the financial advisor, child. Freud, Juliet Mitchell has shown, describes the process through which girls in our society shift their first love for their mothers to summer and smoke a compensatory love for their fathers and develop a sense of their own anatomy as less valued socially than that of boys. 17 Nancy Chodorow has documented and theorized the difficulty of this shift and used it to account for the complex affective needs of girls and about american imperialism women.
18 To the analysis of the process through which sexual identity is formed Lacan adds the role of the father as bearer of language and summer culture; he identifies the symbolic value attributed to the phallus as the as the basis for contrasts and sites science contrasting values that the child incorporates as she attempts to make sense of it and fit herself into the phallocentric world. So if early gender identity comes into being in response to summer patriarchal structures-as, for example, Chodorow, Lacan, and Dorothy Dinnerstein argue 19 -and if even the unconscious is sexed in accordance with the nuclear family, then there seems to be no essential stratum of frederick frontier thesis sexuality unsaturated with social arrangements and symbolic systems. New readings of Freud and of object-relations theory both confirm that sexuality is not a natural given, but rather is the consequence of social interactions, among people and among signs. Essays? Theoretical work and sites research papers practical evidence strongly suggest that sexual identity (I am a woman, I experience my body as sexual in summer and smoke essays, this way) never takes shape in isolation or in a simply physical context. The child becomes male or female in response to the females and males she encounters in financial advisor plan, her family and to the male and female images she constructs according to her experience especially her loss of essays direct access to either parent.
20 The desires of the child and of the adult who grows out of the child finally result not from the career essay+finance, isolated erotic sensitivities of the child's body; these sensitivities are interpreted through the meanings the child attaches to her body through early experience in a sexed world. Summer Essays? To take from psychoanalysis the concepts of drive and libido without talking about what happens later to the child's systems of douglass self-perception is to drop out the and smoke, deepest level at which phallocentric society asserts its power: the sexed family as it imprints itself on the child's sense of herself as a sexed being. Psychoanalytic theory is not feminist dogma, and feminists have also analyzed the sexist ideologies that confront women past the age of childhood in the family. Not surprisingly, these ideologies make their way into many women's day-to-day experience of their bodies, even in situations that we have designed to be free of male domination. For instance, liberatory practices such as masturbation, lesbianism, and woman-centered medicine coexist with thoroughly phallocentric habits of thought and feeling; they are not liberatory simply because they aspire to be.
Some women discover, for example, that their masturbation is accompanied by puzzlingly unenlightened fantasies; contrary to the claims of féminité , women's autoeroticism, at least in aspiration essay+finance, these decades, is shot through with images from a phallicly dominated world. Similarly, many lesbians recognize their need to summer and smoke resist roles of domination and submission that bear a grim, even parodic resemblance to heterosexual relationships. Women giving birth may wonder whether the optimistic, even heroic terminology of natural childbirth is not related to the suspect ideal of taking it like a man. Even in the self-help clinics set up to spare women the sexist bias of the male gynecological establishment, a phallocentric magasin des images may prevail. English Essayist C 17? A counselor at such clinic, showing a friend of mine her cervix for the first time in a mirror, made a remark (unintentionally, that's the point) that struck us both as far less liberating than it was intended to summer be: Big, isn't it? Doesn't it look powerful? As good as a penis any day. All in all, at this point in history, most of us perceive our bodies through a jumpy, contradictory mesh of sites papers science hoary sexual symbolization and political conterresponse. It is possible to argue that the French feminists make of the female body too unproblematically pleasurable and totalized an entity. Certainly, women's physiology has important meanings for women in various cultures, and it is essential for us to express those meanings rather than to submit to male definitions-that is, appropriations-of our sexuality. But the female body hardly seems the and smoke, best site to launch an attack on the forces that have alienated us from what our sexuality might become.
For if we argue for an innate, precultural femininity, where does that position (though in content it obviously diverges from masculinist dogma) leave us in relation to earlier theories about women's nature? I myself feel highly flattered by Cixous's praise for the nurturant perceptions of frederick frontier thesis women, but when she speaks of a drive toward gestation, I begin to hear echoes of the coercive glorification of motherhood that has plagued women for centuries. And Smoke? If we define female subjectivity through universal biological/libidinal givens, what happens to the project of changing the world in feminist directions? Further, is women's sexuality so monolithic that a notion of a shared, typical femininity does justice to sites research computer science it? What about variations in class , in race, and in culture among women? What about changes over time in one woman's sexuality (with men, with women, by herself)? How can one libidinal voice--or the and smoke, two vulval lips so startlingly presented by Irigaray--speak for all women? The psychoanalytic critique of féminité as a concept that overlooks important psychosocial realities is not the only critique that can be brought against positions like Irigaray's and Cixous's. Other French women have made a strong, materialist attack on what they call néo-féminité , objecting to it as an ideal bound up through symmetrical opposition in the very ideological system feminists want to destroy. ( Questions féministes , the journal founded in 1977 with Simone de Beauvoir as titular editor, is english a central source for this kind of thinking in France.) Materialist feminists such as Christine Delphy and Colette Guillaurnin are suspicious of the logic through which féminité defines men as phallic-solipsistic, aggressive, excessively rational-and then praises women, who, by nature of their contrasting sexuality, are other-oriented, empathetic, multi-imaginative. Rather than questioning the terms of such a definition (woman is man's opposite), féminité as a celebration of women's difference from men maintains them.
It reverses the summer, values assigned to each side of the polarity, but it still leaves man as the determining referent, not departing from the research papers science, male-female opposition, but participating in it. Summer And Smoke Essays? This is, I think, a convincing position, on both philosophical and pragmatic levels. What we need to do is to move outside that male-centered, binary logic altogether. We need to ask not how Woman is different from Man (though the question of english how women differ from what men think they are is important). We need to know how women have come to be who they are through history, which is the history of their oppression by men and male-designed institutions. Only through an analysis of the power relationships between men and women, and practices based on that analysis, will we put an end to our oppression-and only then will we discover what women are or can be. More strategically, we need to know whether the assertion of a shared female nature made by féminité can help us in feminist action toward a variety of goals: the and smoke essays, possibility of working, or working in marginal or newly defined ways, or of not working in the public world at all; the freedom for a diversity of sexual practices; the career essay+finance, right to motherhood, childlessness, or some as yet untheorized participation in reproduction; the affirmation of historically conditioned female values (nurturance, communal rather than individualistic ambitions, insistence on improving the quality of private life), and the exploration of new ones. If we concentrate our energies on opposing a counterview of Woman to the view held by men in the past and summer the present, what happens to our ability to support the multiplicity of women and the various life possibilities they are fighting for in the future? In a critique of féminité as praise of women's difference from men, the name of Monique Wittig must be mentioned. Advisor? Active in the early seventies in the Féministés révolutionnaires and a contributor from the beginning to Questions féministés , Wittig has written four quite different books, which are nonetheless related through her focus on women among themselves: the schoolgirls of L'Opoponax , the tribal sisterhood of Les Guérillères , the passionate couple of Le Corps lesbien , the users of the postphallocentric vocabulary laid out in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire des amantes . Wittig writes her novels, her monologues, and her histories to summer essays explore what social relationships among women-identified women are or might be.
21 She rewrites traditional culture in mocking takeovers: one entry in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire is Ainsi parlait Frederika, conte pour enfants (Thus Spake Frederika, children's story), surely one of the least reverent allusions to sites research Friedrich Nietzsche to come out of French critiques of and smoke culture. She also invents new settings, such as the frederick douglass, ceremonies and festivals of and smoke essays Les Guérillères and Le Corps lesbien , and new modes, such as the hsc essay, feminized epic of Les Guérillères and the lyric dialogue of Le Corps lesbien , to represent what a female/female life--separatist but not isolationist--might be. And Smoke Essays? As Wittig's talks at recent conferences in the United States show, she is suspicious both of the oppositional thinking that defines woman in terms of man and frederick douglass of the mythical-idealist strain in certain formulations of and smoke féminité . 22 In her argument for a more politically centered understanding of women at papers computer the Second Sex Conference in New York (September 1979), she used a Marxist vocabulary which may be more familiar to U.S. Summer And Smoke? feminists than the philosophical and jane hsc essay psychoanalytic frameworks in which Irigaray and Cixous work: It remains . for us to define our oppression in materialist terms, to summer and smoke essays say that women are a class, which is to papers say that the summer and smoke essays, category woman, as well as man, is a political and economic category, not an eternal one. About American? . . . Summer? Our first task . . . is thoroughly to dissociate women (the class within which we fight) and woman, the myth. For woman does not exist for us; it is only an imaginary formation, while women is the product of a social relationship. 21. Colette Guillaumin, arguing along similar lines in Questions féministés , points out that the psychic characteristics praised by advocates of jane eyre hsc essay questions féminité have in fact been determined by the familial and economic roles imposed on summer and smoke women by english c 17, men.
There is nothing liberatory, she insists, in essays, women's claiming as virtues qualities that men have always found convenient. How does maternal tenderness or undemanding empathy threaten a Master? 24 The liberating stance is, rather, the determination to analyze and put an sites research papers, end to the patriarchal structures that have produced those qualities without reference to the needs of women. I have another political objection to the concept of féminité as a bundle of Everywoman's psychosexual characteristics: it flattens out the lived differences among women. To the summer essays, extent that each of us responds to a particular tribal, national, racial, or class situation vis-à-vis men, we are in essay imperialism, fact separated from one another. As the painful and counterproductive splits along class and racial lines in the American women's movement have shown, we need to understand and respect the diversity in our concrete social situations. A monolithic vision of summer essays shared female sexuality, rather than defeating phallocentrism as doctrine and practice, is more likely to frederick douglass thesis blind us to our varied and immediate needs and to the specific struggles we must coordinate in order to meet them. Summer Essays? What is the meaning of two lips to hsc essay heterosexual women who want men to recognize their clitoral pleasure--or to African or Middle Eastern women who, as a result of pharaonic clitoridectomies, have neither lips nor clitoris through which to jouir ? Does a celebration of the Maternal versus the summer and smoke, Patriarchal make the same kind of sense, or any sense, to white, middle-class women who are fighting to maintain the right to abortion, to jane eyre black and Third World women resisting enforced sterilization, to women in subsistence-farming economies where the summer and smoke, livelihood of the family depends on the work of every child who is born and survives?
And surely any one woman gives different meanings to financial advisor her sexuality throughout her individual history. Freedom from sexual expectations and activity may well be what girls in the Western world most need because they are typically sexualized all to soon by media, advertising, peer pressures, and child pornography; women of various ages undergo radical changes in summer and smoke essays, sexual identity and response as they enter relationships with men, with women, or choose celibacy and friendship as alternatives. And it is hard to see how the situations of old women, consigned to sexual inactivity because of their age or, if they are widowed, to unpaid work in others' families or to isolated poverty, can be understood or changed through a concept of jouissance . I wonder again whether one libidinal voice, however nonphallocentrically defined, can speak to the economic and jane questions cultural problems of all women. Hence, I would argue that we need the summer essays, theoretical depth and polemical energy of féminité as an alternative idea. But a historically responsive and papers science powerful unity among women will come from our ongoing, shared practice, our experience in summer and smoke essays, and against the material world. Sample Financial Business Plan? As a lens and a partial strategy, féminité and l'écriture féminine are vital. Certainly, women need to shake off the mistaken and contemptuous attitudes toward their sexuality that permeate Western (and other) cultures and languages at their deepest levels, and working out self-representations that challenge phallocentric discourses is an important part of that ideological struggle. Women have already begun to transform not only the subject matter but also the ways of producing meaning in poetry, fiction, film, and the visual arts. And Smoke? (Indeed, feminist research suggests that the French may have been too hasty in frederick douglass frontier thesis, their claim that women are only now beginning to summer and smoke challenge the symbolic order.) But even if we take l'écriture féminine as a utopian ideal, an energizing myth rather than a model for how all women write or should write, theoretical and practical problems arise (again!) from an ideal defined in english essayist c 17, this way. Can the body be the source of a new discourse? Is it possible, assuming an summer and smoke essays, unmediated and jouissant (or, more likely, a positively reconstructed) sense of one's body, to move from english, that state of unconscious excitation directly to a written female text? Madeleine Cagnon says yes, in La Venue à1'écriture , written with Cixous in 1977.
Her view is summer and smoke that women, free from the self-limiting economy of male libido (I will come once and once only, through one organ alone; once it's up and over, that's it, so I must beware, save up, avoid premature overflow), have a greater spontaneity and abundance in body and english essayist c 17 language both: We have never been the masters of others or of ourselves. We don't have to essays confront ourselves in order to free ourselves. We don't have to sample financial keep watch on ourselves, or to set up some other erected self in order to understand ourselves. All we have to do is let the body flow, from the inside; all we have to do is erase . whatever may hinder or harm the new forms of and smoke essays writing; we retain whatever fits, whatever suits us. Whereas man confronts himself constantly. He pits himself against and stumbles over his erected self. 21. About Imperialism? But psychoanalytic theory and social experience both suggest that the leap from body to summer language is essay about especially difficult for women. 26 Lacanian theory holds that a girl's introduction into language (the symbolic order represented by the father and and smoke essays built on phallic/nonphallic oppositions) is complex, because she cannot identify directly with the positive poles of frederick douglass that order. And in summer, many preliterate and postliterate cultures, taboos against female speech are enforced: injunctions to silence, mockery of women's chatter or women's books abound. The turn-taking in essayist, early consciousness-raising groups in the United States was meant precisely to overcome the verbal hesitancy induced in women by a society in summer, which men have had the first and the last word.
Moreover, for women with jobs, husbands or lovers, children, activist political commitments, finding the time and justification to write at all presents an enormous practical and ideological problem. 27 We are more likely to write, and to read each other's writing, if we begin by working against the concrete difficulties and the prejudices surrounding women's writing than if we simplify and idealize the process by financial business plan, locating writing as a spontaneous outpouring from the summer, body. Calls for a verbal return to c 17 nature seem especially surprising coming from women who are otherwise (and rightly!) suspicious of summer language as penetrated by research science, phallocentric dogma. True, conventional narrative techniques, as well as grammar and syntax, imply the unified viewpoint and mastery of outer reality that men have claimed for summer and smoke themselves. Career? But literary modes and language itself cannot be the summer and smoke essays, only targets for transformation; the frederick thesis, context for women's discourses needs to essays be thought through and broadened out. A woman may experience jouissance in a private relationship to her own body, but she writes for others. Who writes? Who reads? Who makes women's texts available to women? What do women want to financial plan read about other women's experience?
To take a stance as a woman poet or novelist is to summer and smoke essays enter into essay+finance, a role crisscrossed with questions of authority, of audience, of the summer, modes of essayist publication and summer and smoke essays distribution. I believe that we are more indebted to the body of career aspiration essay+finance earlier women writers and to feminist publishers and booksellers than to essays any woman writer's libidinal body flow. The novelist Christiane Rochefort sums up with amusing directness the conflicting public forces and voices that create the dilemma of the financial advisor, French woman who wants to write: Well. So here you are now, sitting at your writing table, alone, not allowing anybody anymore to and smoke interfere. Frederick? Are you free? First, after this long quest, you are swimming in a terrible soup of values-for, to be safe, you had to refuse the so-called female values, which are not female but a social scheme, and to identify with male values, which are not male but an appropriation by men-or an attribution to men-of all human values, mixed up with the summer and smoke essays, anti-values of sample financial business domination-violence-oppression and the like.
In this mixture, where is and smoke essays your real identity? Second, you are supposed to write in certain forms, preferably: I mean you feel that in essayist, certain forms you are not too much seen as a usurper. Summer Essays? Novels. Minor poetry, in which case you will be stigmatized in French by the name of poetesse: not everybody can afford it. You are supposed, too, to write about certain things: house, children, love. Douglass? Until recently there was in France a so-called littérature féminine . Summer? Maybe you don't want to write about , but to write, period. And of course, you don't want to obey this social order .So, you tend to react against it. It is not easy to be genuine. 28.
Whatever the difficulties, women are inventing new kinds of writing. But as Irigaray's erudition and plays with the speaking voice show (as do Cixous's mischievous puns and citations of languages from Greek through German to hsc essay Portuguese, and Wittig's fantastic neologisms and revision of conventional genres), they are doing so deliberately, on a level of feminist theory and literary self-consciousness that goes far beyond the body and the unconscious. That is also how they need to summer essays be read. Essay About? It takes a thoroughgoing familiarity with male figureheads of Western culture to recognize the intertextual games played by all these writers; their work shows that a resistance to culture is always built, at first, of bits and pieces of that culture, however they are disassembled, criticized, and summer and smoke essays transcended. Responding to l'écriture féminine is no more instinctive than producing it. Women's writing will be more accessible to writers and readers alike if we recognize it as a conscious response to socioliterary realities, rather than accept it as an overflow of one woman's unmediated communication with her body. Eventually, certainly, the practice of women writers will transform what we can see and understand in a literary text; but even a woman setting out to write about her body will do so against and through her socioliterary mothers, midwives, and sisters. We need to recognize, too, that there is nothing universal about French version of écriture féminine . The speaking, singing, story-telling, and writing of women in cultures besides that of the Ile de France need to be looked at and understood in their social context if we are to fill in english essayist c 17, an adequate and genuinely empowering picture of women's creativity. But I risk, after all this, overstating the case against féminité and summer and smoke essays l'écriture féminine , and that would mean a real loss. American feminists can appropriate two important elements, at sites research papers computer least, from the French position: the critique of phallocentrism in all the summer and smoke essays, material and ideological forms it has taken, and the call for new representations of women's consciousness.
It is not enough to uncover old heroines or to imagine new ones. Like the French, we need to examine the words, the syntax, the genres, the archaic and elitist attitudes toward language and representation that have limited women's self-knowledge and expression during the frederick douglass, long centuries of patriarchy. We need not, however, replace phallocentrism with a shakily theorized concentrism that denies women their historical specificities to recognize how deep a refusal of masculinist values must go. 29 If we remember that what women really share is an and smoke essays, oppression on all levels, although it affects us each in different ways-if we can translate féminité into a concerted attack not only on c 17 language, but also directly upon the sociosexual arrangements that keep us from our own potentials and from each other-then we are on essays our way to becoming les jeunes nées envisioned by French feminisms at their best. Jane Hsc Essay Questions? 1For a summary of the intellectual background of summer and smoke French feminism, see Elaine Marks, Women and Literature in France, Signs 3 (Summer 1978): 832-42. Phallogocentrism at work is powerfully analyzed by Shoshana Felman in her study of the characters and critics of a short story by Balzac, Women and Madness: The Critical Phallacy, Diacritics 5 (Winter 1975): 2-10. 2 Jouissance is a word rich in connotations. Pleasure is the simplest translation. The noun comes from the verb jouir, meaning to enjoy, to revel in without fear of the cost; also, to have an orgasm.
See Stephen Heath's Translator's Note in Roland Barthes's Image-Music-Text (New York: Hill Wang, 1978), p. 9. A note to Introduction 3 in New French Feminisms: An Anthology, ed. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), explains feminist connotations of jouissance as follows: This pleasure, when attributed to a woman, is frederick douglass thesis considered to summer be of sites research papers computer science a different order from the pleasure that is and smoke represented within the male libidinal economy often described in terms of the capitalist gain and profit motive. Women's jouissance carries with it the notion of american imperialism fluidity, diffusion, duration. It is a kind of potlatch in the world of and smoke essays orgasms, a giving, expending, dispensing of pleasure without concern about ends or closure. (P. 36, The Law of the Father is Lacan's formulation for language as the medium through which human beings are placed in culture, a medium represented and c 17 enforced by the figure of the summer and smoke essays, father in the family. See Anika Lemaire, lacques Lacan, trans. David Macey (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1977), esp. pt.
7, lain The Role of the Oedipus in Accession to the Symbolic. Jane Questions? 'Julia Kristeva's books include Semiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: Tel Quel, 1969); Le Texte du roman g1033 (The Hague: Mouton, 1970)? Des Chinoises (Paris: Des Fernmes, 1974); La Rolution du langage poique (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974);Polylogue (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 197% and summer and smoke Pouvoirs de Aorreur.? essai sur I'ahiection (Paris: Editions du Seuil,1980). She also contributes frequently to the journal Tel Quel, including the Fall 1977 issue (no. 74) on women and about american women's writing. For her criticism of certain notions of féminité , see her interview with Frangoise van Rossum?Guyon, '76minit6 et 6criture:en r6ponse A deux questions sur Polylogue, Revue des sciences humaines 168 4Kristeva, Le Sulet en procs, in Polylogue, p. 77. See, in summer and smoke essays, the same volume, her discussion of maternity as an experiencethat breaks down the categories of masculinist thought, in Maternit6 selon Giovanni Bellini, pp. 409?38. She expands her argument about the meanings of maternity for women's creativity in Un Nouveau Type d'intellectuel: le dissident and eyre hsc essay questions H6thique de I'amour, Tel Quel, no. 74 (Fall 1977), pp. 3?8, 30?49.
For an explanation of her theory of the semiotic and of Irigaray's concepts of summer and smoke essays 1'ecriture f. Papers Computer? minine, see Josette F6ral, Antigone, or the Irony of the Tribe, Diacritics 8 (Fall 1978): 2?14. 5110SCillation du 'pouvoir'au 'refus,' interview by essays, Xavi6re Gauthier in Tel Quel, no. 58 (Summer 1974), trans. in Marks and essay about Courtivron, New French Feminisms, pp. 166?67. This collection of translated excerpts from summer and smoke essays, French feminist writers is financial business likely to be very useful to English?language readers.
6Kristeva, La Femme, ce n'est jamais ga, interview in Tel Quel, no. 59 (Fall 1974), trans. in New French Feminisms, pp. 33 134?38. Kristeva has written mainly about male writers, but see her comments on summer and smoke some typically feminine themes in a dozen recent French women writers in Oscillation, Tel Quel, no. 58 (Summer 1974), pp. 100?2.
She comments on certain elements of women's style in her interview with van Rossum?Cuyon (see note 3 above), although she derives them from essayist c 17, social rather than libidinal sources. And Smoke Essays? 7Luce frigaray, an interview, Women's Exile, in Ideology and Consciousness, no. 1 (1977), pp. 62?67, trans. and intro. Diana Adlam and Couze Venn. 81rigaray, Ce Sexe qui n'en est pas un, Ce Sexe qui n`en est pas un (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1977), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. lain 103. Irigaray's books since Ce Sexe are Et l'une ne houge sans Pautre (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1979) and Amante marine. f0 (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980). Her first book was a clinical study, Le Langage des d. ments (The Hague: Mouton, 1973). 9New French Feminisms, p. 105. 101rigaray discusses the historical position of women in Marxist terms in financial advisor, Me March6 aux fernmes, in essays, Ce Sexe.
Her responses to Nietzsche are in Amante marine. 11H616ne Cixous's studies of male writers include her doctoral thesis, LExil de Joyce ou Part du remplacement (Paris: Crasset, 1968); Pr6noms de personne (sur Hoffman, Kleist, Poe, Joyce) (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974)? and introductions to James Joyce and Lewis Carroll for Aubler. Since 1975, all her books have been published by Des Fernmes. Essay+finance? 12CiXoUS, Entretien avec Franqoise van Rossum?Guyon, Revue des sciences humaines 168 (December 1977): 488. Qa parle is a Lacanian formula, but elsewhere (in her fiction/essay Partie [Paris: Des Femmes, 1976], for example) she mocks what she sees as the Father/phallus obsession of recent psychoanalysis. 13CiXoUS, Entretien, p. And Smoke Essays? 487? and Vivre l'orange [includes an frederick frontier, English version by 2. Cixous with Ann Liddle and Sarah Cornell] (Paris: Des Femmes, 1980), pp. 9, 105?7. 14CiXoUS, Sorties, La Jeune N6e (Paris: Union G6n6raled'Editions, 1975), trans. in summer, New French Feminisms, p. 98. 15New French Feminisms, pp. 259?60.
16The opening manifesto of Questions f. ministes is aspiration a long and persuasive critique of summer njo?fjminit. , translated in New French Feminisms as Variations on career aspiration essay+finance Common Themes, pp. 212?30. Summer And Smoke Essays? See also the appraisal by Beverly Brown and Parveen Adama, The Feminine Body and Feminist Politics, m1f g1033 3 (1979): 33?37. 17JUliet Mitchell, Psychoanalysis and Feminism: Freud, Laing, Reich and Women (New York: Vintage Books, 1975). See especially The Holy Family, 4: The Different Self, the Phallus and the Father, pp.
382?98. 18Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of essay about imperialism Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). 19Dorothy Dinnerstein, ne Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and and smoke essays Human Malaise (New York: Harper Row, 1977). 20jacqueline Rose, in an article on Freud's analysis of the hysteric Dora, emphasizes that the male/female roles internalized by the child enter the unconscious at such a deep level that they govern the production of sites dreams. Dora, who desires a woman, represents herself as a man?a striking example of the socialized image of desire. 'Dora'?Fragment of an Analysis, m/f (1979): 5?21.
21Wittig's books have all been translated into English: L'Opoponax by Helen Weaver (Plainfield, Vt.: Daughter's Press Reprint, 1976); Les Gu(irill. fs23 by David Le Vay (New York: Avon Books, 1973)? The Lesbian Body by David Le Vay (New York:P Avon Books, 1976); Lesbian Peoples: Material for a Dictionary (with substantial revisions) by Wittig and Sande Zeig (New York: Avon Books, 1979). 22Monique Wittig, The Straight Mind, speech given at the Feminist as Scholar Conference in May 1979 at summer and smoke Barnard College, New York. 23Monique Wittig, One Is Not Born a Woman, text of the speech given at the City University of New York Graduate Center, September 1979. Career Essay+finance? 24Colette Cuillaumin, Question de diff 6rence, Questions f6ministes 6 (September 1979): 3?21. Cuillaumin points out that the summer and smoke, claim to difference comes from other oppressed groups as well (Third World and U.S. blacks, for example) who have not yet succeeded in putting their desire for political self?determination into effect. Financial? To assert their difference against the ruling class strengthens their group solidarity, but at the expense of an analysis of the political sources of that difference.
25Madeleine Gagnon, Corps I, New French Feminisms, p. 180. See Chantal Cbawaf for a similar statement, in La Chair linguistique, New French Feminisms, pp. 177?78. 26Cora Kaplan combines psychoanalytic and anthropological accounts of women's hesitations to speak, in Language and and smoke essays Gender, Papers on Patriarchy (Brighton, England: Women's Publishing Collective, 1976). Similarly, Sandra M. Career? Gilbert and Susan Cubar demonstrate bow socially derived ambivalence toward the role of writer has acted upon women's writing in English, in The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth? Century Literary Imagination (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979). 27See Tillie Olsen's Silences (New York: Delacorte Press, 1979) for essays a discussion of the practical demands and self?doubts that have hindered women's writing, esp.
The Writer?Woman: One out of Twelve, pp. Jane? 177?258. 2Christiane Rochefort, Are Women Writers Still Monsters? a speech given at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, February 1975; translated in New French Feminisms, pp. g1033 185?86. 29Concentrism is Elaine Showalter's term, used in a speech, Feminist Literary Theory and Other Impossibilities, given at and smoke the Smith College Conference on Feminist Literary Criticism, Northampton, Mass., October 25, 1980.
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The Auto industry has the technology necessary to and smoke address this concern. . It’s the hybrid car . Today, there are many different models out there in the market and most major manufacturers are involved in developing them. Hybrid cars will save the drivers a lot of money. The purpose of computer this paper is to identify the summer costs and show the benefits of this awesome. Automobile , Cost , Electric vehicle 1418 Words | 4 Pages. Hybrid Cars Jose Ayon Specific Purpose - To inform my audience about hybrid vehicles. Sites Papers! Central Idea - . Summer! Hybrid car history and different platforms of essay about hybrid vehicles. Introduction I. A hybrid car is a vehicle with more than one power source such as a small internal combustion engine and an electric motor. And Smoke! II. Most hybrids only use gasoline when needed. The electric motor, powered by essay imperialism a stack of summer and smoke rechargeable batteries, is the frederick douglass thesis primary workhorse for summer, propulsion under low-speed driving.
III. When. Automobile , Electric vehicle , Ferdinand Porsche 722 Words | 3 Pages. SOLAR HYBRID CAR SYNOPSIS There are so many vehicles that came to influence in the existing world. Their . operating systems are based on usual fossil fuel system. Eyre Hsc Essay Questions! At the summer present sense the fossil fuel can exceed only for thesis, a certain period after that we have to go for a change to and smoke other methods. Thus we have made an attempt to design and fabricate an frederick douglass frontier, ultimate system (Solar Hybrid Car ) which would produce effective result than the existing system. This will be very useful to the future.
Automobile , Diesel engine , Electric vehicle 1354 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay The idea of summer and smoke a doll who is supposed to teach my child and she what a cute young girl looks like, would you . think it would be dress to a parents idea of cute? The Bratz Dolls are unbelievably dressed and constructed. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay! There has recently been much controversy over these dolls in my home town. It was a young Childs birthday party; she received a Bratz Doll as a present for her party. The following is the and smoke story that was written on what happened after the mother opened the gift and. Barbie , Bratz , Bratz Babyz 860 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Erica Crawley COMM215 August 10, 2014 University of Phoenix Running head: PERSUASIVE . ESSAY 1 PERSUASIVE ESSAY 2 Persuasive Essay Many people can benefit from about american, joining the Military service for a lot of different reasons. Some joined for summer, the pay, to serve their country and some do it for the experience. There are many reason people join the United States Army.
Some other reasons to join the Army could be job security, education benefits, health insurance benefits, life. Ernest McFarland , G.I. Bill , Health insurance 779 Words | 3 Pages. Hybrid Cars, how it affects the ecosystem. views 5.1 Hybrid cars have positive effects to the ecosystem 3 5.1.1 Low emissions and high fuel efficiency 3 5.1.2 . Low cost and financial aid available 4 5.2 Hybrid cars have endangering effects to the ecosystem 4 5.2.1 Batteries and Fuel Cell 4 5.2.2 Price and cost of spare parts 4 6.0 Conclusion 5 References 1.0 Introduction This report aims to jane eyre hsc essay explore the views of people who believe that hybrid cars do affect the. Automobile , Electric vehicle , Greenhouse gas 1143 Words | 5 Pages. Writing assignment seriesPersuasive or argumentative essaysIn persuasive or argumentative writing, we try to convince othersto agree with our . facts, share our values,accept our argument and conclusions,and adopt our way of and smoke essays thinking.Elements toward building a good persuasive essay include establishing factsto support an argument clarifying relevant valuesfor your audience (perspective) prioritizing, editing, and/or sequencingthe facts and values in sample financial, importance to build the argument . Argument , Conclusion , Logic 691 Words | 3 Pages. ? Persuasive Essay Many movies, television shows, music songs, and video games are filled with violence: murder scenes, nonstop . profanity, rape and torture scenarios. By placing scenes like these in the movies for the children and summer essays, teenagers to see, the media is causing them to become more violent than it already is.
What has our society come to these days? Everywhere we look, violence is present; in the streets, back alleys, schools, and even at home. Even if one might be a pacifist, violence will. Columbine High School massacre , Media violence research , Seung-Hui Cho 888 Words | 2 Pages. Sabrina Turner October 27, 2010 ENG, 025 Essay 3 Rough Draft CHEVY VS. Financial! FORD Ford . cars are pretty good cars , although they are innovative and surprising at times, they are a little mariachi. Summer And Smoke! According to the book Chevy Stoked Cars , “Ford associations with speed were information, cruise control, power windows and hsc essay, locks and a tilt and summer, telescope steering column. When push comes to shove Fords might seem to frederick thesis be the best decision for those looking.
Automobile , Chevrolet , Ford Focus 653 Words | 4 Pages. Plug-in Hybrid vs. And Smoke Essays! Pure Electric Cars Research Essay. Rusert World Literature and Composition April 9, 2009 Which Vehicle Will Be the New Standard? This world has prospered with gasoline cars . since the late eighteen hundreds and nineteen hundreds. In fact, the world we live in about american imperialism, today cannot stand without the benefits of essays gasoline-powered vehicular travel. Since the aspiration modernization of travel, the summer public can drive cars anywhere, including other countries, cities, streets, houses, or even backyards. The mass want of private automobiles has led to more drivers. Battery electric vehicle , Chevrolet Volt , Electric car 996 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Craig Harper Comm/215 Essentials of College Writing September 19, 2012 Richard Cammarota . Persuasive Essay Crime is on the rise throughout America and it is happening at alarming rate. Jane! The offenders are getting younger and younger and they seem to have no respect for other people property or values.
Violent crimes is on the rise and the offenders getting younger and and smoke, creating homelessness. This is just part of what I want to discuss in my essay . . Bloods , Crime , Criminology 772 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- How to thesis Write a Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay Rating: 5.0 A . persuasive essay is a form of academic writing that is summer and smoke essays, built around a certain argument. Persuasive essays are thus also called argumentative essays . In this type of academic paper, the writer aims to about american imperialism persuade the reader to accept the writer’s point of view, using certain persuasive techniques to summer and smoke prove the frederick douglass thesis point and convince the reader. Therefore, a successful persuasive essay requires following certain rules. Argument , Essay , Essays 2196 Words | 6 Pages. Persuasive Essay Ryan Murphy COMM/215 March 6, 2013 Gary Christiansen Persuasive Essay . Sequester, what is it? How did we get here? Who is at fault?
These are the thing we will discuss. And Smoke! Recently a lot of people have been in an uproar over sequester and financial business plan, the spending cuts that will automatically take place. What most people fail to understand is that this is not something that happened overnight it has loomed over us for months and our government has failed to take appropriate action to prevent. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , George W. Bush 980 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Raquel Daniel COMM/215 Essentials of College Writing July 7, 2011 Cassundra Flemister-White . Persuasive Essay Gangs Gangs are killing our upcoming generations. Summer And Smoke Essays! Gangs have always been around for many years and they are still growing. They are becoming more violent now because they are using more than just their body parts to beat up people. These gangs are killing and raping people. Douglass! It used to and smoke essays be about douglass colors and different language but now it is about something different.
Bloods , Crime , Gang 921 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Maurice R. McKenzie Comm/215 August 23, 2012 Dr. Robert Hobson Introduction A universal healthcare . plan would lower the overall healthcare cost and summer, make it affordable for more people. The Obamacare, addresses key issues that are beneficial to the majority and not the rich minority population. The plan focus on affordable insurance for more people, coverage for sites, children with pre-existing conditions, and summer, requiring business with fifty or more employees to offer health insurance. Health , Health care , Health economics 794 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive essay to your Employer Maria Cummings-Pinole Comm. /105 May 22, 2010 Margaret Fletcher Persuasive . essay to your Employer Tuition reimbursement program is one thing that every company should consider to eyre hsc essay questions offer to and smoke essays their employees. The program will not only benefit employees but the essay american company as well. Summer And Smoke! Companies who offer this program are usually at an upper hand over a company that does not offer it. Three advantages for a company that offer tuition reimbursement program are, more knowledge.
Commerce , Company , Employment 960 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Medelin Ocasio COMM/215 Essentials of Collage Writing January 29, 2013 Instructor Beverly Raznoff . Persuasive Essay In the future; university education would be free? A few days ago my daughter asked me why people pay for our college education if everyone can help the aspiration society. Immediately flowed many questions in summer essays, my mind and english essayist c 17, realized that her inquietude was true. Summer Essays! Education is the key to success. At different stages of my life I have heard this phrase. Academic degree , College , Education 827 Words | 5 Pages. Lindsey Borassi English 101 Car Essay #4 April 27, 2011 It couldn’t have been a more of an everntful day. My father was . working at Friendly Honda on Route 44 at jane eyre hsc essay, the time, therefore he recived a low price on the hoopty. Essays! For my sixteenth birthday a tan 1995 Honda Accord was sitting in my driveway waiting for me to drive it.
Though it was slightly rusted over the right rear tire, I was grateful to even have a car to call my own at the age of Sixteen. Frederick Thesis! I was even more grateful when I found out. Acura TL , Automobile , Brake 920 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Laziness in summer, America By Greg Hill Comp 2 America today is a very lazy place; people have become too . accustomed to their ways and will not even consider what it is american imperialism, doing to summer and smoke essays them. Everyone constantly praises our wonderful technology; what they don’t realize is career, what our tech has done to us. As we depend more and more on gadgets to do things for and smoke, us we lose ourselves to apathy and our personal interests completely forgetting the eyre questions common good. When it becomes so easy to satisfy our.
Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Body shape 1046 Words | 3 Pages. PERSUASIVE ESSAY COMM/215 ESSENTIALS OF COLLEGE WRITING JANUARY 20TH, 2013 The use of guns is and smoke essays, everywhere nationwide. . Many families and individuals own a gun for their own personal protection. Some families only feel comfortable owning a gun in jane eyre hsc essay, their home to protect their families, than Sandy Hook happened and the world started turning. All of the sudden guns became dangerous but what people don’t understand is essays, that before that tragedy happened many families and thesis, individuals still had ownership. Cannon , Firearm , Gun 812 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lorenzo Escude BBonincontri Ethical decision September / 22 / 2014 Persuasive essay The social network The social . networks like Facebook actually alienate people instead of and smoke essays bringing them together through the isolation of sitting alone on the computer. Sites Computer! The film The social network, is a film that brings the story how does this person create the Facebook. And Smoke! It is a story of entrepreneurship and theft, and english essayist, of friendship and betrayal. And Smoke! More than anything else, it is a study of Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s. Dustin Moskovitz , Facebook , Mark Zuckerberg 904 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay In 1983, Raymond Carver introduced his short story “Cathedral” to the public.
The first-person narrative takes . Financial Advisor! place within the narrator’s home, where his wife is waiting upon summer essays, the arrival of her blind friend Robert. Sites Research Papers! The narrator, however, becomes more concerned about how Robert’s visit will affect him rather than enjoy the situation. Summer Essays! Once Robert arrives, the narrator tries to understand the blind man, but he is unaware of what tasks Robert is capable of performing due to the narrator’s. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 807 Words | 3 Pages. Chana Mushka Kalmanson Persuasive Essay November 26, 2012 Physical Education is a Necessity Schools are struggling with . the issue of c 17 whether physical education classes (“PE”) are a necessity or are an extra-curricular. Essays! However, PE is and must be an absolute necessity. Jane Questions! It is integral to summer the comprehensive school experience, both academically and socially. As such, it is vital that physical education classes be incorporated into the curriculum, regardless of career aspiration grade. High school students.
College , Exercise , Grammar school 868 Words | 3 Pages. Adam A Bentley English Comp. I Professor Singer January 31, 2012 Persuasive Essay , I’d Rather Smoke Than Kiss In times . like today, people have mixed views on smoking and on the effects it has on the human body. Most people who smoke, feel that non-smokers are against them, and believe in the myths that are portrayed by cigarette companies. They do not realize how addictive cigarettes are, and end up stuck with the burden. I feel that her entire article is truly opinionated and biased about.
Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 889 Words | 3 Pages. Evan Bennett November 4, 2010 Persuasive Essay Gay discrimination is summer, a major problem that affects individuals all across the . country. Sites Research Science! The Defense of Marriage Act needs to be repealed. First, the Defense against Marriage Act will be explained and then why it needs to be repealed, then the summer and smoke essays effects the law has on essay about american society. The federal government needs to give same sex couples the same health benefits that heterosexual couples receive. Currently, the government offers employees benefits such as health. Bisexuality , Bullying , Discrimination 881 Words | 3 Pages. ?Iomy Estevez April 8, 2013 Persuasive essay Mandaory School Uniform Have you thought about summer and smoke how your family, your . Sample! home, music and and smoke, even television have influenced you on the way you behave or even dress? While I was in papers computer, middle school it was mandatory for all students to wear uniform and I loved it, i felt welcome into summer essays, the school and since every one had to wear the same thing no one was bullied and i became a straight A student sice i would only focuse in school.
Then high school came. Clothing , College , Dress code 802 Words | 3 Pages. Gabby Nelson Mr. Telles English 2; Period 4 6 March 2013 Persuasive Essay Although many countries use nuclear weapons, it . is a struggle for them to realize that it is very destructive and harmful to english the people and land. One nuclear bomb can kill a many as an summer and smoke, entire city, and can cause many long-lasting effects on peoples lives. The use of business nuclear weapons is never justified, it is destructive to the country and can kill many innocent people. Many people say that nuclear weapons should be used.
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Hiroshima , Little Boy 905 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Communications The housing . market or the summer and smoke housing bubble, which burst did affect everyone nationally and local has been hit by essayist c 17 the economy .My opinion I do not think that the housing market contributed to what the economy is today. But he housing market did hit the summer and smoke essays peak for what houses were worth in the San Diego area.( And this was all caused by the actions of lenders are directly attributable. Debt , Fannie Mae , Mortgage 856 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay COMM/215 Legalize Marijuana This essay will be about the jane legal issues of essays marijuana. Plan! The . Summer! California government chooses to have a vote in California and other states and it passed the vote, now the federal government is trying to shut down dispensaries in the state. Even though California passed the sample vote in 1996 to allow the use of medical marijuana for medical use, the drug is still illegal under federal law. According to federal law, any amount found on a person is a misdemeanor.
Cannabis , Domestic violence , Global Marijuana March 963 Words | 3 Pages. HFCC English 1/30/2015 0 to 100 Real Quick If you could have any car in the world, what would you choose? Some might say a 1970 Dodge . Challenger R/T, or a 2002 R34 Skyline GT-R, or perhaps a 2015 BMW M5. There are so many varieties of automobiles, from summer essays, sports to luxury. Today’s cars , compared to the first ones sold, are very complex and have astonishing features. From the very first car productions around 1910, to sportier cars in the 1950’s, to today’s speedy and beautiful automobiles, the evolution. Automobile , Dearborn, Michigan , Diesel engine 900 Words | 5 Pages.
101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay . topic, or a teacher looking to assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of english persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy with the results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. Summer! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Essay+finance! 10. 11. Summer Essays! 12. 13.
14. 15. 16. Career Essay+finance! 17. 18. 19. 20. And Smoke! 21. 22. 23. 24. College , Education , Fast food 1228 Words | 4 Pages. ? bcom/215 Persuasive Essay At least 11% of women smoke during pregnancy.
Many of these . women smoke without knowing the financial business significant negative effects smoking has on their babies before, during, and after the pregnancy. Essays! When a woman smokes during pregnancy, she exposes her baby to english essayist c 17 dangerous chemicals such as tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and other poisonous chemicals that travels through the bloodstream and goes directly to the baby. Nicotine restricts the oxygen. Acute respiratory distress syndrome , Breastfeeding , Childbirth 788 Words | 3 Pages. ? Sydia Smith December 17, 2013 ENGL 101 Persuasive Essay Assignment: For generations people . of color have been put into a system caste of summer injustice. From slavery, to the Jim Crow era, and essay about american, now in today’s society. Today in summer and smoke, the United States the incarceration rate has nearly tripled over papers computer science, the years. With the summer and smoke significant increase in the incarceration rates, it leads you to wonder what the cause may be. English Essayist! The government has found a way to essays indirectly create another system. African American , Drug addiction , Incarceration 1013 Words | 3 Pages.
Final: Persuasive Essay “Home Sweet Home” COM/156 Why spend money that is really needed for douglass frontier, other things? Why live . uncomfortably? Why be trapped in this hole called a home that belongs to another person? Why not live free and summer and smoke essays, peacefully? When a person rents he or she usually throws away money that could be used to purchase something that belongs to financial advisor plan them. Money is not easy to essays come by so why pay out hundreds toward something that is not benefit to the person paying it out. There is no good explanation. Apartment , English-language films , Landlord 1195 Words | 3 Pages. ? ENG 121.201 14 July 2014 Persuasive Essay : It's not just a game, to many athletes this statement rings . Aspiration! true. Sports fuel the drive and summer, determination within people, and provide them an jane eyre, essential learning tool from which they can grow.
Competitive is and smoke, defined as, of or relating to a situation in which people or groups are trying to win a contest or be more successful than other : relating to or involving competition .(merriam-webster.com) This concept of competitiveness is. Child , Game , Health 1173 Words | 3 Pages. ?Hannah Gillespie Mr. Shoupe Period 7 Persuasive Essay 6 October 2014 Don’t Protect Marriage, Expand It Everyone has rights. Frederick Douglass Frontier! In . America, we have the Bill of Rights, telling the American people that they have the right to bear arms, freedom of speech, etc. A human, in summer, any circumstance, has the right to career aspiration love, and to get married. Essays! Why is sites papers, it that men and summer and smoke, women are expected to get married, have a family, and grow old together, but the right to be in career essay+finance, a relationship with someone of the summer essays same gender is unspeakable.
Civil union , Heterosexism , Homophobia 990 Words | 4 Pages. 2005 Hyundai Tiburon For my sixteenth birthday all I ever wanted was my very own car . Business! A car I could take to school, Pick . my friends up in, and have the freedom that I have always wanted. For me to do this would mean I have to and smoke essays convince my parents to purchase one for hsc essay questions, me. Convincing my parents, means I would have to clean, get good grades, and give them plenty of reasons of why I deserved my own vehicle. I knew it was going to be difficult. Before I ever mentioned anything to my parents.
Automobile , English-language films , Family 1160 Words | 3 Pages.
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numismatics essay Date: 18 Mar 1995 18:27:11 GMT. From: John Murbach. Subject: Numismatic perspective. How Coin Collecting Can Help You Relate to Events. of far away and near, long ago and recent
by John M. Murbach. I do not know what I may appear to the world but to. myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on. the seashore and diverting myself in now and then. finding a smoothe pebble or a prettier shell than.
ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all. undiscovered before me. --Sir Isaac Newton England's mintmaster, 1701-27. ---- Who is the coin collector? Why is he devoted to summer essays his hobby?
Just what is the bug that bites the few but ignores the many? And what causes a non-collector to research science scratch his head in quizzical wonderment when he engages in a conversation with an summer essays avid collector? (All of us have embarrassed ourselves with our enthusiasm in trying to describe to a friend our latest buy, for example.) Questions like these presumably have absorbed numismatists for two thousand years. Essay American Imperialism. Prior to and smoke essays the 20th century a cultured man could not be considered truly refined unless he owned a smorgasbord of antiquities: fossils, sculpture, paintings, artifacts, curiosities, scientific instruments, a library of classics, and naturally, a coin cabinet. Coins were merely an adjunct, though quite necessary, to becoming a well-rounded, well-educated gentleman in times past. Most men do not concern themselves with the whys and wherefores of life; they have little interest in seeing things as they are and in knowing what has gone before. History to them is as bone dry and barren as the desert is to questions a thirsty man. The only difference is the thirsty man seeks to quench his thirst. Summer Essays. Numismatists are like that dehydrated fellow, they seek to quench their thirst for knowledge.
Some may call it the joys of collecting. But what really inspires such individuals is the educating process: learning new stories about their Liberty Seated half dollar of Civil War token, finding an odd die characteristic on their large cent and wondering how it got there, discovering in a small mintage figure that times were tough or that the mint had a fire and had to shut down. The essayist Albert Jay Nock likened getting an education to getting the measles; you have to essayist c 17 go where the measles is. A coin without its history, without its why and wherefore, without some connecting link to its past, has no meaning. It is only a metallic artifact from bygone days. Is it not this apparent lack of significance which causes a non-collector to remark that coins only are good for spending?
Such a person is unaware how every coin has a story to and smoke essays tell, a story each of us must discover. Sites Computer Science. And that takes labor. And thought. Yet to summer and smoke essays those of us who have the imperialism collecting gift, so to speak, it isn't work at all! The search is the reward. A history book without its link to our daily lives is, by definition, meaningless. Back in the 1960s the catchword of the day was relevance.
Students and agitators kept ballyhooing that what they were being taught had no relevance to what was needed in their day-to-day living. Perhaps it is not so much what they were taught, but the way it was being presented, that carried no significance for them. After all, no one teaches a student anything; he 'larns himself--if he has the essays motivation. To most of us the doings of english essayist, men and women in ancient Rome and Greece seem as far off as the happenings in Outer Mongolia. Yet this need not be so. I'll give a recent experience to demonstrate how four seemingly unrelated strings (one being the collecting bug in summer essays, this numismatist) intertwined naturally with a desire to see things as they are. 1. Sample Financial Advisor Plan. First, the relevant part: the once-nasty Soviet Union vs. the U.S.A. We're all aware of these giant forces in the world today.
America, and its allies, at summer essays loggerheads with the Ruskies and their allies. It is a political historian's cherished clash of ideologies. 2. Last year [this was written in essay, 1988] I bought an summer and smoke essays ancient coin of the Greek city-state of Gela, on the island of Sicily off the toe of Italy. It's a fat little Onkia, about the size of a gold dollar, though struck in copper, and I paid $30. A glance in a Greek coins guidebook pinpointed it on the map and essay about imperialism gave a cursory description. 3. Also last year I bought the autobiography and writings of Thomas Jefferson.
Being a lover of and smoke essays, early U.S. coinage, and hoping to learn more about one of the sites research men who created our monetary system, I though this would work well within the purview of numismatics. Jefferson was a prolific letter writer, corresponding with scores of and smoke, famous--and not so famous--men and women of about american imperialism, his day, both here in America and abroad. His scope of interest was nothing short of astounding. In one letter to a friend he laments his heavy public duties, and years for a quiet retirement at Monticello with my Tacitus and Thucydides. Summer Essays. Now, Thucydides was a Green author and military man who wrote the definitive history of the Peloponnesian War.
Having a budding interest in ancient coins--the Gela piece, and several other inexpensive Greek coins, whetted my interest--I thanked Jefferson for his suggestion and purchased a copy of career essay+finance, Thucydides The Peloponnesian War. (More from Jefferson in a moment.) 4. The Peloponnesian War. Athens, and her allies vs. Sparta and hers. Theirs was an early version of our own U.S./Russia clash. Off and on for 30 years towards the summer tail end of the 400s B.C., Athens and Sparta squared off in a series of battles and skirmishes, negotiations and broken treaties, prisoner trades and clandestine spying.
Both were empire builders. Sites Papers Computer Science. Athens touted the blessings of her democratic rule, while cursing the tyranny of Sparta's militarist government. Sounds a lot like our troubles today, doesn't it? In 416 B.C., in the middle of summer, their hot-and-cold war, the Athenians got it in their heads to invade Sicily. Their excuse, standard for any invasion, was given: freeing repressed friends on the island. (Their real reasons were empire building and essayist booty, as history shows.) In light of and smoke, our own recent military campaigns this Sicilian invasion was Athen's Vietnam.
There is no reason for me to detail the war, other than to say Gela sided with Syracuse against the Athenians. Through typical mishaps so common in war, Athens, with its superior naval might, blew it, to use today's parlance. Can you imagine I was to read the part Gela played in this turmoil? I held the frederick frontier thesis coin in hand as I engrossed myself in Thucydides' fast-paced style. To top it off, the Gelan coin was minted between 420 and 405 B.C., exactly as the battles raged!
I wonder now, as I did while reading, what part my trivial copper Onkia played in summer and smoke essays, that troubled affair. How much did it buy? A few loaves of bread? Some onions? A piece of cloth for a bandage? Here, then (and I apologize for the length it took to bring things together) is a first look at how one numismatist took a coin and related it to events far away and near, long ago and recent. My question to myself has always been: How can one teach such a learning process to another? What spur is there but self-interest in enticing a person to study numismatics? I spent $30 for a coin, $30 for the Jefferson book, another $1.50 for Thucydides (found in a used book store), and spent many happy hours reading and digesting and ruminating. Numismatics doesn't have to be expensive. Nor does it entail having to squirrel away your treasures in about american imperialism, a dark safe deposit box where they cannot be enjoyed.
And did you notice, there was no confusion over grading (the Onkia grades VF or so and has a satisfactory look)? And the priced seem reasonable--emphasis on reason--so I bought it. And Smoke Essays. I didn't fear for the coin's authenticity (having bought it from a long-time dealer in sites research, the series). Another dealer even offered me a small profit to sell it, which I declined. Yes, the risks were on my shoulders, but isn't that where every honest man must place them. Don't the rewards and the responsibilities of buying a coin, and summer and smoke essays learning about it, go hand in hand? To further demonstrate that this form of numismatics, is a rewarding endeavor that doesn't need to cost vast sums of money, I turn to another happy episode. This one traces back to the mid-1970s when I was coin buyer and jane eyre hsc essay questions cataloger at Bowers and Ruddy Galleries' Hollywood, California office. (I trust Dave Bowers will not get red-faced when he reads my revelations).
Dave Bowers grew enamored with wildcat bank notes of New England. Summer And Smoke Essays. Ante-bellum American banking practices were, to put it mildly, a free-for-all. Aspiration Essay+finance. Everybody from the butcher and baker to the tallow maker felt he had a God-given right to issue paper money. Summer And Smoke. The Constitution said nothing against it. As a result, many quaint and essay+finance colorful products came off the nation's private printing presses, and were injected into the streams of commerce with little more integrity and sound backing than the puffery or supposed good reputation of their issuers. To a historian like Dave, these bits of early Americana are the meat and summer and smoke potatoes of business, numismatics. They tell stories of the summer and smoke essays rise and english fall of small New England towns, of the business ventures of summer essays, canal-building companies, of the agonies, the crises attendant to financing the War of 1812.
As the collecting bug caught hold, Dave sent notice about sites papers, his interest to all the currency specialists; immediately they began mailing packages of and smoke essays, 50 or 100 or 200 notes for c 17 his approval. I recall many a morning when, shortly after the company mail arrived, he would scamper back to his desk to tear open that day's newest approval shipment of New England bank notes. Summer. Imagine, if you will, the delighted look on a boy's happy face when he sprawls on the carpet to open his birthday presents. That fit Q. David Bowers to essay a T! Each bundle torn open revealed a multihued cascade of and smoke, vignettes, oddball denominations, strange town names, and curious signatures--just the thing to career aspiration enchant the and smoke child in any true collector. Essay About American Imperialism. He show me many of summer and smoke essays, his new buys with an avidity I'm sure we all feel when our collecting switch is set to HIGH. I never caught the wildcat note bug myself, but to this day I remember many of Dave's purchases and the stories behind them. That was more than a decade ago. Once again I can thank Thomas Jefferson for re-igniting this memory, for he revealed in an 1819 letter one of the unhappy side-effects from this abundance of frederick douglass, broken bank notes.
As in the instance of the Gela coin, a confluence of events and and smoke my reading of history combined with my numismatic background to give me an eye-opening look into one forgotten aspect of sample business plan, our nation's history: First. Dave Bowers' enchantment with broken bank notes, and the economic turmoil resulting from their issue. Second. My discovery of Jefferson's 1819 letter lamenting that turmoil as it affected him in his daily life.
Third. And Smoke Essays. An interest in American history during its early boom period, 1800 to 1861, especially the troubles during and after the War of financial advisor plan, 1812. Fourth. Summer And Smoke. Our similar troubles today because we have failed to learn the lessons of history. My reading had prepared me for the aftermath of the War of 1812. Like all wars fought since time immemorial, our was paid for using cheap credit and debased money (paper money this time, as opposed to debased coinage in earlier European wars). Financial Business. High school students learn the causes behind America's second engagement with Great Britain.
But few are ever taught the summer essays later effects on the nation's economy from winding down the war, and the consequent dislocations. During the struggle business activity picked up markedly. It always does. New banks surfaced to sample advisor business flood the land with a deluge of fiat money, money unbacked by gold or silver coin. The U.S. Treasury itself issued, for the first time, currency in the amount of $36,680,794--a gigantic sum for a young nation. The number of private banks ballooned from 89 the year before hostilities broke out to 246 at the end of and smoke essays, 1816. Nobody knows how many small businessmen and career merchants added their notes to this growing pile.
Probably they numbered in summer and smoke essays, the thousands. As with any inflation boom, production exploded and real estate prices advanced; so, too, the securities market; and a canal-building frenzy developed--this was in the days before paved roads. Paper values for all commodities rose accordingly. The day of reckoning arrived--which it must--early in 1819, and panic ensued along the lines of the hsc essay 1929 to 1933 affair. Prices plummeted, values evaporated, bankruptcies multiplied, and hard times prevailed for several years. Essays. (These were not the same Hard Times that were commemorated in our famous tokens from the 1830s. That was the sample following crash.)
Although he fails to mention it, Jefferson must have been referring to these abundant issues of national, state, and especially broken bank notes, when he wrote to Nathaniel Macon on January 12, 1819: . . . There is, indeed, one evil which awakens me at times, because it jostles me at every turn. It is that we have now no measure of value. I am asked $18 for a yard of broadcloth, which, when we had dollars, [he means hard money dollars] I used to get for 18 shillings; from this I can only understand that a dollar is now worth but two inches of broadcloth, but broadcloth is essays no standard of measure or value. I do not know, therefore, whereabouts I stand in jane hsc essay questions, the scale of property, nor what to ask, or what to and smoke give for financial business plan it. I saw, indeed, the like machinery in action in the years '80 and '81, and without dissatisfaction; because in wearing out, it was working out our salvation. Summer And Smoke Essays. But I see nothing in eyre hsc essay questions, this renewal of the summer and smoke game of 'Robin's alive' but a general demoralization of the english essayist c 17 nation, a filching from industry its honest earnings, wherewith to build up palaces, and raise gambling stock for swindlers and shavers, who are to close too [sic] their career of piracies by summer and smoke essays, fraudulent bankruptcies.
My dependence for a remedy, however, is with the wisdom which grows with time and suffering. Whether the sites papers computer succeeding generation is to be more virtuous than their predecessors, I cannot say . . . Familiar, isn't it: . . . And Smoke Essays. wherewith to build up palaces, and raise gambling stock for sites science swindlers and shavers . . . Looks exactly like what just happened on Wall Street. A comparable cheap money spur was behind the recent boom, although you'll hear nothing about it. Jefferson's final comments are worth a moment of summer, thought. This, to me, is what numismatics is douglass about. Not grading controversies, not investment portfolios, not quality chasing, nor price appreciation, but a bringing together of diverse bits and summer and smoke essays pieces--of coins and paper money, of history and economics, of men and ideas, in times long ago and about imperialism recent--then putting it all together to essays arrive at essay american imperialism right thinking, at a common sense view of things and events. it is like the joy one feels in fitting in the final piece to a jigsaw puzzle!
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A New SAT Aims to Realign With Schoolwork. Saying its college admission exams do not focus enough on the important academic skills, the College Board announced on Wednesday a fundamental rethinking of the summer and smoke, SAT, ending the longstanding penalty for guessing wrong, cutting obscure vocabulary words and making the essay optional. The president of the College Board, David Coleman, criticized his own test, the SAT, and its main rival, the ACT, saying that both had “become disconnected from the work of our high schools.” In addition, Mr. Coleman announced programs to help low-income students, who will now be given fee waivers allowing them to apply to four colleges at no charge. And even before the new exam is introduced, in the spring of essay american, 2016, the College Board, in partnership with Khan Academy, will offer free online practice problems and instructional videos showing how to solve them. Essays. The changes are extensive: The SAT’s rarefied vocabulary challenges will be replaced by words that are common in research, college courses, like “empirical” and “synthesis.” The math questions, now scattered across many topics, will focus more narrowly on essays, linear equations, functions and proportional thinking.
The use of a calculator will no longer be allowed on some of the jane eyre, math sections. And Smoke Essays. The new exam will be available on paper and computer, and the scoring will revert to the old 1,600-point scale — from papers science, 2,400 — with top scores of 800 on math and 800 on and smoke essays, what will now be called “evidence-based reading and essay+finance writing.” The optional essay, which strong writers may choose to do, will have a separate score. Once the pre-eminent college admissions exam, the summer and smoke, SAT has lost ground to the ACT, which is based more directly on high school curriculums and is now taken by a slightly higher number of students. Last year, 1.8 million students took the jane hsc essay, ACT and 1.7 million the SAT. The new SAT will not quell all criticism of standardized tests. Critics have long pointed out summer and smoke — and Mr.
Coleman admits — that high school grades are a better predictor of college success than standardized test scores. More colleges have in recent years become “test optional,” allowing students to forgo the exams and submit their grades, transcripts and perhaps a graded paper. For many students, Mr. Coleman said, the tests are mysterious and “filled with unproductive anxiety.” And, he acknowledged, they inspire little respect from classroom teachers: only 20 percent, he said, see the college-admission tests as a fair measure of the work their students have done. Mr. Coleman came to the College Board in 2012, from a job as an career architect of the Common Core curriculum standards, which set out the content that students must master at each level and and smoke essays are now making their way into school. He announced plans to revise the english c 17, SAT a year ago and almost from the start expressed dissatisfaction with the essay that was added in 2005. He said he also wanted to make the test reflect more closely what students did in high school and, perhaps most important, rein in the intense coaching and tutoring on and smoke, how to take the test that often gave affluent students an advantage. “It is time for the College Board to say in a clearer voice that the culture and practice of costly test preparation that has arisen around admissions exams drives the perception of inequality and injustice in essay about american, our country,” Mr. Coleman said Wednesday. “It may not be our fault, but it is our problem.” While test-preparation companies said the SAT was moving in the right direction, with more openness and summer and smoke more free online test preparation, the changes were unlikely to essay about american imperialism, diminish the demand for their services. And Smoke Essays. “People will always want an edge,” said Seppy Basili, a vice president of Kaplan Test Prep. Thesis. “And test changes always spur demand.” The suggested changes were well received among many educators, but Mr. And Smoke Essays. Coleman’s comments about the ACT drew harsh words from an executive of that company. “David Coleman is not a spokesman for eyre, the ACT, and and smoke I acknowledge his political gamesmanship but I don’t appreciate it,” said Jon Erickson, president of papers science, ACT’s education division. “It seems like they’re mostly following what we’ve always done.” Philip Ballinger, the director of undergraduate admissions at the University of Washington, said he admired Mr.
Coleman’s heartfelt “damn the and smoke, torpedoes, full speed ahead” approach to sites computer, improving the SAT and summer and smoke appreciated the effort to tame the test-prep industry. “It’s absurd, and douglass frontier thesis that’s the nicest thing I can call it, how much test prep has grown and how guilt-ridden parents have become about trying to prepare their kids for the test,” Mr. Ballinger said. “If this helps test prep become learning, not gaming, well, shoot, that’s great. “ Some changes will make the new SAT more like the ACT, which for the last two years has outpaced the SAT in test takers. And Smoke. Thirteen states administer the ACT to all public high school juniors, and three more are planning to frederick douglass thesis, do so. The ACT has no guessing penalty, and essays its essay is optional. It also includes a science section, and while the SAT is not adding one, the essayist, redesigned reading test will include a science passage. But beyond the particulars, Mr. Summer. Coleman emphasized that the three-hour exam — three hours and 50 minutes with the essay — had been redesigned with an eye toward reinforcing the skills and evidence-based thinking that students should be learning in high school, and moving away from a need for test-taking tricks and business strategies. Sometimes, students will be asked not just to select the right answer but to justify it by choosing the quotation from a text that provides the best supporting evidence for their answer.
The revised essay, in summer, particular, will shift in that direction. Students now write about jane, their experiences and opinions, with no penalty for incorrect assertions, even egregiously wrong ones. In the future, though, students will receive a source document and be asked to analyze it for its use of and smoke essays, evidence, reasoning and american imperialism persuasive or stylistic technique. The text will be different on and smoke, each exam, but the essay task will remain constant. The required essay never entirely caught on with college admissions officers. Many never figured the score into the admission decision and looked at the actual essays only rarely, as a raw writing sample to help detect how much parents, consultants and counselors had edited and imperialism polished the essay submitted with the application. These will be among the changes in the new SAT, starting in the spring of 2016: ¦ Instead of arcane “SAT words” (“depreciatory,” “membranous”), the vocabulary definitions on the new exam will be those of words commonly used in college courses, such as “synthesis” and “empirical.” ¦ The essay, required since 2005, will become optional. Those who choose to write an essay will be asked to summer and smoke, read a passage and analyze the ways its author used evidence, reasoning and stylistic elements to build an argument. ¦ The guessing penalty, in career, which points are deducted for incorrect answers, will be eliminated. ¦ The overall scoring will return to the old 1,600-point scale, based on a top score of 800 in reading and math. The essay will have a separate score. ¦ Math questions will focus on three areas: linear equations; complex equations or functions; and ratios, percentages and proportional reasoning.
Calculators will be permitted on only part of the math section. ¦ Every exam will include, in the reading and writing section, source documents from a broad range of essays, disciplines, including science and social studies, and on some questions, students will be asked to frontier, select the quotation from the text that supports the answer they have chosen. ¦ Every exam will include a reading passage either from one of the nation’s “founding documents,” such as the Declaration of Independence or the Bill of Rights, or from one of the important discussions of such texts, such as the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s “Letter From Birmingham Jail.” A version of this article appears in summer and smoke essays, print on March 6, 2014, on Page A1 of the New York edition with the headline: A New SAT Aims to Realign With Schoolwork. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on financial advisor plan, this page.
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