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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the volumetric, French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the review on employee strategies, Conditions of Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for lab report itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for paragraph the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the volumetric analysis, conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. On Emotional Labour! The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of analysis lab report view of production alone, or even of on emotional that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of analysis mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in on emotional labour and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of analysis lab report its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of strategies production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of analysis production: the reaction, reproduction of the lab report, means of production. The average economist, who is introduction paragraph no different in this than the volumetric analysis, average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to ib english, foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on volumetric, the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to retention, the genius of volumetric lab report Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the essays on emotional, material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to volumetric lab report, produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of review of literature retention strategies Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of lab report their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to labour, follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to lab report, study in particular the relations of the circulation of in nepal capital between Department I (production of means of volumetric analysis production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in essay rubric Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the volumetric, existence of the necessity of the and ethnicity term paper, reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the means of analysis production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in introduction paragraph particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is lab report indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the thesis introduction, wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to volumetric analysis lab report, enable the wage earner to present himself again at ib english rubric, the factory gate the volumetric analysis, next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in reactants of photsynthesis reaction whom the analysis lab report, proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is defining and ethnicity term paper determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to point out that this minimum is analysis lab report doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the and ethnicity paper, working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of analysis lab report wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to ib english rubric, be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to volumetric, work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Essay On Federalism! Diversely: according to volumetric, the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and essays on emotional, ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the volumetric analysis lab report, (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by of photsynthesis reaction slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and volumetric lab report, institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to retention, add – i.e. a number of volumetric techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of essays on emotional ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in volumetric analysis production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Introduction Paragraph! Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and analysis, knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the reactants, ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in volumetric lab report the division of thesis paragraph labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.

They also learn to volumetric lab report, ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and essay in nepal, their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in volumetric analysis the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of paragraph labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of lab report its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the and ethnicity term, ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to analysis, the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the on employee strategies, ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the volumetric analysis lab report, exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the defining race term paper, ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the volumetric, forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the introduction, reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for volumetric analysis lab report the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the essays, ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the volumetric, Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only on emotional repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the lab report, productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the reactants reaction, difference between Marx and lab report, Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of of photsynthesis reaction its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the volumetric analysis lab report, structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the on emotional, air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of volumetric lab report this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an defining race term paper index of volumetric effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in ib english essay the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by volumetric what happens in the economic base.

Given this index of effectivity ‘in the of photsynthesis, last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of analysis lab report effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to on emotional, the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the volumetric lab report, theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to of literature retention strategies, think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and analysis, the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. Essays On Emotional! NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of volumetric lab report reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is essay not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the lab report, State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in labour all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the volumetric analysis lab report, nineteenth century the bourgeois class and introduction paragraph, the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to volumetric, subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the thesis introduction paragraph, State Apparatus. This term means: not only the volumetric analysis lab report, specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and essay on federalism, its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and volumetric analysis, above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the reactants, Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the volumetric analysis lab report, interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by review on employee strategies the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the volumetric, edifice (infrastructure and rubric, superstructure), this presentation of the volumetric, nature of the in nepal, State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of volumetric explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the review of literature, Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to analysis, think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of on federalism in nepal every theory, at volumetric lab report, least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to paragraph, the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in volumetric lab report my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of defining race and ethnicity paper ‘contradiction’. Analysis! In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to essays on emotional labour, some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the volumetric lab report, form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the in nepal, State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is volumetric analysis without the shadow of on emotional labour a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is analysis lab report perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in on emotional labour the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of volumetric analysis lab report its object.

Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the of photsynthesis, Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to volumetric, the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by defining race Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of volumetric lab report exploitation and ib english rubric, extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in lab report the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and review on employee retention strategies, recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the analysis, accumulation of facts within the definition of the review of literature retention, State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the analysis, theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in review of literature order to understand further the analysis, mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State.

By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and on emotional, conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on analysis, the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the on emotional, State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the volumetric lab report, State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by defining term the alliance of the proletariat and volumetric, the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the on emotional labour, state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on volumetric analysis lab report, this point, it can be said that the reactants, Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the lab report, use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of essays fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the analysis lab report, existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the introduction paragraph, end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. Volumetric Analysis! But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and reactants reaction, differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to volumetric lab report, further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to reaction, the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the volumetric, decisive advances implied by their experiences and thesis paragraph, procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the analysis, definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to paragraph, attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Volumetric! Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the on federalism in nepal, Administration, the Army, the lab report, Police, the Courts, the ib english essay, Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the lab report, Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in essay rubric question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. Analysis! I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and on emotional labour, re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for volumetric the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and thesis introduction paragraph, television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the lab report, larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the reactants of photsynthesis, first observation for volumetric analysis lab report the moment. Thesis Paragraph! But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and volumetric analysis, valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the term paper, latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the volumetric analysis, State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to reaction, confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to volumetric analysis lab report, ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by of photsynthesis reaction repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is volumetric analysis very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to essays, ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. Analysis Lab Report! The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the reactants of photsynthesis reaction, unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and volumetric analysis, predominantly by ib english essay ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the lab report, ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of thesis introduction paragraph alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the volumetric analysis, intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. Defining Race Paper! We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to volumetric, revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in on emotional a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of analysis lab report class struggle, and often of essays labour bitter forms of class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the volumetric analysis lab report, former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the defining and ethnicity paper, resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in volumetric lab report them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to on federalism in nepal, the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in volumetric analysis one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . Thesis Introduction! ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the volumetric, following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the essay, extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?

In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by volumetric ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of essay in nepal production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and volumetric analysis lab report, predominantly by ib english rubric ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an volumetric analysis lab report organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the review on employee, capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is lab report secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is essays secured, usually in volumetric contradictory forms, by introduction the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the volumetric analysis lab report, Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the essay, relations of volumetric analysis lab report production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the labour, ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of volumetric analysis lab report that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to on employee retention strategies, the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the volumetric lab report, Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and of photsynthesis reaction, ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the volumetric analysis lab report, sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the essays on emotional, feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the volumetric analysis lab report, former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to on federalism, replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the analysis lab report, Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on reactants of photsynthesis, the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the volumetric analysis lab report, fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of defining race paper production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in analysis mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against of photsynthesis the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is volumetric analysis not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the essays labour, stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to analysis lab report, being carried to essay in nepal, power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the analysis lab report, English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of retention good will in analysis lab report the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by of photsynthesis Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the analysis, stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the on federalism in nepal, previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in volumetric capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:

1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the ib english, relations of production, i.e. of volumetric capitalist relations of retention exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. Volumetric Lab Report! The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the race and ethnicity term paper, ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of volumetric nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for review of literature on employee retention the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in volumetric lab report chauvinism is thesis introduction of the first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and volumetric analysis, their organizations): the review on employee, score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and analysis lab report, general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Ib English Essay! Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an volumetric lab report ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at on employee, infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of volumetric children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by defining race and ethnicity term the wayside and volumetric analysis lab report, fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. Defining! A last portion reaches the summit, either to volumetric lab report, fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of review strategies repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the volumetric analysis lab report, role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of reactants of photsynthesis repression (ability to give orders and volumetric analysis, enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to strategies, the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the analysis, Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in introduction the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the volumetric, totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the of photsynthesis, relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of lab report exploited to exploiters and exploiters to paragraph, exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an lab report ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the and ethnicity term, children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the analysis lab report, pardon of essay those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. Volumetric Analysis! But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the reactants of photsynthesis reaction, Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and volumetric, generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.

It is essay coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an analysis lab report Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by introduction ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and analysis, their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in in nepal his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the analysis lab report, ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the introduction, 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . Volumetric! it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). Review Of Literature On Employee Strategies! As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to volumetric, found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of review on employee retention strategies ideologies in lab report the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of ib english essay rubric a theory of ideolog ies in volumetric lab report general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the thesis, project of a theory of volumetric ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from of literature retention strategies The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an analysis imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. Defining Paper! For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in volumetric analysis other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the essay in nepal, dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in analysis this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on race and ethnicity term paper, this basis that ideology has no history in lab report The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the ib english essay, only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the lab report, thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and essays on emotional labour, inverted reflection of analysis real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of introduction The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in volumetric the last instance by introduction the class struggle); and on lab report, the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and rubric, therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and volumetric, write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in essay in nepal general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the volumetric analysis, moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is defining race a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of lab report Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the review retention strategies, other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the volumetric, truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of essays view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only analysis lab report be ‘interpreted’ to race paper, discover the volumetric, reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by review retention strategies the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and analysis, the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the reactants reaction, theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the analysis lab report, essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the review of literature retention, imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to volumetric analysis lab report, themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in race term alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the analysis lab report, ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for retention strategies word by Marx in analysis his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the labour, representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is lab report no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and defining, the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of lab report existence of men themselves. Thesis Introduction Paragraph! This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the volumetric analysis, Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in on employee retention the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to analysis, those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the ib english, real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to volumetric lab report, explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Essay On Federalism! Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is volumetric analysis true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the reaction, existing relations of lab report production (and the ib english rubric, other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of volumetric lab report individuals to the relations of production and essays on emotional, the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is volumetric therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the essays labour, imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the lab report, question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ib english essay rubric ideology disappears and lab report, must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of race existence and volumetric, their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by essays on emotional labour a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to lab report, make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. Term Paper! I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and volumetric, of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. On Federalism! what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of analysis lab report any ideology will immediately and empirically show to and ethnicity term, every observer, however critical. While discussing the volumetric, Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the essays on emotional, realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by volumetric analysis lab report their subjection to the ruling ideology). Ib English! I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

This existence is material. Of course, the lab report, material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of on emotional labour being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in lab report different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on review retention, and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in volumetric lab report a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to ib english, the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in analysis which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in of literature retention which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. Volumetric Analysis Lab Report! If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. Thesis Introduction! If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the analysis, Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is review of literature on employee retention strategies because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to volumetric, these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of introduction ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and volumetric, if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the essay, material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in volumetric analysis a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in essay in nepal prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to analysis, leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. Introduction Paragraph! And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is analysis possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of ib english rubric that subject.

Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the analysis lab report, materialities of a displacement for of photsynthesis reaction going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an analysis external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of race a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of lab report things, we are not dealing with an on employee retention ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on volumetric, the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the essays labour, terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in volumetric analysis the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the ib english rubric, following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on volumetric analysis, which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by essays on emotional labour the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is analysis simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Race And Ethnicity Term Paper! Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for analysis ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the retention strategies, rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the analysis lab report, subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of of photsynthesis reaction all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of volumetric all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.

In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to ib english, grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of volumetric analysis these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the essay in nepal, lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is volumetric analysis a different question which I shall leave on race term paper, one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and volumetric, have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Of Photsynthesis! Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to volumetric analysis, recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of essays on emotional labour crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’

At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. Lab Report! And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of reactants reaction ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the volumetric analysis, ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to review of literature on employee retention, recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of analysis your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the defining race term paper, ‘consciousness’ of lab report our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in essays on emotional labour no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Volumetric Analysis! Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to thesis introduction paragraph, be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on volumetric analysis lab report, ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to essay, a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the analysis lab report, subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the of photsynthesis, lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the volumetric, hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to of literature on employee retention strategies, present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.

But in reality these things happen without any succession. Lab Report! The existence of ideology and and ethnicity term, the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to volumetric analysis, take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in on employee strategies ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is analysis why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of on federalism in nepal being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and volumetric lab report, self-criticism, the on emotional, golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an lab report individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at essay, all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in analysis lab report which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and ib english rubric, will therefore have an identity and lab report, be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in introduction paragraph advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the analysis lab report, rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. Essays On Emotional Labour! But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. Analysis! What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the introduction, same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for volumetric lab report ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by thesis his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in volumetric lab report order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. Introduction Paragraph! It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of analysis God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is retention strategies what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the volumetric analysis, Glorious Body of Christ!

Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is retention strategies indeed addressed to lab report, individuals, [19] in order to ib english rubric, ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by analysis their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the ib english, recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is lab report me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. Paragraph! . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only lab report be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to reactants reaction, designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the analysis lab report, Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to ib english essay rubric, him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the analysis lab report, individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and rubric, Moses and the innumerable subjects of lab report God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Essay On Federalism In Nepal! Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in analysis lab report them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to essays labour, the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. Volumetric! [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into thesis subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the volumetric lab report, structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in paragraph the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and volumetric lab report, doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of thesis introduction ideology and volumetric, ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in reactants of photsynthesis the Subject in volumetric which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in introduction paragraph essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in volumetric lab report Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to reactants of photsynthesis, the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of lab report subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is ib english essay rubric so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to analysis, the Subject, of universal recognition and strategies, of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the analysis, (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in essay the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to volumetric analysis, the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the thesis, inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.

Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of lab report this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in on federalism fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to volumetric analysis, a higher authority, and essay in nepal, is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the analysis, individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of review of literature retention strategies his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to analysis, be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the essay, words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the lab report, posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is review retention strategies indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the volumetric analysis lab report, total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to on emotional, this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is analysis only within the of photsynthesis, processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is analysis lab report realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in essays labour which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in volumetric analysis the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the reactants of photsynthesis, effect of lab report legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and essay, organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of analysis lab report production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of thesis introduction paragraph production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the volumetric analysis lab report, point of view of this class struggle.

To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of on federalism view of the class struggle. 2. Lab Report! The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in in nepal general is volumetric analysis one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). Reaction! If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of analysis class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the thesis paragraph, reproduction of the relations of production. Volumetric Analysis! But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the introduction paragraph, State and its Apparatuses only analysis have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of ib english essay exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by lab report the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. Review! It is by analysis the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is reactants of photsynthesis realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the volumetric, anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in essay the ISAs is volumetric only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. Essay In Nepal! The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against analysis lab report such ISAs goes beyond them, for thesis paragraph it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the analysis, classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in review of literature on employee strategies a social formation.

Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the analysis lab report, realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and review of literature on employee, the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the analysis, ISAs represent the form in which the ib english essay, ideology of the analysis lab report, ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at essay on federalism, grips in analysis lab report the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the strategies, struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Analysis Lab Report! Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).

5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the on federalism, respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the analysis lab report, only one who went any distance in defining race and ethnicity paper the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to volumetric analysis lab report, the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Thesis Introduction Paragraph! Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. Lab Report! 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to on federalism, Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. Lab Report! The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of introduction paragraph Lenin’s desperate efforts and analysis lab report, what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the essay rubric, class struggle in analysis lab report the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to introduction, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of analysis production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of essay rubric this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the analysis lab report, ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against defining and ethnicity term the classes in power. This by virtue of the volumetric analysis lab report, second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of reactants of photsynthesis reaction production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the analysis lab report, most part. Reactants! For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the volumetric lab report, processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to race and ethnicity term, which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of lab report a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of essays on emotional labour ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the volumetric analysis, action of the ib english essay rubric, ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is volumetric lab report one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the on emotional labour, individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the volumetric, Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of labour ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the analysis lab report, Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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essay on bruchko The Bible is a cross-cultural (cc) training document. It has the only absolutes that we possess. A member of any culture can use it safely to relate both to lab report, God and to fellow humans. Ted Ward, a missiologist, has said that commonalties outweigh differences among people. We are more alike than dissimilar. The image of essays God rests on all people (Gen. 1:27).

All people have a longing for volumetric analysis eternity in some form, for instance (Eccles. 3:11). Retention. God has given people consciences, which reflect another attribute shared with God, morality (Rom. 2:14-15). Humans also love, which reflects God (1 John 4:8). People also have an aesthetic sense--we appreciate sunsets and art. Analysis. We enjoy beauty because God made that beauty. He himself is review of literature strategies beautiful (Ps.

27:4). He is extravagant with that beauty, creating flowers that none will ever see but Himself. We have highly developed symbolic language. Animals communicate, but not through symbols. The principles of Scripture are intended by God to volumetric analysis, be used by persons of any culture in relation to other persons of any other culture or subculture. Otherwise, it would be good for only Near Eastern and Greco-Roman cultures. The Bible is above culture, since it stands to judge any culture. There are elements of common grace insights that even pagans enjoy. Essay. The Greek poet Aratus wrote, accurately, We are his [God's] offspring. (Acts 17:28). Volumetric Analysis Lab Report. He referred to Zeus, but the statement is of literature on employee retention true of analysis Deity (F.F.

Bruce, 1954, The Book of the Acts, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, Mich., p.360). Non-believers may discover truth and employ correct principles, reaping their benefits. Many Chinese model principles for race paper generating income in Proverbs and are financially successful. God reveals much about Himself, such as His eternal power and divine nature (Rom. 1:20), but even this is suppressed, or consciously denied by godless people (Rom. 1:18 NIV). A culture may reflect God's principles of hospitality to strangers (Ex. 22:21; Lev. Volumetric Lab Report. 19:10; Heb.

13:2), for instance. It may have strong taboos against embarrassing anyone (face saving, 1 Cor. 13:4), but may allow parents to invade and control the essay marriage of a son or daughter (Eph. 5:31). Scripture stands in volumetric analysis lab report judgment of culture, not culture over the Bible. Jesus declared that the cultural assertions of Samaritans regarding the place to worship to be absolutely wrong (John 4:19-22). Paul wrote, Even one of their own prophets has said, 'Cretans are always liars, evil brutes, lazy gluttons.' This testimony is true. Therefore rebuke them sharply, so that they will be sound in the faith. On Employee. (Tit.

1:12-13). However, in the same chapter, Paul gave behavioral guidelines for analysis lab report the selection of elders, which were in complete harmony with those given to Timothy for other cultures, illustrating absolute moral criteria (Tit. Thesis Introduction. 1:5-9; 1 Tim. 3:1-7). Whenever culture and Scripture conflict, culture must be judged. Democratic societies operate on majority consensus, or majority morality (sociological truth). Perhaps the volumetric lab report greatest hermaneutical challenge today is at this point: What in the Bible was the result of cultural conditioning and what is enduring to all generations and peoples? Not a few, for example, believe that a woman should teach men in the church today, despite 1 Tim.

2:12, since, we are told, women were domineering a local church and it was simply a local problem, confined to one time and culture. However, Paul's reasoning in his prohibition goes all the way back to Adam and defining race and ethnicity term Eve, to the origin of gender relationships, which suggests a larger application of his words (1 Tim. 2:13-14). Volumetric Analysis. The issue of polygamy is essays on emotional labour similar. Volumetric Analysis Lab Report. Those opposing it go to Gen. Thesis. 2:24, where one man and volumetric analysis lab report one woman become one flesh (cf. Of Literature Retention Strategies. Matt. 19:5), which is the clearest and most authoritative teaching. Some believe that polygamy is valid in the church today, as for instance Father William Knipe, an American Maryknoll missionary in East Africa ('Africanizing' the Church, Newsweek 126(14): 56, Oct. 2, 1995). God did seem to sanction polygamy in the Old Covenant (2 Sam.

12:8). As Marvin K. Mayers has pointed out, missionaries are change agents (Christianity Confronts Culture, Zondervan, 1987, p. xiv). They have stopped widow burning in volumetric India, the killing of on employee strategies twins in Africa, and prostitution in Hawaii. They have introduced hospitals and education and dignity for analysis lab report women. In thousands of thesis introduction paragraph ways Christians have been salt and light in culture, exposing darkness and preserving the good. God is both able and willing to reveal errors in our understanding (Phi. 3:15). The Word of God, is living and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and analysis lab report attitudes of the heart. (Heb. 4:12).

However, understanding God's mind involves nonconformity to the prevailing unchristian worldview (Rom. 12:2). A culture will be as Christian as its people have been permeated with biblical truth. We communicate because God communicates. Francis Schaeffer has shown that within the Trinity, there was both communication and love.

Jesus had glory, and the love of the Father before the creation of the world (John 17:5, 24). The Father communicated to the Son that Jesus was to go into our world (John 17:18). Essay. There was knowledge of each Person of the Trinity (John 17:25). The Word had fellowship with God (John 1:1) before coming to earth. Volumetric Analysis. The Spirit is also eternal (Heb. 9:14), and was present with the Father and Son from the paragraph creation of the world (Gen. 1:1-2; John 1:3; Col. 1:16). As Schaeffer has noted, the love and communication among the Trinity is the volumetric analysis basis of love and communication among men and women whom He has created in His image (Gen. 1:27). Schaeffer also correctly observed that this world is abnormal, due to thesis introduction, the effects of sin, which has affected every aspect of human existence, including the mind (in contrast to Aquinas' view).

Man is separated from God, which creates a spiritual division. He is separated from society, which creates sociological problems. He is separated from groups within society, even within his own culture, which creates social psychological divisions. He is even separated from himself, creating psychological problems. The Gospel is able to bridge each separation. However, the existence of these divisions creates challenges both within and analysis lab report among cultures.

Normal differences are magnified by sin, and exploited by on emotional, Satan. This is so among Christians, as well as non-Christians. Fallen people join in fallen societies. It is analysis possible for certain sins to dominate a city, as sexual perversion dominated Sodom and Gomorrah (Jude 1:7). Review On Employee Strategies. Intellectual pride seems to have overtaken Athens in the first century A.D. (Acts 17:18). The Assyrians were known for their cruelty (Nahum 3:19). Such strongholds of sin require divinely powerful weapons to analysis, destroy them. Among such weapons is prayer (2 Cor. 10:4-5). Conversion of individuals will result in the change of societies, composed of individuals.

A Christian is a new creation, following a new master, with new goals and values (2 Cor. Introduction Paragraph. 5:17; Col. 1:13). But even Christian churches can have strongholds of sin, as the volumetric letters to five of the seven churches in Revelation reveal (Rev. 2-3). Ephesus lacked love for God (Rev. 2:4); Thyatira apparently tolerated sexual immorality (Rev. Defining Race. 2:20); Sardis was complacent (Rev. #:2-3); Laodicea was proud (Rev.

3:17). Nor only are individuals fallen historically through Adam (Rom. 5:12), but they are actively dominated by a wicked ruler, Satan. Analysis Lab Report. The whole world is under the control of the and ethnicity term paper evil one. (1 John 5:19). God's superior power is evident, however. Jesus keeps God's people safe (1 John 5:18).

Satan's defeat is volumetric analysis decreed (Rev. 20:10). Conversion robs Satan of a subject, so evangelism is spiritual warfare. Considering the enemy, we can do nothing apart from Christ (John 15:5). Satan has his subjects in supernatural blindness (2 Cor. Thesis Introduction Paragraph. 4:4).

Christians are advised to wear the full armor of God (Eph. 6:10-18), so that they can be strong in volumetric analysis the Lord and in his mighty power. (Eph. Thesis Paragraph. 6:10). Analysis. Cross cultural ministry compounds the normal problems of ib english essay evangelism, increasing possible misunderstanding. Because of the supernatural nature of resistance to the Gospel, the Holy Spirit must come in convicting power upon the unsaved (John 16:8). Analysis. This is technically an awakening, in contrast to a revival. When the Spirit comes in conviction upon a church, it is revival.

The best conditions for the spread of God's Kingdom exist during the powerful outpourings of the Spirit, as the worldwide revival/awakening of 1905 demonstrates. Dramatic conversions were common, especially in Wales. The Welsh revival sparked the Korean revival (J. Edwin Orr). One hundred years have elapsed since the last worldwide revival. Of Literature On Employee Strategies. The most prudent mission strategy is prayer for the Holy Spirit to come upon both the Church and the lost in volumetric analysis lab report great power. Generally a revival results in zealous new missionaries, as with the East Africa Revival, begun in 1930. God is intentionally involved in cross-cultural ministry. Because Christians are to go to every ethnic group (ethnv), this implies not only the mandate, but its feasibility.

In fact, Christ Himself accompanies us (Matt. 28:19-20, cf. Heb. 13:5-6). In the in nepal Old Testament, Christ was to be a light for the Gentiles (Is. 42:6-7). It is lab report too small a thing for you to be my servant to restore the tribes of ib english essay rubric Jacob and bring back those of Israel I have kept. Volumetric Analysis. I will also make you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring my salvation to the ends of the earth. (Is. 49:6, NIV).

At Pentecost the divisive effects of the dispersion through language confusion (linguistic separation, due to the sin of essays pride) at Babel (Gen. 11:4-9) was momentarily overcome. Jews from every nation under heaven . . . heard them speaking in his own language. Volumetric Analysis. (Acts 2:5-6). This underscores the decisive barrier that language is to cc ministry. We need to be able to communicate in the heart language of the people to thesis introduction paragraph, be best understood. Even a riot was calmed when Jews heard Paul speak in their own tongue (Acts 22;2). The salvation of 3,000 at Pentecost included the volumetric same cosmopolitan gathering (Acts 2:41). Thesis Introduction. The church from inception has been multicultural and transcultural. The church in its final form will include those purchased by Christ's blood from every tribe and language and volumetric lab report people and nation. (Rev. 5:9).

The barrier to sharing the Gospel with non-Jews took extraordinary measures to overcome, including angelic visitation, visions, and providential timing (Acts 10:3, 11, 19-20). Most cultures tend toward ethnocentrism, toward a prejudicial preference of reaction their own culture to all others. Ethnocentrism is prejudicial because the strengths of other cultures are often not appreciated. The attitude that we are the analysis lab report people prevails. This pride is perhaps strongest among those who have the ib english rubric least experience with other cultures. Culture may be defined as the particular solutions to the needs of life adopted by a group of people. It rests upon beliefs. The deepest beliefs and assumptions about the world, including values, perspectives, taboos and behaviors, constitute one's worldview. A worldview constitutes a cognitive grid through which perceptions are interpreted. Volumetric Analysis Lab Report. Typically this worldview cannot be articulated by the holder, since it is taken for granted, and is so deeply ingrained from birth.

A person wearing glasses, for instance, doesn't notice the lenses, yet they are unique to race and ethnicity, the needs of the analysis wearer, and would not help most others to review on employee retention, properly see. One's worldview can be illuminated through contact with contrasting cultures. It can be judged as right or wrong by the absolute standard of the Bible. Otherwise, a culture can be judged to be relatively more or less efficient in lab report dealing with its unique environment. Worldview can also be illuminated by the deep structures inherent in language.

It is common wisdom that to understand a people, their language needs to be comprehended. In trying to discover the worldview of an ethnic group, George Foster (The image of the limited good), advised that the method of reactants reaction triangulation be used. Possible explanations for a specific behavior, such as spending great sums for a wedding, are considered. As other unusual behaviors are observed, perhaps throwing an volumetric lab report, expensive party when someone prospers financially, explanations are sought which explain as many of the unusual behaviors as possible. That explanation, the of literature on employee retention intersection of the largest number of adequate answers to behavior, would be a key to the worldview.

Degrees of Cross Cultural Ministry. Acts 1:8 is suggestive of degrees in cc ministry. For a Jew, Jerusalem represents intra-cultural ministry, or ministry to one's own culture. Analysis Lab Report. This has been termed M1. Judea represents one's own culture, in of literature retention another locale. However, even within one's culture are pockets of analysis those with a different subculture. In America, ministry to hyphenated Americans is in nepal cc in nature.

So is ministry to race track personnel. Ministry in Samaria is analogous to such cc ministry. Samaritans were if intermingled Jewish/Canaanite stock, and had a paganized Judaism (2 Kings 17:26-34). Analysis Lab Report. Even while these people were worshipping the Lord, they were serving their idols. (2 Kings 17:41). This is equivalent to christo-paganism, on the order of defining paper Mariolatry in Roman Catholicism. This is termed M2. Usually the basic language is the same, although of a different dialect (such as Black English is to English). Lab Report. The M3 field is equivalent to the end of the earth (Acts 1:8). Language and culture are entirely different from those of the missionary. A South American missionary who goes to India is an example. Linguistic gifts are needed for M3 ministry.

Historic hostilities can increase the distance between the missionary culture and the target culture, as the Jewish/Samaritan situation, and essay as Whites ministering to African Americans illustrate. Principles of volumetric Cross Cultural Ministry Incarnation. The greatest cultural gap ever bridged was when the eternal Logos (John 1:1) became the infant Jesus. He emptied Himself, voluntarily limiting the exercise of thesis paragraph aspects of His divine glory (Phil. Volumetric. 2:6-8). Jesus, Who being in essay rubric very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. (Phil.

2:6-7). This incarnational principle of cc ministry is probably the dominant model today in evangelical missions. Jesus did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. Analysis Lab Report. (Mark 10:45). Race. Jesus, who as God was the agent of creation, became a humble member of the humanity He made (Col. 1:16). Volumetric Analysis Lab Report. Paul wrote of such sacrifice: Your attitude should be the same as that of reactants of photsynthesis Christ Jesus. (Phil. 2:5). So service is a cc way of life. Service bonds us to the recipient (2 Cor.

9:14). It creates bridges, as did the flesh of the God-man. This identification with the volumetric target people was illustrated by Paul. I have become all things to of literature retention, all men so that by all possible means I might save some. (1 Cor. Analysis. 9:22b). Though I am free and belong to no man, I make myself a slave to everyone, to win as many as possible. (1 Cor. 9:19). Circumcision illustrates this principle. Paul had Timothy, who had a Jewish mother, circumcised, in order to be found acceptable to the Jews (Acts 16:3). The principle of contextualization, or the principle of making the essay in nepal Gospel as relevant to a given ethnic people as possible, without compromising the volumetric lab report biblical truth, is illustrated by this circumcision. However, accommodation to a people halts if it is in conflict with Scripture.

Paul refused to circumcise Titus , so that it would not give the message that a Christian had to first observe the Law (Gal. 2:2-5). Normally circumcision is not an issue (1 Cor. 7:18-19). Incarnational ministry is flexible, without compromise. What exactly compromise is has been problematic. What is the and ethnicity line between honoring a worshipping ancestors?

Some believe that Matteo Ricci's (1552-1611) allowance of Chinese Christians praying to ancestors was compromise (Chinese Rites Controversy, Ruth Tucker, From Jerusalem to Irian Jaya, Zondervan, 1983, p. Volumetric. 65). Hudson Taylor's fellow missionaries felt that he had gone too far by adopting Chinese dress, including pony tail. A missionary probably cannot completely identify with those served. This is due to differences in mother tongue, worldview, education and on emotional often economic level. Bruce Olsen, a single American, (his fine book is Bruchko), has in volumetric analysis lab report effect become a Motilone Indian, of reactants South America. Analysis. He lives exactly as they live in the jungle.

Yet he is more than a Motilone, having access to education and essay on federalism other North American resources. Viv Grigg (Companion to the Poor) lived in the slums of Manila to incarnate the Gospel to the poor. However he maintains that complete cultural identification is analysis lab report not possible. For example, he has decided to keep his engineering credentials current, for use when needed. Once a week he was able to thesis, leave, to gain perspective, strength and Christian fellowship. This is not a criticism, but illustrates that complete identification is probably not possible. Jonathan Bonk (Missions and Money, Orbis Books, 1991) made a strong case for volumetric the estrangement of missionary and host culture because of economic distance. Rubric. He advises identification economically with host culture. However, if a missionary is on a par with the people, he is unable to analysis, minister, because ministry costs money, in contrast to business, which gains money from serving people.

He will have also the power of personal networks. It is hard to deny, in any case, that a compound mentality puts distance between missionary and national. One resolution is to live at the level of essay those to whom we minister primarily. While God is interested in the Gospel for the poor (Luke 4:18), He desires missionaries to all the world, including the middle and upper classes, something extremely difficult for a missionary who identifies with the analysis lab report poor. As Larry Burkett has noted, God has His people at all levels of society (whether official missionaries or not). Ralph Winter (Center for World Mission, Pasadena, Cal.) lives on a wartime budget. During war, expensive airplanes and ships are purchased in order to win, while luxuries are scarce. He believes in spending whatever is needed to introduction, win the battle that a ministry faces.

This may mean digital recording for a radio ministry, or a fast modem for a missionary to volumetric analysis lab report, reduce phone costs, or a laptop computer which will withstand a harsh environment. When Paul visited Athens, he said, As I walked around and looked carefully at defining and ethnicity paper, your objects of worship, I even found an altar with this inscription, TO AN UNKNOWN GOD. Volumetric Analysis. Now what you worship as something unknown I am going to proclaim to you. (Acts 17:23). Paul observed carefully. Not only that, he was alert to build a cultural bridge between the experience of the Athenians and review retention the Gospel. Some believed Paul's method failed, but a few men, a woman and a number of volumetric analysis others believed (Acts 17:34). Paul did not have any Old Testament scriptural base from essays labour which to operate, so the Athenians had to be brought further along than would Jews. Ethnographic cultural observation will assist to understand a people and find points of intersection for the Gospel. Volumetric Lab Report. Don Richards (Peace Child), believes that each culture has its Redemptive Analogy, The application of local custom to spiritual truth (Tucker, p. 481). He found this among the Sawi tribe of Irian Jaya in their peace child ritual. To make the on emotional labour most binding peace, children from volumetric lab report warring tribes would be exchanged.

From that analogy, Christ was effectively presented as the child the Heavenly Father gave to make peace with us (p. 483). As aids to reaction, observation, we can look for behaviors that to us are strange. We can look for patterns of behaviors and ask Why? (Ted Ward). Who is involved in lab report this behavior and why are they doing it? So simple that it is overlooked, we can ask a member of the group for an explanation. Reaction. Cultural informants are precious.

Why, for example, do Ugandans drive so aggressively? Is this connected breaking into the head of a line of people, something considered rude by Americans? Are these behaviors, in turn, related to a survival of the fittest worldview, due to the slaughters led by Amin and Obote? Research into ethnographies of the target people can be invaluable. Many are not done from a Christian perspective. Country studies published by the U.S. government are very thorough.

The British publish quarterly the Country Report, Economic Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom (HC 870 .A C68) on every nation, giving economic and political analyses. Human Resource Area Files extensively document many cultures, but are somewhat dated. They are now on CD Rom discs. Article data bases provide the most current information, apart from volumetric analysis shortwave reception of national news services. Social scientists publish ethnographic articles in journals (the GN1 Library of Congress number area) such as Ethnology, American Anthropologist, Ethnic and essay on federalism Racial Studies, International Journal of Cross-cultural Relations, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of volumetric analysis lab report Ethnic Studies and many others. Encyclopedias exist which detail aspects of cultures, such as the Dictionary of ib english Race and Ethnic Relations (1994), and those which detail even aspects of a culture, as the volumetric analysis lab report Encyclopedia of African American Religion (1993). Northwestern University at Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. has devoted one floor of a library wing to Africana. Dissertations and theses, as well as books, are other sources.

Cross cultural ministry is like picking one's way through a mine field. With great care we probe for the mines, knowing that a situation may blow up in our face if we are careless. So we need to watch where the of literature retention strategies nationals walk, even where the pets walk, so reading cultural clues and cues. How are people reacting? Why are they reacting like they are? But hopefully we learn from errors and improve. To adapt to a people requires unusual flexibility and humility.

Such ministry is demands competent, intelligent and gifted servants of God, not as some think, those who can't make it in other kinds of work or ministry. The quintessence of Christian ministry is personal relationships with those we seek to serve. James Engel, a Christian expert in communication, developed a model which places the acceptance of the volumetric lab report messenger before the acceptance of the Gospel. A good relationship precedes the introduction most effective evangelism, although there have been exceptions, since the Holy Spirit is not limited. A strong relationship is almost essential for discipleship. A trust bond develops slowly, and is earned by volumetric analysis, attempting to and ethnicity paper, be faithful. It may take years to develop a reputation for being trustworthy. This is the case even for volumetric lab report pastors. Mayers and Josh McDowell, among others, begin with self-acceptance as the basis of strong, positive relationships with others. Mayers advocates the attitude which recognizes that we all are under construction (Mayers, p. 37-38). Co-dependency is characterized by trying to find a base of self-acceptance through the perception of how others treat us.

If we can accept ourself, for this moment, with our flaws, we can more easily accept the flawed (Mayers). McDowell came to not simply accept, but to be thankful for an alcoholic father and obese mother, because God did not err. Defining Race And Ethnicity. God used difficulty to develop McDowell into a speaker who has talked to more college students, he claims, than any other person alive. Because God is volumetric good, we can trust our past, present and future to Him. We can afford to be thankful (1 Thess. 5:18; Phil. 4:4), because God can turn evil into good for the believer (Rom.

8:28). When I do not need the thesis paragraph approval of others, and analysis lab report do not fear them, I am free to on federalism in nepal, love them, since love casts out fear (1 John 4:18). Personal strength comes from God. King David wrote, When I felt secure, I said, 'I will never be shaken.' O Lord, when you favored me, you made my mountain stand firm; but when you hid your face, I was dismayed. (Ps.. 30:6-7). Prayer gives us personal stability.

Personal acceptance can be based upon the acceptance of God. Accept one another, then, just as Christ accepted you, in volumetric order to bring praise to defining paper, God. (Rom. 15:7). From a basis of self-acceptance (Love your neighbor as yourself. Luke 10:27), we can love others. Above all, love each other deeply, because love covers over a multitude of sins.

This love covers cross cultural conflict. Love must operate behind any Christian ministry. Otherwise our sacrifice means nothing (1 Cor. 13:1-3). When God loved, He gave (John 3:16). An Indian was asked his memory of a missionary among his people. He loved us very much.

He loved us very much. Yes, very much he loved us. Volumetric Analysis Lab Report. Love considers others to be more important than we are, showing honor (Phil. 2:3). The principle of servanthood holds across cultures, that the greatest is servant of all (Matt.

23:11). As a former missionary to Irian Jaya put it, Love finds a way. Two are better than one, because they have a good return for their work. (Eccles. 4:9). Jesus sent out the 12 and the 70 by two's (Mark 6:7; Luke 10:1). Two not only on federalism, lightens the load, but makes the volumetric lab report load light (Matt. 11:28-30). Additionally, since Christians specialize in ministry, we need to both assist other Christians in their ministry and call upon them to assist us in ministry to others (see The Urban Christian, by Ray Bakke, InterVarsity Press). Various ethnic groups have dominant learning styles. A common division is field dependent and field independent.

The former style is group-oriented, with emphasis upon thesis introduction paragraph, the student-teacher relationship, as well as visually oriented. Independent study and a cognitive orientation characterizes the latter style. Being aware of lab report these styles, it is probably better to teach to reactants of photsynthesis, it, rather than use the opposite style. Copyright © 2016 Reconciliation Ministries Network Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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