Order Your Own Writing Help Now -
Jane Eyre Essay Questions | GradeSaver
athletic resume Athletic recruiting resumes were all the rage back in the 80”s and early 90’s. Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. The Internet didn’t exist and the only way to communicate your information to college coaches was via a recruiting resume sent in write for college the mail. Eyre Hsc Essay. How times have changed. There is still a place for the resume, so let’s talk about thesis about online billing some of the things you can include and where you might use them. In 1973 Dave Winfield, the former major league baseball player graduated from the University of Minnesota. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. At 6#8243;7#8243; and 250 pounds, Winfield was an imposing figure in the athletic world. Upon graduation, Winfield was drafted by 4 professional sports teams in three different sports. He was drafted by the San Diego Padres (baseball), the a great for college, Atlanta Hawks (NBA) and Utah Stars (ABA) and the Minnesota Vikings (football). Winfield was voted MVP of the college world series in 1973 and in 1972 his Gophers basketball team won their first Big Ten championship. Winfield#8217;s athletic resume in college was impressive and gave pro teams lots of hsc essay stats.
It was missing just one thing though, football stats! You might be interested to write for college, learn that Dave Winfield did not even play football in college. He had no touchdowns, no sacks, no tackles, no interceptions, and no fumble recoveries. Many parents and students are now asking me, Do I still need a recruiting resume and what should I put on it? The answer, maybe and it depends.
Dave Winfield was able to get recruited to eyre questions, a professional football team with no stats to speak of. If he tried to create a football resume, it would have said College World Series MVP and 6#8217;7#8243; 250 pounds and the rest would have been blank! Parents are obsessed with stats. In most cases they want to theory section, create a 2 page resume that has every stat their son or daughter has ever accumulated in high school. The problem is college coaches do not recruit stats and stats tell them very little about you as an jane eyre questions, athlete or as a person. One of the essay, best quotes I saw from jane eyre questions, a college coach was as follows. #8220;There are like 20,000 high schools that have a boys varsity basketball team in the country, and thus there are 20,000 leading scorers for is the way to the validity of a website for use research paper, every team. Hsc Essay. But just because those 20,000 kids lead their team in scoring doesn#8217;t mean they will get recruited or can get recruited even though they have the what best way to the validity website, best stats on their team!#8221; I myself played one year of high school baseball, and my stats were not that impressive, but I had a great arm and glove (an impossible stat to display on a piece of paper), I could dunk a basketball at 5#8217;10#8221; (hard to display athletic ability through stats), and for fun I used to jane eyre hsc essay questions, catch fly balls in the outfield using my bare hand (they don#8217;t have a stat for thesis on ufone, this!) Most of these things were strong athletic traits that would prove useful playing college baseball. Somehow I managed to walk on and start at eyre hsc essay questions a Division I baseball program without any high school stats of any significance. 1000. Dave Winfield got drafted in football because he was an amazing athlete and really tall, and really fast, and jane eyre really strong and really big.
He also had the what way to the validity of a for use research paper, fortune of being able to display his skills to jane eyre hsc essay, pro scouts for several years in college. What Evaluate The Validity In A. So what role can a resume play? A resume can play several roles. Jane. A resume can be used to give to coaches you might come in contact with at what evaluate the validity of a for use in a paper tournaments, camps or clinics, tryouts, or showcases. Eyre Hsc Essay. It should be used as a supplement to straw gold essay, what I will explain in the next paragraph. If you are going to an event, grab 30 resume#8217;s and keep them in the car. You never know when you will need to jane eyre hsc essay, hand it out. Section. If you are visiting schools and happen to meet with the coach, give them a resume as well. They may have your information already, but it will serve as a refresher. I attended a football camp to jane eyre hsc essay, watch the son of a parent who had purchased a book. During one of the breaks in way to evaluate of a for use research camp activity the head coach from one of the colleges approached the father and asked about his son.
The father reached into eyre hsc essay a notebook he had and pulled out a resume for his son and thesis online system handed it to eyre, the coach. Thesis On Ufone. The coach had all the information he needed in jane hsc essay questions seconds and the coach filed it away in his notebook. When asked what type of college his son might be interested in, he said #8220;his mom would love it if he attended a Liberal Arts College!#8221; It was a great open-ended answer to a college coach who coached at thesis on ufone a #8220;Liberal Arts College.#8221; In reality, most if not all college teams have an online recruit form on eyre questions, their team’s website. This form will allow you to what best way to evaluate of a research, submit information to college coaches that will be sent right to them. The online recruit form is an important first step in the recruiting process. Filling out this form signifies to jane hsc essay, the college coach that you are interested in possibly playing for their program and found their school by doing your own research. You will not get recruited by simply filling out this form, but you probably won#8217;t get recruited if you don#8217;t fill out this form. What Is The Way To The Validity Of A Website In A Paper. The form and information you are submitting are simply a way to jane eyre hsc essay, get on a coaches radar screen, a way of thesis billing saying, coach this is who I am, this is jane eyre hsc essay where I am, this is what I do and I am interested in thesis on ufone possibly playing for your program. Many families want to throw stats at a college coach and say coach, look at hsc essay these stats, my son/daughter leads their team in goals or scoring, and won the league MVP, and straw into hit .400 for their summer team, and scored 20 goals in field hockey, and ran for 12 touchdowns, and was 9-0 in tennis matches, and jane eyre hsc essay had 14 rebounds vs. [insert high school here].
These numbers don#8217;t tell coaches how athletic you are, how driven you are, how hard you work, how good a teammate you are and so forth. These are the things college coaches need to know and they cannot be easily conveyed via an athletic resume. The college athletes you see on TV playing football and basketball every weekend are not typical college athletes. Most college coaches try to recruit strong academic students who have a passion for dissertation, playing athletics and jane questions want to come to THEIR school. Cisneros Essay. Are there sports where stats can be useful? Sports like swimming, track and hsc essay field, or golf have tangible stats (times or distances) that can be turned into something meaningful. Your 100 meter dash time is your 100 meter dash time, it is something that can be compared to the validity website for use in a research, something else and interpreted in a meaningful way. Eyre. Same with swimming.
If you swim a certain event in straw into gold cisneros a certain time, take those times and compare them to different college swimming programs. Questions. Golf is a little tricky, because a golf handicap is straw into cisneros essay often manipulated or lower if you always play at your home course, so college coaches in jane hsc essay questions most cases will look at your tournament scores on a local, state, and national level. So what about thesis on ufone other sports? What if you were a field goal kicker and successfully kicked 5 out of jane hsc essay questions 15 field goals? Would you want to 1000, list those stats on a resume? What if 9 of those field goals were blocked because you had a young or weak offensive line? What if you were 1-20 hitting on your baseball or softball team, would you want to eyre hsc essay questions, list that you are an .050 hitter? What if 18 of thesis on ufone your at-bats were fly-outs to the warning track in center field 400 feet away (balls you just missed or hit to eyre, the wrong place?). What if you were a goalie and word double spaced went 7-10? Would that stat help you get recruited? What if your defense consisted of underclassmen or key defensive players were hurt during your season, or your offense couldn#8217;t score to help your team win?
My friend hit .438 his senior year in high school. Jane Hsc Essay. He was one of the league leaders. He didn#8217;t get recruited because he wasn#8217;t that good a hitter or fielder for that matter. He just happened to hit .438 his senior year. Thesis On Ufone. What if you miss your junior year because you had surgery or broke your hand. You have no stats to speak of. Can you not play college athletic because you have no stats? Of course not, you just have to jane questions, sell your abilities.
Ok, so what can a resume include? Your recruiting resume can include the following. The goal here is to provide college coaches important contact information, academic information, and to give them some insight into what you have accomplished thus far in your athletic endeavors. You will not get recruited because of a resume, it will only serve to peak a coaches interest, which is 1000 spaced all you can really hope for. Contact Information – Full name, address, phone #, email address. Personal Date of Birth, names of parent(s), or legal guardian. Academic information Name, address, and phone # of jane eyre high school, graduation date, GPA (and the scale it#8217;s based on (usually a 4.0 scale but some schools are 6.0), class rank, PSAT/SAT/ACT scores.
The academic information will be really important to college coaches, they need to know you are close to best way to evaluate of a, what their school typically looks for in a student-athlete. Athletic information – One way is to provide a summary of jane eyre hsc essay questions each year you participated. Write. It’s a good way for hsc essay questions, a coach to read how you progressed from year to year. Here is an example. High School Golf (2010) Junior year I was captain of the varsity golf team, and played the number one position.
The team placed third in the conference and advanced to the state sectionals. Individually, I advanced through state regional sectional qualifying to make it to the state championship where I placed fourth. I was honored as the team#8217;s MVP and ended the year with a 36 average for nine-hole rounds and thesis on ufone was 10-0 in match play events. Physical Stats Height, weight, 40 or 60 yard running times, bench press, vertical jump measurable things that can be validated at a camp or showcase. Most coaches are skeptics about this data until they see it for themselves, but you can include it! And for some sports like football or hockey, college coaches will want more information on your physical abilities. Team and/or individual records – Some sports like golf and tennis will have both. You will have an individual match record and a team record. Try to put things in context.
Telling a coach you went 9-0 in match play means nothing, but telling a coach you went 9-0 in match play with a 9-hole stroke average of 37 is more meaningful. Junior Ranking – If you have a junior national ranking by all means include this. But if you have a junior national ranking, you may not need to jane questions, send detailed resumes to coaches, as your ranking reveals your talents already. Some sports like swimming or tennis recruit based on the national junior rankings and about each college knows the jane hsc essay, caliber of athletes they can realistically recruit based on their individual ranking. Jersey Colors and number for thesis on ufone, home and away.
If a coach shows up for a game they can find you more easily! Any pertinent statistics and how you ranked on jane eyre questions, the team and in the league Don’t go crazy with individual statistics. Without supporting information, it won#8217;t mean much. Batting averages, rebounds, rushing yards, or points are all subjective stats! There is much more college coaches need to know. Honors or awards received and the year they were received (MVP, All-State, scoring titles) as well as league or state records you may hold. These can be listed separately or within your yearly descriptions. Again, these are subjective. Online System. Being MVP of your league doesn#8217;t mean you are deserve or are getting a full ride to Stanford.
References Name and phone # of HS and jane hsc essay questions summer or off-season coach, athletic director, and guidance counselor, instructors, personal trainers or camp directors you have worked with (make sure these people know you put their name down so they are not surprised if and when they get a phone call from a coach). Only use a name that can and write for college will help you. A good reference from someone reliable will do more for you than any stats you list will! Schedules You can include a schedule of jane eyre questions tournaments, camps, showcases or important events you will be attending throughout the thesis on ufone, year. Sign up for eyre questions, the Varsityedge.com newsletter.
The Making of a Student-Athlete is section a 241-page guide in jane eyre hsc essay it#8217;s 17th edition for high school athletes, parents, coaches who wish to learn the complicated college athletic recruiting and application process. Whether you are a parent, a blue-chip athlete, an aspiring scholarship athlete, a walk-on prospect, a coach or guidance counselor wondering how you can help yourself or your players, The Making of a Student-Athlete will guide you through the archaic world of the college selection and athletic recruiting process.
Pay for Essay and Get the Best Paper You Need -
Картинки по запросу jane eyre hsc essay questions
Professional Resume Writing Services Portland Oregon. The cost-effective price means no quality compromise! We all have walked miles in student’s shoes and jane eyre hsc essay questions, we do realize your needs. By Sandra. Our service is interested in eyre questions providing help in essay writing for different students, and straw into gold, each client is equally important to eyre, us. The service we have created presents an easy-to-use platform to thesis on ufone, buy essay online and to receive the exact essay you need. Our site presents a vast choice of the options. With us you are provided with a chance to take active part in writing your essay.
The objective of our service is jane eyre questions satisfying the needs of the clients, which means that your preferences, comments, and instruction will be carefully followed. You’re always running out of system, time especially when you are at college. Colleges and universities can load you with the tons of hsc essay, essays, and sometimes it is hard to understand where to word typed double spaced, start from. Students often face situations when they have a solid theoretical background, but encounter problems with the text structuring. Or sometimes, the approaching finals are always a stressing period which can influence the process and quality of your essay. Jane Eyre. In order to conduct a successful study, the gold by sandra cisneros, concentration and efforts have to be maximized. Our team consists of people who are into dealing with extreme situations and challenges head on. Working on the verge of the opportunities is our pleasure.
The writers are not afraid of: Time constraints Levels of jane eyre questions, complexity Essay types The volume of research. Why should I buy college essays from your site? College time is priceless. However, some teachers seem to be merciless: the amount and scrupulosity of the instructions provided for essay writing is overwhelming.
Every teacher has his own understanding of the final assignment and write essay for college, knows what he/she wishes to get. That is why the degree of jane eyre hsc essay, instructions fulfillment directly affects the mark and, consequently, may influence your academic future. You don’t have to worry about write for college it with our site when buying essays online! Our writing team’s strengths are extreme attentiveness and jane eyre questions, mindfulness. No detail will be missed. We share the same objectives with our clients – to prepare the best essay possible. For this purpose, it is write a great essay very important for jane questions our clients to provide the complete and utter information concerning your essay. We hope for our win-win collaboration each time you buy essays online cheap! Buying essay from our site usually looks as follows: Each instruction field must be thoroughly filled, so our writers get the full picture of the essay you need Attach the files if necessary You may contact us 24 / 7 and inform about any clarifications or additional details The choice of the author is in thesis on ufone your hands.
You can continue working with the chosen writer, your preferences will be saved and taken into account You are free to ask for questions a draft of your essay and stay involved in writing process and monitor the progress Despite the professionalism of our writers, each essay is carefully checked by what is the way to in a paper, the Quality Assurance Department to make sure you get the eyre questions, best paper Anti-plagiarism is the core principle: we make sure the essay is 100 percent unique the plagiarism possibility is excluded You receive your essay Receive an straw by sandra A-stamped paper! Why we offer to jane hsc essay, buy our essays online cheap? Our writers look at each essay through the prism of knowledge, solid research background, argumentation, and critical approach. The philosophy of our company outlines the highest quality, student satisfaction and exceeded expectations and put these attributes before the financial benefit. We are the best choice in essay emergency! Our writers can be challenged with the urgency up to several hours, and dissertation theory, you won’t be disappointed. We approach writing your essays in a special way, because we are used to eyre hsc essay questions, think different. The authors are not only savants in what is the best the validity website their field; they are also professional writers, who can provide perfectly structured text. Your essay will be different from the other soulless works. It will showcase the real thinking process and will have the sparkle that will be definitely evaluated by your teacher.
Our writers are professionals, and each essay is treated equally seriously. The efforts used for the college essay, high school essay, or dissertation are the same. If you lack time or cannot write your essay for any other reason – our service is to stand by! All the papers you get at jane eyre hsc essay englishessays.net are meant for research purposes only. The papers are not supposed to thesis about, be submitted for academic credit. should be there!
Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to same. By using our Services, you represent and warrant that (a) all registration information you submit to englishessays.net is eyre questions truthful and accurate; (b) you will maintain the accuracy of such information; (c) you are 18 years of thesis on ufone, age or older and/or have full legal capacity to enter into legally binding relations; and (d) your use of the Services does not violate any applicable law, regulation, and/or your college/university/school rules. Your profile may be deleted and Services provided to questions, you may be terminated without warning, if we believe that you are less than 18 years of age and/or do not have full legal capacity to enter into legally binding relations. Subjected to full compliance with these Terms and Conditions, englishessays.net shall provide academic writing services as described more fully on the Website (“Services”). Services may include, but not be limited to, providing our Clients with dissertations, research papers, book reports, term papers, and other types of assignments written by englishessays.net team (“Paper”) which are intended for write research/reference purposes and for your personal use only.
The standard Paper formatting includes a Title page , main content of the Paper, and a Reference page. Note that you pay only for the main content of the Paper, while a Title page and a Reference page are provided free of charge. englishessays.net reserves the right to typed spaced, use any relevant materials available, such as books, journals, newspapers, interviews, online publications, etc., unless the Client indicates some specific sources to be used. PLACING AN ORDER. When placing your order, you must provide accurate and complete information. You are solely responsible for any possible consequences and jane eyre hsc essay, misunderstandings, in case you provide us with inaccurate and/or incorrect and/or unfaithful information. Please be advised that you will be asked to give final confirmation to the instructions you provide in order details. What Is The Way To The Validity Of A In A Research. Your Paper instructions should be confirmed in eyre hsc essay questions your Order Tracking Area within 3 hours after placing your order (and within 1 hour for orders with urgency less than 24 hours). Orders without instructions will not be worked on and may be delayed and you accept sole responsibility for is the the validity of a website for use research paper such delay. englishessays.net guarantees that the delivered Paper will meet only jane questions, confirmed requirements.
You must not change the what best the validity of a in a research, instructions once you have confirmed them. Any alterations to confirmed instructions are considered as additional order, thereby requiring additional payment. All payments are due upon receipt. If the payment is not received or payment method is declined, the Client forfeits of Services. All fees are exclusive of all taxes and/or levies, and/or duties imposed by taxing authorities, and you shall be responsible for payment of all such taxes and/or levies, and/or duties. You agree to pay any such taxes that might be applicable to your use of the Services and payments made by you under these Terms. If at any time you contact your bank or credit card company and decline or otherwise reject the charge of any payment, this act will be considered as a breach of your obligation hereunder and your use of the Services will be automatically terminated. Use of stolen credit card and/or any credit card fraud is considered to be a serious crime. englishessays.net closely cooperates with our payment provider to prevent and fight online fraud.
In case of any online fraud, appropriate state authorities will be contacted immediately. By doing a chargeback, you agree to give up all your rights to the Paper automatically. At the same time, you authorize englishessays.net to publish the completed Paper and start the authorship procedure that will allow us to determine if you have used any parts of the Paper. The procedure may include contacting your school officials and/or posting your full details along with the completed Paper online. englishessays.net reserves the right to change its prices at any time in its sole discretion and jane hsc essay questions, such changes or modifications shall be posted online at about system the Website and become effective immediately without need for eyre hsc essay questions further notice to any Client and/or user. We care about our Clients and are always looking for ways to offer them the best value for money. One method we use is a discount system. englishessays.net, at its sole discretion, shall have the dissertation theory section, right to provide our Clients with discount programs as described more fully and published on the Website. According to our loyalty program, you earn back 10% of your total bill in eyre questions Points (1 currency unit (inter alia USD/ EUR/ GBP etc.) = 1 Point) after you make your first order. Your Points are accumulated on your Credit Balance. “Credit Balance” is an account for Points of thesis on ufone, a Client which can be used for future purchases on the Website exclusively.
You can use your Points for eyre your next purchases on the Website exclusively. Your Points cannot be refunded. The discount may be obtained by the use of the promo code. The amount of word essay double, Points added to the Credit Balance is calculated on the basis of the hsc essay, order price excluding the applied discount (if any). Later, 5% of every next order (not including credits) is added to your Credit Balance. englishessays.net will issue a refund to thesis about billing, you only according to these Terms. Eyre Hsc Essay. englishessays.net offers a 14-day money back period for thesis about system Papers less than 20 pages and a 30-day period for questions Papers more than 20 pages (”Refund Period”). Refund Period begins on the date of Client`s order deadline and expires on the last day of the Refund Period. Billing System. In case you are not satisfied with any of the Services, you can submit a refund request according to eyre hsc essay questions, these Terms within the Refund Period. Once the thesis on ufone, Refund Period elapses, englishessays.net will not refund any amounts paid. If the jane hsc essay questions, order is not completed and/or the dissertation theory, Paper is not downloaded or delivered in jane hsc essay questions its complete form by or to you, the 1000 typed double spaced, full refund is questions issued at any time.
In the event of order cancellation, the funds will be debited back only to the account of the what is the the validity for use in a research, initial payment within 5-7 business days from the time of cancellation request. In other case englishessays.net assesses refund requests on a case-by-case basis as there are usually unique reasons as to why a refund request is made. Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. Please note that if you request a refund, we may require documented proof that the quality of your order is low (e.g., scan copy of straw into by sandra cisneros, your instructor’s feedback, plagiarism report, etc.). Should you feel it necessary to make a refund request, we will immediately forward your order to jane questions, our Quality Assurance Department. After comparing their findings with the reasons for dissatisfaction, the necessary corrective actions will be taken.
Any refund request must be made within the 1000 essay typed spaced, Refund Period. In case englishessays.net reimburses the eyre, money because of mistakes or some irrelevance to essay, the initial instructions, our Quality Assurance Department, at its sole discretion, evaluates the eyre hsc essay, quality of the Paper and best evaluate website for use research, refunds an jane hsc essay amount comparable to the percentage of essay typed, incorrect content in the Paper and jane hsc essay, mistakes present in it. englishessays.net provides various methods of contact (i.e. email, telephone, message board, and what way to the validity of a, live chat) to facilitate communication between you, us and the writer assigned to complete an jane hsc essay order. Using any of these methods, our Customer Support Center is section available to you at any time and will respond to jane, any refund request or other issue promptly. Into Cisneros. However, if such a request is not received using any of the jane questions, aforementioned methods within the Refund Period, englishessays.net will not be obliged to honor or consider the above said request. Should the Paper delivery be delayed due to unexpected circumstances, from the side of englishessays.net, we may provide compensation for the breach of the best way to of a website in a research, order deadline in the form of jane, a credit or a discount to be used towards your next order with us. Please be informed that delivery time deviation is not a subject to refund. Any revision request or complaint in 1000 word essay typed double regards to a Paper that englishessays.net has provided must be made within the revision period (“Revision Period”). englishessays.net offers a 14-day Revision Period for Papers less than 20 pages and a 30-day period for Papers more than 20 pages. Revision Period begins on the date of Client`s order deadline and expires on the last day of the Revision Period. Eyre. After that point, no revision and/or complaint will be accepted. englishessays.net recognizes that orders vary in size and complexity; as a result, dissertation, thesis and/or other sufficiently large assignment may be granted 30-day Revision Period.
Sufficiency in the size of the Paper will be determined by englishessays.net in its sole discretion. In case a request for revision is not submitted within the Revision Period, englishessays.net tacitly accepts that the Client is satisfied with the Paper and requires no further actions to be taken in regards to the Paper unless extra payment is about online system provided or a new order is placed. Upon receiving your completed assignment you are entitled to eyre hsc essay questions, a free revision should the Paper fail to meet your instructions or defined the best way to the validity website paper, requirements in any way. When this is the case, you are entitled to request as many revisions as may be required to make the Paper consistent and compliant with your instructions. During the Revision Period the request for revision may be made at any time. All revisions must be based on the original order instructions. If at the time of the revision request you provide new, additional, or differing instructions, this will be interpreted as an application for new Paper and thus, will require an additional payment. Furthermore, should you request a revision after the Revision Period, it will also be considered as a new order requiring an eyre hsc essay additional payment. We may require you to supply us with personal identifying information, and cisneros essay, we may also legally consult other sources to obtain information about you.
for your final grade; and. for the outcome or consequences of submission the Paper to any academic institution; and. excludes all liability for damages arising out of or in write connection with your use of jane eyre hsc essay questions, this Website. The latter includes, without limitation, damage caused to your computer, computer software, systems and thesis on ufone, programs and jane eyre questions, the data thereon, or any other direct or indirect, consequential and is the best evaluate the validity for use in a, incidental damages. The Paper provided to you by hsc essay questions, englishessays.net remains our property and is the subject to copyright and word essay typed spaced, other intellectual property rights under local and international laws conventions.
The Paper is intended for your personal use only and it may not be used, copied, reproduced, distributed, transmitted, broadcast, displayed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for eyre hsc essay questions any other purposes without our prior written consent. You agree not to engage in the use, copying, or distribution of Papers other than expressly permitted herein. We post Clients` testimonials on our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Theory Section. Hereby by accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on our Website. Hsc Essay. We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality. If you wish to thesis billing, request the removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at [emailprotected] NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. englishessays.net reserves the right to change these Terms and jane eyre hsc essay, Conditions at any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to these Terms and Conditions. You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and Conditions on a regular basis. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of $1,249.00 USD («Main prize»).
We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the eyre hsc essay questions, payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for is the evaluate for use in a research paper Services, we may also collect Personal Information and jane eyre questions, other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and typed double, our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of jane eyre hsc essay questions, information associated with Your use of dissertation, our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is jane automatically gathered. For College. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Jane Eyre. Examples of what way to of a website for use in a research, automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available).
Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from for college, other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service.
We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for jane questions a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance;
To identify and billing, suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about eyre hsc essay current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and what is the evaluate the validity of a for use research, offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You.
However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to eyre hsc essay, share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password.
To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about write You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to hsc essay questions, third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about what is the evaluate the validity of a website in a You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and eyre hsc essay questions, products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of dissertation theory, taxes, fees, or other obligations; or.
in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against questions, the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and thesis on ufone, You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and eyre hsc essay questions, disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels.
With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to hsc essay questions, the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).
Write My Paper For Me -
Top Notes Jane Eyre: HSC Advanced Module B 2015-2020 - Renee
america essay topics When writing an essay, the first problem you might face is deciding on what topic to choose, which is pretty ironic if you’re writing a problem-solution essay. Jane Hsc Essay! The way out of thesis on ufone, that dilemma is to choose an issue that you’re really passionate about. Jane Hsc Essay Questions! You should also select a problem that has a viable solution–something with actionable measures that readers can take. If you’re still stumped for word double ideas, then take heart. In this blog post, I offer 20 problem-solution essay topics to help you get started. Each topic will include links to hsc essay questions sample essays to give you more ideas.
In each example, I present specific problems broken down by the issues of today (political, social, environmental, etc.) and ask questions that will help you consider different ideas on thesis on ufone how they might be solved. Each problem-solution topic I present offers broad possibilities, so you’ll have to do the important work of hunting down the facts and examples to provide specific solutions. Ready? Let’s get started! Problem-Solution Essay Topics – Social Problems. Proposing solutions to social problems might seem challenging, especially when the issues seem so entrenched. Yet, the jane eyre hsc essay point of a good problem-solution essay is to suggest solutions that are actionable–something that your readers can do. For College! Addressing specific problems will lead to jane questions specific, well-articulated solutions and to the most interesting and compelling essays. Following are five problem-solution essay topics that touch on social problems.
1. What Research Paper! Problem – Undocumented Immigration. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay! Solution #1: Should the U.S. About! government step up its deportation of undocumented immigrants, or should it offer asylum for jane hsc essay questions those currently living in write essay for college, the country? Solution #2 : How should the government address trade policies that affect the economies of South American countries and lead to jane eyre immigration? Solution #3: Will ending the War on into gold cisneros Drugs provide some relief to the rise of undocumented immigrants arriving in the United States? Should there be more coordination between the U.S. and questions, Central American countries in thesis on ufone, how they deal with drug policies, and if so, in what ways? 2. Problem – Sexual Assaults on College Campuses. Solution #1: What steps should universities take to prevent sexual assaults on campus?
Solution #2: Should colleges provide safe places for hsc essay questions victims to report rapes, and if so, how? What responsibilities should the administration have in protecting victim’s identities once they’ve reported the essay double crime? Solution #3: In what ways should students be educated about rape culture and what responsibility should colleges have in providing that education? Solution #4: Should student social services address rape culture? Should fraternities and eyre questions, sororities be more involved in educating students on rape culture? In what ways? Solution #1: What role should mental health providers play in thesis on ufone, determining prevention? What policies or programs should be enacted that will provide greater care for people suffering from mental health issues? Solution #2: Should violence in jane, the entertainment and gaming industry be addressed for a possible influence? How about the straw cisneros essay news media? If so, how?
Solution #3: What kind of gun control laws should be enacted? What role should gun manufacturers have? Should technology be used to decrease mass shootings? If so, in eyre hsc essay, what ways can it be used? Solution #1: What are the possible ways in which communities can force local governments and police departments to address police brutality? Solution #2: What role should voting play? Should communities have a say in who heads the police department? What other ways should communities be able to straw by sandra cisneros review how local law enforcement polices communities? Solution #3: In what ways should the questions police department address cultural attitudes among officers about the thesis on ufone people they police? Solution #4: What role does militarization in police departments play in hsc essay questions, police brutality? Should the essay federal government supply local police departments with military weaponry?
If not, should there be a law against it? How should such a law be shaped? Solution #1: What obstacles prevent people from getting help? Are there ways in which those obstacles can be addressed? What about social pressure, such as shaming? Should the public be educated about suicide, and if so, how? Solution #2: What roles should schools, colleges, police, social welfare, or other institutions play in jane eyre hsc essay, recognizing those who are at risk and how would they go about doing that? Solution #3: Should there be more therapy programs that are accessible for people? What about thesis on ufone, mental health programs for people who can’t afford them? In what ways should they be made available as well? Example Problem-Solution Essays – Social Issues.
Problem-Solution Essay Topics – Economics. Everyone is jane hsc essay questions, affected by the economy in one way or another. Either directly through personal debts, indirectly through the loss of 1000 word double spaced, tax revenues that provide services for everyone, or through an hsc essay questions, uncertain job market. A problem-solution essay that addresses economic problems are compelling precisely because everyone is eager for answers–especially college graduates. Following are six problem-solution essay topics that touch on write a great economics. Eyre! Solution #1 : What policies should the government enact that will help eliminate or lessen the what is the the validity of a for use in a burden for eyre hsc essay students once they graduate? Should there be greater consumer protections for students against predatory banking and credit loan institutions?
Solution #2 : Should universities and colleges bear a greater responsibility in theory, protecting students from prohibitive debts? If so, how? Solution #3 : Should state universities and colleges be allowed to enforce or raise student fees? If not, what would be the alternatives to paying for administrative costs? Solution #1 : Should there be programs on the local level that address long-term unemployment? If so, what? What laws or policies should the federal government enact that will address long-term unemployment? Solution #2 : Should corporations take the jane eyre lead to creating new job markets? If so, how? How should the government encourage corporations to open up new markets? Subsidies?
Tax breaks? Solution #3 : What should individuals who are in thesis about system, long-term unemployment do? What programs should be accessible to them while they seek jobs? What about unemployment benefits? Should benefits be modified to address long-term unemployment as well as short-term?
Solution #1 : Should the government pass more rigorous consumer protection laws that will regulate and jane hsc essay questions, prosecute predatory banking institutions or credit loaning companies? Solution#2 : Should the government provide debt relief programs? If so, how should they work and for whom? Should non-profit, non-governmental organizations, such as Occupy Wall Street, provide relief or should the government create and enact such programs? Solution #3 : What steps should individuals take to straw into gold cisneros essay get out of eyre hsc essay questions, debt? What programs, if any, are available for them? If none, what should be available? Solution #1 : What laws or policies can world governments enact that will address child labor? Solution #2 : Should the United States government enact trade policies that will address the problem? If so, what kind of thesis on ufone, policies should it enact? Solution #3 : Do U.S. companies exploit child labor, and if so, should local or state governments punish companies that do?
What should citizens do? Boycott? Pressure Congress to pass laws or prosecute? Solution #1 : Should the government pass laws that protect workers? Should the government pass stricter laws that protect unionization? Solution #2 : How should unions go about encouraging more people to jane questions join unions? What about write a great, workers who are unable to organize in jane hsc essay questions, their workplace?
What steps should they take to organize? Solution #1 : What policies should be enacted that will ease economic problems leading to home foreclosures? Should the federal government enact laws that will protect homeowners, and thesis on ufone, if so, how? Solution #2 : Should local governments pass laws to protect homeowners against foreclosures? What alternatives are available for eyre questions local governments to prevent them? What should they do with homes that are underwater? How should they prevent blight? Solution #3 : Should non-profit groups like Occupy Wall Street help people fight against foreclosures, and write, if so, how? Problem-Solution Essay Topics – Politics.
Perhaps this is largely because people get distracted by how challenging the problems are before they can even think about solving them. Jane! The key to straw writing a good problem-solution essay is to think small. Jane Eyre Questions! In other words, pick a very specific problem (money in politics, for instance) that will lead to goals that are clear and viable. When you pick a topic that readers feel confident that they’ll be able to tackle, you’ll write an essay that just might move them to what is the best the validity of a website research act. Following are four problem-solution essay topics that touch on eyre hsc essay politics. Solution #1 : What leads to thesis on ufone the dependence on jane eyre questions money in thesis about billing, electoral politics, and what can be done to address the problem? For instance, what alternatives are available for eyre hsc essay questions candidates to is the of a website raise funds for elections?
Solution #2 : Should the government regulate how much money is spent in jane eyre questions, campaigns? If not, what alternatives are available that will lead to campaign finance reform? Solution #3 : Should the government pass laws that will define who should or shouldn’t be able to into gold by sandra cisneros essay donate campaign dollars? If so, how should such a law be shaped? How should free speech rights be taken into consideration?
Solution #4 : Should the jane hsc essay questions constitution be amended to address the problem? If so, what should be amended and how? Solution #1 : Should there be more vigorous laws that protect Americans’ privacy rights from government surveillance? If so, how? Solution #2 : Should Congress be more proactive in monitoring the intelligence community? If so, how should Americans be certain that they are? In what ways should citizens be involved in the process? Solution #3 : Do Americans have the dissertation theory section right to hsc essay questions know what the dissertation theory section intelligence community is doing? If so, in what ways can that be done while protecting national security?
Solution #1 : Will electoral reform address the problems caused by jane hsc essay, partisanship? If so, in what ways? Solution #2 : In what ways do American citizens help create partisanship? The media? How should Americans be better educated about their roles as citizens? Solution #3 : Will media reform help address the thesis on ufone problems that cause partisanship, and if so, how? Solution #4 : How should political parties address partisanship?
Should third parties be allowed to have their voices heard in the electoral process? If so, how? 15. Problem – Voter Disenfranchisement. Solution #1 : Should the jane eyre federal government pass laws that will protect voter rights? Should the constitution be amended to protect voting rights for best way to the validity of a website all citizens? Solution #2 : How should state governments prevent partisanship from affecting electoral board policies? What should the questions public do to fight against thesis on ufone Voter ID laws or other laws that disenfranchise voters? Solution #3 : What steps should be taken to revive people’s faith in the political process?
Who should enact these steps? The public? Schools? The media? Politicians? If so, how?
Solution #4 : Should congressional rules, policies or social culture be changed to discourage and prevent obstructionism? If so, in what ways? Problem-Solution Topics – Environment. By all measures, the environment is our most precious resource, yet we face many problems in trying to protect and preserve it. A problem-solution essay that addresses environmental problems can be compelling and thought-provoking because it will alert readers to hsc essay the necessity of proposing real solutions that people can enact as individuals or as political groups. Thesis On Ufone! Following are five problem-solution essay topics that touch on the environment. Eyre Hsc Essay Questions! Solution #1 : What kinds of laws or policies should the government pass that will address climate change? Solution #2 : Should the government push for more trade policies that will address climate change, and about online billing, if so, what kind?
Solution #3 : Should foreign policy play a role in addressing climate change? For instance, should the United States work with other major-polluting countries like China, and if so, how? Solution #4 : How should the eyre marketplace address the problem? For instance, should corporations pursue fuel alternatives like green technology? If so, how should they be encouraged to do so? Solution #5 : How should grassroots organizers push for straw into by sandra cisneros essay a change in jane hsc essay questions, policies? Who would be targeted for such a movement?
The U.S. government? The U.N.? Corporations? Solution #1 : Should the government pass laws that make fracking illegal? Should it promote energy fuel alternatives, such as green technology? If so, how? Solution #2 : How should companies that use fracking be discouraged from doing so? Should they be subject to thesis about billing system civil lawsuits? What about boycotts, civil disobedience, or other grassroots organizing?
Solution #3 : What should be done to educate the public about fracking? Should the news media report on eyre hsc essay questions it more often? If so, how should environmental groups push the thesis about online media to do so? Solution #1 : Should the jane eyre questions government pass laws or policies that provide greater protections for preserving and protecting wildlife? If so, what types of laws? Should it go after corporations that endanger wildlife. If so, how? Solution #2 : Should corporations take a lead in thesis about online billing system, protecting wildlife? If so, how? Solution #3 : How should environmental groups address endangered wildlife? What are some of the hsc essay questions things they can do to push the essay government and jane hsc essay questions, corporations to protect the environment?
If so, how? 19. Problem – Environmental Pollution. Solution #1 : What should the government do about pollution? How should it be involved in for college, long-term protections? For instance, should the eyre questions government set aside relief funds or economic restorations for affected areas? Solution #2 : What role should local and state governments play in straw cisneros, protecting wildlife from pollution? Should local governments be stricter in regards to environmental studies for local projects, such as the building of jane, chemical plants or factories near wildlife or residential areas? If so, how? Solution #3 : Should governments pass stricter laws that prosecute corporations that pollute? If so, how should the public push for such laws to get passed?
20. Word Typed! Problem – Environmental Injustice. Solution #1 : Should local governments do more to protect communities from environmental injustices? If so, how? If not, what can the jane eyre hsc essay questions public do to fight against them? Will grassroots organizing help? If so, how?
Solution #2 : Should the federal government provide relief for communities affected by environmental injustices? If so, in about online, what way? Should the eyre Justice Department get more involved in prosecuting corporations or local governments responsible for these injustices? Solution #3 : Should the 1000 word typed media report more on environmental injustices? What can the public do to push the media to cover these stories?
How should grassroots organizations get the information out to the public? Documentary films? YouTube? Crowdsourcing? Example Problem-Solution Essays – Environment. Eyre Questions! Hopefully these problem-solution essay topics will make it easier to get started on thesis on ufone your paper. If you need any more help, I recommend reading the jane eyre hsc essay questions blog post “One Persuasive Writing Technique You Can’t Write Without” to get that extra boost to your writing style.
Also don’t miss Problem-Solution Essay Tips from a Kibin Editor. Write A Great For College! Good luck and happy essay writing! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.
About the jane eyre Author. Cynthia C. is thesis about billing, a short story writer, blogger, former copy editor, and jane hsc essay, newly-minted Doctor Who fan. You can find her on about online billing Google+
Write my essay for me with Professional Academic Writers -
Module B Jane Eyre essay question - ATAR Notes
computing homework New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from jane eyre hsc essay questions, a Life by Dr. Section. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and eyre hsc essay questions, 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the thesis online billing system, memoir of jane computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.
Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the write a great essay, time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the jane hsc essay questions, first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for thesis on ufone, most of jane eyre it. So I took some time and write a great essay for college, wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. Jane Questions. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from dissertation section, 1967 until 1977 in jane questions, my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on thesis on ufone staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the eyre questions, Engineering School and thesis on ufone, Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the hsc essay questions, Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and 1000 word essay double, chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.
I was laid off from Columbia in eyre, 2011 but still have access to this website. Essay For College. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and jane eyre hsc essay questions, its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to thesis, be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. I've made every attempt to check the dissertation theory section, facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for questions, good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at thesis on ufone, Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).
Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Jane Eyre Questions. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Double. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of jane eyre hsc essay Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of dissertation San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and jane eyre hsc essay, Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by essay, Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and eyre, Nuala Hallinan, each of by sandra cisneros whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of questions new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for a great, the loan of his personal archive of jane hsc essay questions photos and materials, his autobiography, and for college, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in eyre questions, particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in dissertation section, January 2010.
Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the questions, History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in billing system, the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to eyre hsc essay questions, send designs and specifications for a great essay for college, computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of questions punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. Write. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of jane eyre hsc essay invention and innovation are past. Computers and essay typed, networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and jane questions, certainly at typed, Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here.
The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to jane hsc essay, local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. Thesis On Ufone. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is jane eyre hsc essay, now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to straw into cisneros, its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines .
After graduation he stayed on jane questions as an by sandra essay, assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. Eyre. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and 1000 double spaced, submitted it to jane eyre questions, the Columbia School of thesis on ufone Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is hsc essay, synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to 1000 double, become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. Computer was an billing system, actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of hsc essay Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the write a great for college, Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to jane eyre hsc essay, 1946, and now sits in straw into gold cisneros, the middle of a field in jane eyre hsc essay questions, Michigan .
Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and thesis about online billing, the first such device that is eyre, programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. Thesis On Ufone. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on jane eyre questions 16 June 2011. Of A Website For Use Paper. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and jane eyre, sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and essay typed double spaced, statistical tables. Prof. Jane Eyre. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in is the evaluate of a in a research, charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jane Eyre. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines.
CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. Dissertation Theory Section. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of jane eyre hsc essay these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of section IBM, a method for jane eyre, automated scoring of what is the way to of a website research examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and jane eyre, accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. What Best The Validity Website Paper. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation .
This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and jane eyre, Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). Is The Best Way To Evaluate The Validity Of A For Use In A. In addition to eyre questions, tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for what is the evaluate of a in a paper, other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and jane hsc essay questions, were unique in their ability to thesis on ufone, rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to hsc essay, outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and straw into, Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and questions, president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. A Great Essay. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by eyre, the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from straw essay, Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages .
1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is thesis about online, appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the jane, Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and gold by sandra cisneros, within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in eyre, the attic of thesis Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the jane eyre, 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.
Eckert). What Best The Validity Website For Use In A Research. It was the first permanent IBM installation in jane eyre questions, the world to thesis on ufone, do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to eyre hsc essay, solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . Thesis Billing System. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the jane hsc essay, new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of dissertation theory these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.
We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the jane eyre hsc essay, effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and write a great essay for college, his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Jane. Dr. Wood is what is the of a website in a paper, remembered at Columbia through the jane eyre hsc essay, Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in about online billing, Colleges and jane eyre questions, Universities , edited by thesis on ufone, George W. Baehne of IBM, published by eyre hsc essay questions, Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Thesis About Online. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for jane hsc essay questions, a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of straw gold by sandra cisneros Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin].
Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in jane eyre, Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and dissertation, the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for eyre hsc essay, the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for dissertation, scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for jane eyre questions, scientific work . Dissertation Theory. subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and jane, verifier.
Some possibiliies of the dissertation, machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the hsc essay, equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of dissertation theory section precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and eyre hsc essay questions, (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the what is the best way to evaluate of a in a research, equipment was donated). Eyre Hsc Essay. The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in theory, his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and hsc essay, means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from write a great, Tosno since 1922. In the eyre hsc essay questions, times of write essay Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Jane Questions. In 1957 he was rehabilitated.
Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the is the best of a for use in a, Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to jane questions, visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Thesis On Ufone. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to eyre hsc essay, Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for dissertation theory section, navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in hsc essay, my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Into Essay. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to eyre hsc essay, him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. Thesis On Ufone. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . Hsc Essay. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the thesis on ufone, bulk of jane eyre hsc essay questions Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for write a great essay for college, the placement of eyre hsc essay spies. Was Riazankin a spy?
We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from essay for college, again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the jane eyre hsc essay questions, work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on into essay plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the jane questions, capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and typed, construct the machine, an hsc essay questions, electro-mechanical device called the about, Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.
The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at eyre, IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to theory, Harvard, where it did war work, and jane hsc essay, eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by write essay, IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by jane eyre questions, Lake) and thesis on ufone, later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of jane eyre hsc essay Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and thesis about online system, spread to the University of jane California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Best The Validity Website In A Research Paper. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau.
I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in eyre, 1945 in 1000, the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Hsc Essay Questions. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in write, Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and jane eyre hsc essay, George Pegram (who assembled the dissertation section, original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of eyre hsc essay whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in thesis on ufone, Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time.
Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for jane eyre hsc essay, Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the theory, use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and jane eyre hsc essay questions, Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the best evaluate the validity website in a paper, multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and jane hsc essay questions, all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. Section. For one day, the eyre, hand computers kept up: 'The only 1000 word typed double difference was that the jane eyre hsc essay questions, IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'
May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by 1000 word essay typed spaced, NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in eyre hsc essay questions, Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . Write A Great Essay. covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. 1000 Word Essay Typed Spaced. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the eyre questions, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of essay simultaneous equations. Eyre Hsc Essay. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at 1000 typed, Columbia University and eyre questions, elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the what is the best way to the validity of a website for use in a research, integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by eyre hsc essay, the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Dissertation. through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in jane hsc essay, electronic computers . Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to into gold, create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from eyre hsc essay questions, Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and essay spaced, later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to jane hsc essay, the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at theory, 1% over cost, and taking on jane hsc essay questions new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to straw essay, war and held jobs open for jane, all its returning veterans . According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to thesis on ufone, do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in eyre questions, Germany's war effort, in thesis on ufone, which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of eyre IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the write a great, other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on thesis on ufone until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the eyre hsc essay, Lazarsfeld Center for thesis about billing system, Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for eyre questions, Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27].
From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in a great essay for college, University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. Eyre Hsc Essay. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of for college Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at eyre hsc essay questions, Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. 1000 Typed. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly.
I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. Jane Eyre Questions. As noted, much of what way to evaluate the validity of a in a paper BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at eyre, IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . Write A Great For College. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on jane eyre questions campus on about online billing system a regular basis to run jobs. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for thesis on ufone, interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.
The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and jane questions, Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the thesis on ufone, 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the questions, [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the is the of a in a research paper, 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in hsc essay questions, what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in into by sandra cisneros essay, 1941, but whose production was delayed by jane eyre hsc essay, the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the about online billing, Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and jane hsc essay, mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Word Essay Typed Spaced. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and jane eyre, paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1000 essay typed, 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for jane hsc essay questions, some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out 1000 essay typed double that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.
Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at hsc essay, Los Alamos were falling behind. Straw By Sandra. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is jane eyre questions, heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for way to the validity of a for use in a research, another part of the Army*, and really has no room for eyre questions, physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move.
New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for a great, completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to jane hsc essay questions, President Roosevelt from dissertation theory section, Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the questions, war in for college, Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on jane eyre hsc essay Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for dissertation, circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the eyre hsc essay, first one (July 3rd) included the following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of what is the best way to evaluate for use in a cities. Once they were introduced as an jane eyre questions, instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Thesis Online Billing System. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only jane eyre a few years ago when applied by the Germans to about billing system, the cities of questions England. Word Spaced. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.
Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the eyre questions, petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the best evaluate the validity of a in a research, calculations were for eyre hsc essay, a bomb . Double. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on eyre . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the into by sandra essay, two blasts. Was the jane eyre hsc essay questions, atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of into gold by sandra all the facts and jane eyre hsc essay, supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to thesis on ufone, 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and eyre questions, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.
It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and dissertation, Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to eyre, secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the theory section, US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the eyre hsc essay, Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to thesis on ufone, intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in jane eyre questions, Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in 1000 essay double spaced, Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an jane eyre questions, atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of 1000 word depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and eyre, that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by double, the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of jane hsc essay 'face'.”
FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the thesis on ufone, Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and eyre, British Chiefs of thesis online billing system Staff Admiral William D. Hsc Essay Questions. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and essay, Nagasaki was of jane eyre hsc essay no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the essay, effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Jane. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in dissertation theory section, the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of hsc essay questions mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to what is the way to the validity in a paper, get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and hsc essay questions, renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and system, tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.
Read more about renovation and jane hsc essay, equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the a great, Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of jane hsc essay Columbia's Department of Spanish and word typed double, Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for jane, decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?
Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to a great essay, an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in jane eyre questions, this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is theory section, connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.
Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the eyre hsc essay, calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. Evaluate The Validity Website For Use In A Research. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of jane eyre hsc essay it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the about online billing, digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of hsc essay questions seeing how few relays it is possible to use to into, produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on eyre the standard IBM key punch. What Is The Research. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of eyre having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.
This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in what is the best way to the validity of a in a research, a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the eyre, control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of 1000 word double spaced card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for hsc essay questions, the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Word Typed Double Spaced. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in hsc essay questions, the University Bulletin. Thesis About. These are graduate-level credit courses. Jane Eyre Questions. Among them are courses in write a great for college, computing machinery and jane hsc essay questions, numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by theory section, any university  or, more precisely, the eyre hsc essay questions, first such courses in the world fully integrated into thesis online billing system, a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later.
The next year L.H. Jane. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the into gold by sandra cisneros essay, Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D.
1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of eyre Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to what best evaluate the validity website for use in a, provide computer time to Columbia researchers at eyre questions, no charge.
This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to thesis on ufone, use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the eyre, Aberdeen Relay Calculators for billing, astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to jane eyre, Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for section, Computing Machinery (ACM) is eyre questions, born at a meeting of thesis on ufone sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the jane eyre, space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of write a great Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the questions, first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to thesis on ufone, view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on eyre questions Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in theory, which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. Eyre Hsc Essay. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by about system, 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by jane eyre questions, IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and for college, then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948.
This is one of the jane eyre, first large-scale electronic computers, and billing system, the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of jane hsc essay operating on is the way to the validity of a for use research paper its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of jane computers for decades to thesis online billing, come (as in eyre hsc essay, this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the thesis system, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages .
The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on questions standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the into cisneros essay, Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for eyre hsc essay questions, the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and word essay double spaced, who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and jane hsc essay questions, therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on word typed spaced the road to eyre hsc essay questions, user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy.
John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. Thesis Billing. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of jane questions von Neumann by John A.N. Thesis On Ufone. Lee, Dept of eyre questions Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 1000 Word Typed Double Spaced. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from questions, 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of into gold by sandra essay Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the eyre, IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in the validity for use research paper, Palisades, New York, by questions, Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and thesis on ufone, networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.
Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about jane hsc essay questions computers for a general audience  in a great essay for college, 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is jane, a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Dissertation Theory Section. It can be carried around in hsc essay, one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. About Billing System. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and eyre hsc essay, explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at gold by sandra cisneros, Columbia.
These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. Eyre. We did however encourage our own juniors on straw into by sandra essay 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and eyre hsc essay, theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of what evaluate website for use research planetary and satellite mechanics. Eyre Questions. . Thesis About Online System. None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. Hsc Essay Questions. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the typed double, computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in jane hsc essay questions, the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. What Way To Of A Website For Use Research. Most of my examples, and jane hsc essay, assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of straw by sandra view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and hsc essay, error propagation, every other year. Word Double. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Hsc Essay Questions. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the theory, equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. Questions. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and thesis about online billing system, relocated to eyre hsc essay questions, it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . What Is The Website For Use Research Paper. A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).
The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the hsc essay questions, IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the word typed double spaced, atmosphere of eyre questions a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and straw into gold essay, thesis advisors to eyre questions, meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and gold, a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.
The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in jane eyre questions, 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out dissertation because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Eyre Hsc Essay. (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of essay typed 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the questions, Parnassus Club. Word Double. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.
The current Watson building at jane eyre hsc essay questions, 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and straw by sandra, owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by jane eyre questions, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . Straw. It was home to eyre questions, the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about typed 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of jane eyre questions his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for word essay spaced, control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Questions. Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. Write Essay For College. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and hsc essay questions, display device was also the write a great, first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in hsc essay, existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?
Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of essay double spaced two IBM 650 computers is installed in jane eyre questions, the first-floor machine room of the into gold cisneros essay, original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . Jane Questions. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr.
Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on thesis online August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for jane hsc essay, Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Thesis On Ufone. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in jane, the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use .
Thus the about billing, IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on jane hsc essay non-stored-program calculators at is the best way to evaluate the validity of a website for use in a research, Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and jane questions, ease of thesis about billing use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. Jane Eyre Questions. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the word, entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to eyre questions, Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the into by sandra cisneros, first Director of the questions, Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in gold cisneros, many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of jane eyre Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and section, T.D. Lee of eyre hsc essay questions Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Dissertation. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in jane eyre questions, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on what is the way to website for use paper low-temperature breakdown of jane eyre questions germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of straw into by sandra cisneros Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to section, ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the links for some of jane questions these items are to a great essay for college, later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the jane eyre hsc essay, nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the for college, funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in jane eyre questions, his proposal to what is the the validity of a website paper, Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and eyre hsc essay questions, universities. large and small, public and private, for a great essay for college, many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at jane hsc essay, Columbia may be fulfilled.
In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of 1000 word essay redundancy (e.g. each student writing the eyre questions, same information on many different forms, up to 23 of 1000 word double them) and jane, transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and 1000 word essay double spaced, mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in jane eyre hsc essay questions, from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at 1000 word typed spaced, an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for eyre hsc essay, campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to online billing system, Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the jane hsc essay questions, first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in write a great for college, Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Eyre. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to thesis on ufone, read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices.
The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the jane hsc essay, Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an for college, automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at jane hsc essay, the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and gold by sandra, chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for jane eyre hsc essay questions, the 650 by dissertation theory section, this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the jane eyre questions, FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by dissertation theory section, your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the jane eyre, machine would punch the resulting object deck.
Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for theory section, your program. Your program would run and jane eyre hsc essay, results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an typed, IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the eyre hsc essay questions, early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of theory section a printout and the cycle would continue.
1959: Programming for eyre hsc essay questions, Digital Computers , by gold, Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. Jane Hsc Essay. From the Preface: The contents of what is the the validity in a this book were developed from jane hsc essay, material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. What Is The Best Way To Evaluate Website In A Paper. Prof. W.J. Jane. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the online, book and jane eyre, suggested the scope of the text. Dissertation. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is jane eyre, installed in Watson Lab to a great for college, supplement the jane eyre questions, 650s, and is used in dissertation, Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at jane hsc essay, Columbia.
In view of the failure in 1000 essay typed, 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the jane eyre hsc essay, study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of 1000 word spaced funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to eyre hsc essay, the point) Vice Provost for write a great for college, Projects and Grants is in jane hsc essay, charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others.
This was to be the most influential computer language of straw gold by sandra cisneros essay all time, the jane hsc essay, parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for gold by sandra essay, Research Students in hsc essay, Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and thesis on ufone, Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in jane questions, IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata.
GSEE 269: Information Theory. Dissertation Theory Section. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and jane eyre hsc essay, III: System Analysis and Synthesis. 1000 Double Spaced. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and eyre, Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . A Great For College. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance.
The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of eyre IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. Write For College. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. Jane Hsc Essay Questions. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. Dissertation Section. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.
The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is jane eyre hsc essay questions, sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by what is the way to evaluate the validity website in a, the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on questions Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and dissertation section, NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED).
2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. Kenneth M. Straw Into Essay. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and eyre hsc essay, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for essay double, equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the eyre, following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of into gold essay magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an eyre hsc essay, IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.
Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of dissertation memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of jane eyre punch cards to the operators and came back the thesis on ufone, next day to jane eyre hsc essay, retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the theory, output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.
There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the jane hsc essay questions, clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 1000 essay, 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for hsc essay questions, the remainder of the period. What Evaluate The Validity Of A Website Research Paper. About forty-five percent of the jane hsc essay questions, time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. System.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by jane eyre questions, the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from thesis on ufone, this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the hsc essay questions, Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the best evaluate website for use in a, equations that describe and jane eyre questions, predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in thesis about online billing, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of jane questions Eckert's life's work. Thesis On Ufone. Smith is jane eyre, now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.
The newly established Computer Center was primarily for thesis on ufone, academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and jane hsc essay questions, IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on about billing Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in eyre questions, AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is what is the best way to evaluate research, still largely a mystery.
Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and hsc essay, all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at theory section, the age of 23, he studied the latest in jane hsc essay questions, computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on what is the way to evaluate website for use research a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out thesis on ufone data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the eyre hsc essay, 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of online Columbia computing for eyre, the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for what is the evaluate website for use in a paper, the Computer Center on May 21.
This was to be the jane questions, basis for IBM's mainframe line into theory section, the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the jane hsc essay, Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Thesis On Ufone. Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and jane, lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and write, parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and questions, 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. Thesis About System. 
Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for jane eyre hsc essay questions, about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and about system, large parts of questions Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Into By Sandra Cisneros Essay. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for jane, interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. What Best Way To Of A For Use Paper. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to eyre questions, improve on is the evaluate for use the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the eyre, responses to dissertation theory section, the test administered through one of these terminals.
When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in jane questions, computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in evaluate the validity website for use, Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is hsc essay questions, a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of is the way to the validity of a for use in a research paper terminals. This system is jane hsc essay questions, used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by theory, the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is jane questions, primarily for users of about billing FORTRAN IV but the jane questions, 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at straw into by sandra cisneros, the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at jane hsc essay questions, Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at thesis on ufone, Yorktown .
Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and eyre questions, offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from theory, Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the eyre, same year, is straw essay, appointed its Director . Jane Questions. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to essay typed spaced, the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the hsc essay, link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in thesis on ufone, Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to eyre hsc essay questions, schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to thesis on ufone, the Computer Center for them.
By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and jane questions, the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and best the validity for use in a, acquisitions ; perhaps this was the jane eyre hsc essay questions, origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for dissertation theory section, it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the questions, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and by sandra, then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to jane eyre, add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals .
Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the thesis billing, Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. Jane Eyre Questions. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per dissertation theory, hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and eyre, physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof.
Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of what is the best evaluate the validity for use in a paper Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Jane Eyre. This was to thesis online billing system, be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an eyre hsc essay questions, operator in the machine room. Into Cisneros Essay. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced .
Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of jane hsc essay 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of what best evaluate research paper America, and eyre hsc essay questions, the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the what best the validity of a website for use research paper, administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360.
Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of straw major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for hsc essay questions, occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the write a great, Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the about online billing, consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of eyre increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and what evaluate in a paper, applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to eyre, take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and for college, support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at jane hsc essay questions, the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory.
Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 1000 essay typed, 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and jane eyre hsc essay, here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at thesis on ufone, the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is jane eyre hsc essay questions, home to the world's fastest computer. Straw Gold By Sandra. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and jane hsc essay, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of dissertation space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for eyre hsc essay, it [V2#6]).
IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the dissertation, 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for hsc essay, seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon thesis on ufone research grants; in fact it was in eyre questions, operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to section, the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is jane hsc essay, that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at word spaced, about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and eyre hsc essay, everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in thesis on ufone, big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of jane eyre questions pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per write a great essay, hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an jane eyre questions, incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of thesis on ufone it) . But the jane eyre questions, most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and thesis about system, stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on jane eyre questions (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an essay for college, ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to jane hsc essay, the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of 1000 word essay typed double spaced work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at eyre hsc essay, a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for thesis about online billing system, it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Jane Hsc Essay. Users created graphics images on word essay spaced the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to eyre hsc essay questions, the plotter. Dissertation. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out eyre of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire.
Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on theory pungent white paper. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and thesis on ufone, splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in jane, computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of dissertation theory section California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Eyre Questions. Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of theory section California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and questions, eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of essay Defense research grantees until the eyre, early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.
This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and what is the best way to evaluate the validity of a for use in a paper, it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to hsc essay questions, 1969, but since TC is write a great for college, just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the jane eyre hsc essay questions, state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and dissertation section, achievement. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at write a great essay for college, Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in hsc essay questions, 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and section, the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of jane eyre questions faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of way to the validity website for use paper 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from eyre, World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). Theory. During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and jane hsc essay questions, exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for dissertation section, the additional space]. Eyre Hsc Essay. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in essay double, one tiny room, complete with keypunch and jane eyre hsc essay, fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of straw into gold cisneros cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the jane, Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.
31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the thesis on ufone, Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at jane, Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on 1000 word typed double the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and eyre questions, 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from 1000 double spaced, these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is jane eyre hsc essay questions, about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of what website in a research collaboration between the faculty and jane, the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an theory, impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Hsc Essay Questions. Computer Center Technical staff participated in 1000, many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. Jane Eyre. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of dissertation 8. Jane Eyre Questions. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig.
For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is what of a website, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at jane eyre, 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr.
Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on a great essay for college the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of jane hsc essay questions research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and thesis about billing system, Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and jane, the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to thesis on ufone, anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Jane Questions. In addition to write a great for college, this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to eyre questions, discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by what is the of a website for use, the Center. Eyre. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the write, desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and jane eyre, what else? ) rather than dedicated to into gold by sandra, a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by eyre questions, Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in thesis on ufone, Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Jane Eyre Questions. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and write essay, Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by jane eyre questions, (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the what best evaluate in a research paper, Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from jane eyre questions, my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the into cisneros, job had run. Sometimes, standing in questions, line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to best the validity for use research paper, 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to hsc essay questions, themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Dissertation Theory. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the questions, graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.
May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the theory, CUNY facility and to eyre hsc essay questions, found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of what way to evaluate the validity website Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Eyre Questions. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of write Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at eyre questions, the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in theory, 1959 and jane eyre questions, became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and into by sandra essay, Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for hsc essay questions, the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to double, CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to jane eyre, take place outside the machine room. The Validity Of A In A Research Paper. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded.
1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Jane Hsc Essay Questions. Howard Eskin was manager of dissertation theory Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the jane eyre, Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and way to for use, administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and jane, diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by thesis on ufone, leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on jane rainy days.
There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the thesis on ufone, art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and eyre, finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of into gold by sandra teak paneling and jane hsc essay, cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the what is the the validity website for use in a research, Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Eyre Hsc Essay. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and theory section, Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by jane hsc essay questions, Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at for college, least 1973.
Eventually (about 1980) the jane eyre, collection was transferred to straw gold by sandra cisneros, the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for eyre hsc essay, example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on thesis on ufone an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the jane eyre, Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to dissertation section, each other, and so on.
Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Jane Hsc Essay. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of what is the the validity of a research faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Hsc Essay Questions. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and what best evaluate website in a, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on jane eyre hsc essay today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.
There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Thesis On Ufone. Because of questions their EAM backgrounds, the 1000 typed spaced, Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in eyre hsc essay questions, the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the thesis, first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the eyre questions, latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly).
RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to thesis about online system, absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area.
They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. Jane Hsc Essay. He was sent with the essay spaced, first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in jane eyre hsc essay questions, CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. Word Typed Double. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in jane, the Computer Center down the hall from the evaluate the validity of a website in a research paper, IBM machine room, and questions, was comprised of thesis on ufone four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for eyre hsc essay questions, maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in dissertation theory section, the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and hsc essay, finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the what is the evaluate, Terminet, the jane eyre questions, room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.
Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Online Billing System. Eventually RSTS had a user population of jane eyre questions 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and 1000 essay spaced, thus -- since a way was needed to eyre, interconnect all these campus networks -- the thesis billing, Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the eyre hsc essay, late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and dissertation theory section, used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects.
The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. Jane Eyre. It had 16K of by sandra essay memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and eyre hsc essay questions, an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and section, then executed to activate the Teletype as the jane, control device, which could be used in 1000 word typed double spaced, turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in jane hsc essay questions, object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the of a for use in a, SEL 810B Manual.
The PDP-8 computers in hsc essay, the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the dissertation theory section, console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of jane eyre hsc essay Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in best way to the validity of a for use, Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and jane eyre questions, 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). Thesis Online. A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd).
plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of questions them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and thesis on ufone, PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and jane hsc essay, fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Billing. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.)
Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by eyre, e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an 1000 typed double, ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to about online, their classes by e-mail and collecting results the jane eyre, same way, with the thesis on ufone, added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in eyre, its original text-only format. Dissertation. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to eyre hsc essay, Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for word essay typed double spaced, me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of jane eyre hsc essay questions money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on thesis on ufone my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about jane eyre hsc essay all of these. Theory Section. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only jane eyre hsc essay 1-2K bytes in is the way to evaluate the validity, length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to jane eyre hsc essay questions, put an escape sequence in thesis on ufone, an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the jane eyre hsc essay, University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of 1000 tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Eyre Questions. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the word essay typed, input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from eyre questions, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to theory section, print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of questions security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to billing system, the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to jane eyre questions, be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and 1000 essay typed spaced, administrative applications began to migrate from jane hsc essay questions, punch cards and batch to straw by sandra essay, interactive online systems . Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and about online billing system, so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the jane eyre hsc essay, lights went out.
We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to essay for college, a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by eyre questions, a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and typed double spaced, we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to eyre hsc essay, the modems to dissertation section, log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.
Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). Jane Hsc Essay Questions. It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about word spaced 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in jane eyre, the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of 1000 typed spaced main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an jane eyre questions, LP20 drum printer (mainly for way to evaluate research, backup listings), and jane hsc essay questions, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in 1000 typed spaced, orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and questions, so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to thesis on ufone, a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. Eyre Hsc Essay. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in thesis on ufone, which the computer was used not just for questions, calcalation and online system, programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of eyre hsc essay computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in thesis on ufone, the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to hsc essay questions, 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and into essay, KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the hsc essay, -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and theory, graphics devices; they could be installed in eyre hsc essay, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and a great, until the questions, very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of is the best way to paper advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for jane questions, more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per essay typed double, machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of eyre questions revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day.
Unlike the thesis, IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the jane eyre hsc essay questions, DEC-20s were kept running and by sandra essay, available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by jane eyre, today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the thesis on ufone, DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of questions 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for write essay for college, 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and eyre hsc essay, that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop.
The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by dissertation, little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of jane eyre Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by straw gold, the way, was created at jane hsc essay, the MIT AI Lab on essay double spaced a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the jane eyre hsc essay, operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. About. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console.
The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the jane, most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in 1000 word essay, bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the about system, Arts award to the Department of Buildings and eyre questions, Grounds [now Facilities Management] for word essay typed double spaced, their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on jane eyre hsc essay questions the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the write essay for college, room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hsc essay questions, hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and gold cisneros, up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to hsc essay, let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur).
Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . Straw Into Cisneros. . . REDECORATED. Hsc Essay. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and 1000 word typed spaced, his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to jane eyre hsc essay, 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Billing. Note too that in those days the jane eyre questions, technical staff helped users in person in thesis about online, three locations (two in SSIO, one in jane hsc essay questions, Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on thesis about billing their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the eyre questions, UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.)
1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on straw into gold by sandra cisneros essay the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and hsc essay questions, teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Into Gold Cisneros Essay. ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in eyre, my era. About System. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in jane eyre hsc essay questions, late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the theory section, Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to questions, Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to write, the BSTJ UNIX issue ). Jane Questions. V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the thesis online, EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 .
Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and jane eyre, numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Thesis On Ufone. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the eyre, Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and theory section, even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to word essay typed, spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to eyre questions, change paper or printwheels. Theory. Printwheels were available in eyre questions, a variety of about billing fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to jane questions, mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in dissertation section, Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in hsc essay questions, Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. Dissertation Section. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built.
Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to questions, be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to theory section, it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and eyre hsc essay, heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns.
In response to student and what is the way to evaluate the validity of a for use in a paper, faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and jane eyre questions, connect-time limits were to be instituted.
Fees were to write a great for college, be increased. Various disincentives would be established against jane eyre, using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in about online billing, academic computing. Eyre. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and theory section, supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for jane eyre hsc essay, a precise accounting of how, for what, and by essay, whom the current resources are being consumed, the hsc essay questions, gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on essay the DEC-20s was true to this pattern.
CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. Eyre Hsc Essay. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Gold Cisneros Essay. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the jane hsc essay, measures taken to alleviate the load on dissertation section CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of jane questions each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and straw into gold essay, information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Jane Hsc Essay Questions. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of thesis on ufone self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Jane Hsc Essay Questions. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to thesis on ufone, ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the questions, Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere.
The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and way to evaluate the validity of a paper, share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the jane, open software movement . It is theory section, important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by eyre hsc essay, professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Way To The Validity Website. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and jane eyre hsc essay questions, corrector (also from dissertation theory section, Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from jane hsc essay, Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia.
In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of section them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in jane questions, C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. A Great Essay For College. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . Questions. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in straw into by sandra cisneros essay, the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the eyre hsc essay questions, place of in-house modem pools.
Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of thesis on ufone income, since the eyre questions, budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for dissertation section, a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by jane eyre hsc essay, two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and best way to evaluate the validity of a in a, cheaper to jane eyre questions, run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building.
The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into what evaluate website for use research, acid baths to extract the eyre, gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. What Best Way To. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and jane hsc essay, arranged to donate it to double, the now-defunct Computer Museum in eyre, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of 1000 essay double spaced decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus.
Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and hsc essay, it did indeed stand up to thesis billing, years of (ab)use. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on straw gold by sandra cisneros April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. Hsc Essay Questions. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview.
Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. What Is The Best Way To Evaluate The Validity Of A Website For Use In A. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at eyre, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of 1000 word essay typed spaced Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by jane eyre, DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to a great for college, allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in jane questions, Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in thesis online, the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and jane hsc essay questions, P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in online billing system, Mudd. It had no applications to speak of jane eyre questions besides Kermit, which was used by students to gold by sandra cisneros, archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the eyre hsc essay questions, frisbee-sized ones used on 1000 word essay typed double spaced other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!).
Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of eyre questions Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. Into Gold. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. Hsc Essay Questions. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the is the best way to the validity of a website for use in a research paper, century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. Jane Questions. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in essay, the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.
Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. . Straw Into By Sandra Cisneros Essay. Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on jane questions and on. Straw Into. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at eyre hsc essay questions, incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is 1000 essay typed, not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Eyre Hsc Essay. . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is gold by sandra, that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in jane questions, a rush by a small group (not at 1000 word typed double, Watson Laboratory!) from hsc essay, off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in 1000 essay typed double spaced, the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at jane questions, chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and what is the evaluate of a website for use in a research paper, interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and eyre hsc essay, modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to write a great for college, a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to jane eyre questions, have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on evaluate the validity of a for use paper the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the eyre hsc essay, next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in thesis on ufone, the original design. (Obviously the situation is eyre questions, better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable.
Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to thesis on ufone, be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the eyre hsc essay, main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. About. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Jane Eyre Questions. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of dissertation section software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and jane questions, SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the best way to evaluate website for use in a, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in hsc essay questions, the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia).
In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in a great for college, every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Jane. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and dissertation theory section, extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the jane eyre hsc essay, shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to thesis on ufone, one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the questions, shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. What Best Way To Of A Website In A Research. All this was transparent to the user; the jane eyre questions, MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an theory, IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of jane eyre hsc essay cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the theory section, tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only eyre a few MSS devices in word essay typed double spaced, the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in eyre hsc essay, an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Thesis On Ufone. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in hsc essay questions, form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of a great cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the jane eyre hsc essay, DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1.
The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at thesis on ufone, CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and jane eyre hsc essay, rapidly spreading to universities all over theory the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the eyre hsc essay questions, Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to what way to the validity for use research, follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at jane, the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about gold 1990; John made it portable to hsc essay questions, the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and thesis on ufone, added support for jane hsc essay questions, conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of typed our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and eyre hsc essay, gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for for college, mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by eyre, relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Dissertation. Even trickier was the source routing used in jane hsc essay, Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and way to of a in a research, mail) and some others, and/or to jane questions, mail to somebody who was on thesis on ufone a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.
In such cases you had to jane hsc essay, know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is 1000 word double spaced, broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for jane hsc essay, the proliferation of straw into cisneros networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and jane, final instructional DEC-20, was installed.
Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for thesis on ufone, 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the jane, PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the thesis on ufone, collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at jane eyre hsc essay questions, Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for thesis on ufone, many years before being transferred in about 2001 to hsc essay questions, deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in way to the validity website in a, Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Hsc Essay. Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of write essay for college PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and jane eyre, it definitely needed the space.
It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Best Way To The Validity Paper. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on jane questions all the DEC-20s and dissertation, IBM mainframe systems. Jane. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by what is the evaluate website for use in a research paper, the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at jane eyre questions, a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).
By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. Section. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of jane eyre hsc essay photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the essay, accompanying PACX boxes.
NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. The manual itself should interesting to thesis, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on hsc essay the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the dissertation section, terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the eyre hsc essay questions, HP-2621s in straw into by sandra essay, Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM.
Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the eyre, whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. Essay Typed. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on jane eyre hsc essay our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of 1000 word typed them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to jane eyre hsc essay questions, the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to word essay typed spaced, TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself.
TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Jane. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Into Cisneros. Thus when the cutover took place, all the eyre hsc essay, computers at thesis on ufone, a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the eyre hsc essay, network was opened up, and word double, the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Hsc Essay Questions. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to essay spaced, cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for jane eyre hsc essay, administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit.
Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in dissertation theory section, a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to hsc essay questions, 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at online system, the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in hsc essay questions, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and what is the best way to evaluate of a research, Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and thesis online system, Tektronix terminal emulation for questions, Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.
CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on write a great departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of hsc essay computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of way to evaluate of a research use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and write a great, tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. Jane Questions. At the thesis, June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in questions, the front row to 1000 word spaced, protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.
Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to eyre hsc essay, CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the word typed double, Macintosh, which as to be the jane questions, first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for a great for college, the popular market). Jane Eyre Questions. I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by gold by sandra essay, CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in hsc essay questions, bulk and what is the best the validity for use, reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the eyre questions, person who ordered it and talk about communications and about online, compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and hsc essay questions, never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and the validity of a website for use, mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and jane eyre hsc essay, so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an a great, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in eyre hsc essay, the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and thesis on ufone, (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the jane eyre, terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace.
It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Thesis On Ufone. The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in hsc essay questions, October 1989, combined with the original lab in 1000 word essay typed double, room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the jane questions, University of Washington), and straw into gold by sandra, runs on hsc essay our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to the validity website for use in a research, build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from eyre, all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984).
Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by 1000 word essay spaced, the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the jane, Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the thesis about online system, wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on jane questions the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to about online billing system, build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and hsc essay questions, presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.
CU joins the is the way to the validity of a in a, Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of straw into gold by sandra Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.
May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the jane hsc essay questions, system consoles). Dissertation Section. OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the hsc essay questions, newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out theory this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to hsc essay questions, make everything fit). Online. Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by eyre, me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at about online, large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in jane hsc essay, this direction (researchers from all schools and thesis on ufone, departments and CUCCA staff only, not students).
CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the jane, ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to dissertation section, the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the eyre, campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to thesis on ufone, send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. Questions. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for thesis online system, the first time.
For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the jane eyre hsc essay, first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and section, clock. Jane Hsc Essay. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on essay typed spaced 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for eyre hsc essay questions, academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to section, be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them.
They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the questions, central computers through PACX lines and what is the way to evaluate the validity website in a research paper, transfer files to jane questions, and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for word essay typed double, students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and questions, instruction toward the electronic university. Thesis Online. Bruce Gilchrist and hsc essay, Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.
Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the straw into gold by sandra cisneros, Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the jane, SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of thesis about online billing system highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance.
1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . Hsc Essay. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and what is the best way to evaluate the validity of a website research paper, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the questions, first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to is the best website in a paper, other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the eyre, free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit.
Speaking of section Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and questions, final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in system, buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and questions, receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by essay typed double spaced, individual computer host name). Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the theory, World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and eyre questions, send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15).
The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the a great, mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in questions, half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Section. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and jane, half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in is the best of a for use in a paper, the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of hsc essay US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg .
At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by what is the way to in a research paper, line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on a great essay for college him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. Hsc Essay Questions. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to dissertation section, kill the jane eyre hsc essay questions, connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the straw into by sandra, transfer down so much that the jane eyre hsc essay questions, hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit!
As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the is the best way to, file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Eyre Hsc Essay. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to write a great essay for college, the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only jane eyre questions later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the way to the validity of a in a research, UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an jane eyre, IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by straw gold by sandra essay, DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of jane eyre hsc essay RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. A Great Essay. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and jane eyre questions, therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in what way to evaluate for use in a research paper, 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the jane questions, mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of thesis on ufone requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Eyre Hsc Essay. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and thesis online, maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and jane eyre, so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in what is the evaluate of a website in a paper, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the eyre, Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and dissertation section, P/OS. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of dissertation section policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for eyre hsc essay questions, the Provost to word typed, sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to jane hsc essay questions, join the ARPANET (which would soon become the thesis on ufone, Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian.
Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the jane eyre, steam tunnels up and write a great essay for college, across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to write a great essay, Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. Jane Hsc Essay. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of about billing course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and hsc essay, small.
The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in 1000 typed spaced, size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for jane eyre hsc essay, departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from about, TOPS-20 to jane hsc essay, Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is theory section, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant.
In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of billing time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of jane 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at theory, Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the questions, precursor to the RS/6000, which was in word spaced, wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is jane questions, first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the best way to the validity in a research, basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to hsc essay, send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the word essay typed double spaced, dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.
CLICK HERE for eyre questions, a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in into gold by sandra cisneros essay, the USA, Switzerland, France, and jane hsc essay questions, Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Write A Great Essay. And to jane eyre questions, NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Best Way To The Validity Website For Use. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of eyre questions DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in dissertation theory section, general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is jane hsc essay questions, closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Thesis On Ufone. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on eyre hsc essay MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an straw by sandra essay, ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of jane eyre questions 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and thesis about online billing system, used to provide connectivity for years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and jane, Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for thesis on ufone, DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the eyre hsc essay, Ethernet backbone.
Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by word essay, Bill Schilit and jane eyre hsc essay, Charlie Kim of straw gold cisneros essay Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to jane eyre questions, Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at thesis on ufone, Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the jane, NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of thesis on ufone Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to jane hsc essay, the University's central administration, rather than to essay, the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in eyre questions, Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.
The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the thesis about billing system, service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. Jane Hsc Essay. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Dissertation Theory. Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and questions, then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to 1000 double spaced, the Watson Penthouse as the questions, need for best way to evaluate for use, office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . Eyre Hsc Essay. CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. Dissertation Theory. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the jane eyre hsc essay, DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and what way to evaluate for use in a paper, forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1.
Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the jane hsc essay, BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at dissertation theory, Northwestern University and hsc essay, later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of theory planning and eyre hsc essay questions, a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Thesis On Ufone. Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on eyre campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in write essay for college, Watson Lab.
2500 data connections were moved from the jane eyre, PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the gold cisneros, conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. Jane. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in thesis about online billing system, swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and hsc essay, twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to dissertation, the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and jane eyre hsc essay, training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about about online billing a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in jane eyre, the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and for use in a paper, one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at jane eyre, some point Columbia sold it off. Thesis On Ufone. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to jane eyre hsc essay, both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in 1000 double, Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the jane eyre hsc essay, destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. Thesis On Ufone. This change effectively removes the eyre, Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in a great, the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by eyre hsc essay questions, Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in is the best the validity of a paper, central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and hsc essay, West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s).
Meanwhile, all sorts of online billing content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and jane, the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of 1000 word essay typed double CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in jane questions, 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in thesis on ufone, Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP).
Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from eyre hsc essay questions, Sun, NeXT, and HP) the write essay for college, academic IBM mainframe is hsc essay questions, used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by online system, the outsourcing bug and eyre questions, brings in write a great for college, a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to eyre questions, take over a great essay and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of jane eyre questions NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of dissertation PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of jane eyre hsc essay support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and thesis system, managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and jane questions, administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by thesis, Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of jane eyre questions memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and dissertation theory, data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be.
(Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and eyre questions, the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Dissertation. All the jane eyre, software was locally written and included all the word typed, academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the jane questions, lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. 1000 Essay Double. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in jane eyre questions, the British relief mission to 1000 word essay typed spaced, Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. Jane. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the system, Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the hsc essay, Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for write a great, networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at eyre questions, Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. Write A Great. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to jane, cope with.
Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from into, Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of jane eyre hsc essay 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in a great for college, 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to jane eyre questions, it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in best evaluate website in a research, 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).
The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for jane eyre hsc essay, text-based shell sessions. What Evaluate The Validity Of A. In the jane, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on dissertation our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the questions, advantages of a great allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in jane eyre hsc essay, Apr 1994.
Early original content included the thesis on ufone, Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and jane eyre hsc essay, the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . System. Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of jane hsc essay e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and thesis about system, e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Jane Eyre. Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to thesis on ufone, students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is hsc essay, their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to a great, Bill Chen and devote full time to jane, the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and thesis on ufone, SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is questions, lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and system, name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the questions, ghost. For College. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. Hsc Essay Questions. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for thesis on ufone, students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of jane eyre computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to thesis about system, the general public.
The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of eyre two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and 1000, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of jane eyre hsc essay questions service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the by sandra essay, globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and eyre, dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and 1000 word essay typed double, movies to jane eyre, each other or serving streaming video from thesis on ufone, their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and jane eyre hsc essay questions, applications. But in what the validity for use in a paper, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over jane hsc essay 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus.
Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the theory, Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and eyre questions, finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Essay Typed Spaced. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in jane eyre, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and thesis on ufone, Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the jane hsc essay, world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and theory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in jane eyre hsc essay questions, support of this work. CLICK HERE for thesis about online billing system, further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of jane Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the 1000 essay typed spaced, Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.
Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and eyre hsc essay, Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at a great for college, least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms.
May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to jane eyre, the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and what is the best way to evaluate the validity of a website in a research, viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. Jane. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988.
NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by what best evaluate the validity of a website for use paper, Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Jane Questions. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of thesis on ufone Medicine and jane hsc essay, Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and what way to evaluate the validity of a for use paper, largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and eyre, most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years.
Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in essay typed, North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the hsc essay questions, next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and system, hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at hsc essay questions, 8:39pm Friday. For College. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to eyre hsc essay questions, Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the thesis on ufone, old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Jane Hsc Essay. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to straw gold by sandra, see the jane hsc essay, last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version.
The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to into gold, see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. Hsc Essay. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail.
By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and about, 20s). Jane. Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. What Is The Evaluate In A Research. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the jane hsc essay questions, previous user.
23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the thesis on ufone, widespread perception that the purpose of the jane eyre questions, network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and thesis on ufone, video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.
In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is jane eyre hsc essay questions, a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the write, needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.
In the same Spectator issue, the eyre hsc essay, staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on thesis on ufone illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and eyre, music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of dissertation Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an questions, IBM 650 at what website for use in a, Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to jane, stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at what is the way to evaluate the validity of a for use research, IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the questions, handful of essay brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the jane, first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and cisneros, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added.
1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over jane hsc essay a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Into Gold Essay. Of course many still come through, but it is eyre hsc essay questions, better to straw by sandra, allow some spam to hsc essay questions, pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and thesis on ufone, 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from jane, 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to write for college, 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the eyre hsc essay, 1940s and thesis on ufone, 50s, at jane eyre hsc essay questions, the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for word double, a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from jane hsc essay questions, 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in a great essay for college, Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography).
Herb created and jane eyre, taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. Thesis On Ufone. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and hsc essay questions, editors with email. Dissertation. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session.
The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to jane eyre hsc essay questions, write programs to about online billing system, do any kind of jane eyre questions custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an essay, encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at eyre hsc essay, best, and at worst it puts us in for college, a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to hsc essay questions, use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of dissertation our computers and hsc essay, files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of thesis on ufone that happens with text-based email. Jane Hsc Essay Questions. Even imputing the thesis about online billing, best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for jane eyre, ransom, sell it to tabloids. Write Essay. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Hsc Essay. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and thesis on ufone, it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.
Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of eyre hsc essay representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in straw gold essay, a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and jane eyre, Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by 1000 typed, the latest version of the jane, software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. Typed Double. ASCII, which serves for jane hsc essay questions, English and thesis on ufone, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and eyre, international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. What Is The Best Way To Of A Paper. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from hsc essay questions, 1963 to 1971).
Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in write essay, the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on jane hsc essay computers and society. Straw By Sandra. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to eyre questions, 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the theory section, first instance of jane questions open computing at into by sandra essay, Columbia, and he would continue his push for jane eyre hsc essay, open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Gold Cisneros Essay. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of questions numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to a great essay, combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the jane, Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. Write A Great. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the eyre, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Straw Into Gold Cisneros Essay. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the hsc essay, intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and thesis on ufone, Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for jane eyre questions, the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of dissertation theory section price or source-code availability, but of eyre market dominance. Billing System. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and jane hsc essay questions, Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into website, free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and jane eyre, corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Straw Into Gold By Sandra Cisneros Essay. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to jane eyre hsc essay questions, have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of a great digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and jane questions, analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of a great essay engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. Eyre. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and straw into cisneros, before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to jane hsc essay questions, work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at thesis online system, Mt. Jane. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Essay For College. When the Columbia project I was working on came to jane questions, a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt.
Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and dissertation theory section, thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to jane hsc essay, the choice of 1000 word double a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of eyre hsc essay questions big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to dissertation section, Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to hsc essay questions, raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in straw into cisneros, his job description, but that's how he was. Jane Hsc Essay. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one.
It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for thesis system, scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and eyre hsc essay, personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the dissertation section, 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the questions, Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the about system, Office of jane eyre hsc essay questions Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in for college, faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in hsc essay, 1925.
Although the role of computing in staff and 1000 double, tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at eyre, far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for section, inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the eyre, 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of straw into gold essay reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in eyre hsc essay questions, the old days (filling in straw by sandra, countless forms by hand with the same information and jane hsc essay questions, standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Dissertation Section. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in eyre questions, 1925 and what way to the validity of a website for use paper, it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in eyre, 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Thesis On Ufone. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to hsc essay questions, wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in gold by sandra, class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the hsc essay questions, University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in thesis on ufone, many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at questions, least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the a great essay, Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. Jane Questions. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Dissertation Section. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the jane, information one finds on the Web. Dissertation Theory. Published books and journal articles, at eyre hsc essay questions, least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). By Sandra. At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the jane hsc essay questions, same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the theory, Web itself has been largely supplanted by hsc essay, Google and Wikipedia for research.
Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in about online billing system, it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is jane, making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is section, pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to questions, drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and dissertation theory section, sketchy sound bites.
Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and jane questions, mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in dissertation, the age of jane eyre hsc essay electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of theory our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Eyre Questions. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. Thesis On Ufone. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to hsc essay questions, successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and 1000 essay typed double, formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and jane eyre, there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails.
What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Theory Section. Something else is bound to eyre hsc essay questions, appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of section Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. 1000 Word Typed Double Spaced. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html.
But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of eyre hsc essay questions 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. Best Way To Of A Website In A Paper. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and hsc essay questions, Tweets. Storage and thesis on ufone, preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Eyre Hsc Essay. Money is straw into gold, a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of eyre hsc essay questions humanity belongs to by sandra cisneros, those with the desire and the money to jane eyre, preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard.
Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to theory section, serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out questions -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is way to website for use research, that the number of eyre questions dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the section, home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto eyre hsc essay, the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)
AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
BASR Bureau of thesis online billing system Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.
BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer.
CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per jane eyre questions, Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for thesis about online billing, Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Jane Hsc Essay Questions. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of thesis on ufone New York.
CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).
DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and questions, 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation.
IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of way to evaluate of a website for use line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for jane questions, CP/M)
MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation.
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of what is the way to evaluate the validity website research paper Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on jane eyre hsc essay COBOL)
SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at essay typed spaced, Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and eyre hsc essay questions, DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.
Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of straw essay CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into jane eyre, a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per into by sandra essay, tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on hsc essay questions the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is thesis on ufone, a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per jane hsc essay questions, track. 1000 Word Essay Typed Double. Because the jane eyre hsc essay, heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and 1000 word essay spaced, as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and hsc essay questions, the DEC PDP-11. An example is the write essay for college, IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by jane eyre hsc essay, extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in theory section, certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is jane, behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the what evaluate website research paper, electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an jane, inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in straw into gold cisneros essay, telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the jane hsc essay, input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for thesis online billing system, numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by questions, compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for about billing system, example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and jane eyre hsc essay questions, printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the dissertation section, latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per jane eyre hsc essay questions, inch.
Punching and reading speeds varied from dissertation section, 10 rows per second up to eyre questions, 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in a great essay for college, the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the jane hsc essay, holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by straw into essay, cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc.
Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Write For College. Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and jane hsc essay questions, the upper left corner cut diagonally, and the validity of a in a research, twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of jane hsc essay questions cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Way To Research Paper. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in hsc essay questions, New York were still based on word double spaced punched card technology.
Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in jane hsc essay questions, one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and thesis on ufone, computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and jane, results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by thesis on ufone, (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an jane questions, RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of write a great for college RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an jane eyre hsc essay questions, RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns.
Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by section, which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and eyre hsc essay, either paper to thesis about online, print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the jane eyre, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the thesis on ufone, DECwriter.
The best-known video terminal is the jane hsc essay, DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the thesis on ufone, mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of thesis on ufone input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).
Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Jane Hsc Essay. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. A Great. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Eyre. Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and straw gold cisneros, IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at hsc essay, Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of what is the way to of a in a paper facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and eyre questions, correspondence with Prof.
Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of into cisneros essay Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of thesis on ufone Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968.
Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Jane Hsc Essay. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER).
Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. 1000 Word Typed Double. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Questions. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Straw Into. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to eyre hsc essay questions, Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the thesis on ufone, History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001.
Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an jane eyre questions, Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the write for college, Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of questions Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Dissertation Theory. Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!
Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the questions, Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and best evaluate of a paper, the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for jane questions, holocaust at the IBM website. About Online System. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and questions, John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and online billing, Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in eyre, Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by write a great essay, J.C.
McPherson. Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on write a great essay for college Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and eyre questions, Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the the validity of a website in a research paper, Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about questions computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003).
Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and theory section, 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of jane hsc essay Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). Dissertation Theory. W.J.E. Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. A Great Essay. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Eyre Hsc Essay. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983).
Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of straw gold essay Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of jane eyre hsc essay a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and what the validity of a for use research, Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE.
John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on theory Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in jane hsc essay, Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to 1000 word essay, Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Hsc Essay. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).
Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and write a great essay for college, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Jane Eyre Hsc Essay Questions. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.
Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at dissertation section, the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the jane hsc essay questions, Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to theory section, End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and hsc essay questions, McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618.
Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the thesis on ufone, World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and jane eyre questions, launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Straw. Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.
Catalog of jane questions a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in thesis on ufone, 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of eyre questions Pure Science and billing, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of hsc essay Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in evaluate of a research paper, 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130.
Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Eyre Questions. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and thesis on ufone, the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Jane. Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on straw into by sandra Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF].
Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Eyre. Paperbound, about write a great essay 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for jane, the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and thesis on ufone, Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of jane questions a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78.
Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.