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Authoritarian, Democratic Laissez-Faire Leadership Research Paper Starter. This article introduces authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership styles. Topics And Model! These three styles of leadership comprise the classical styles of leadership seen in traditional groups and organizations. The sociology of authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership is explored in four parts: an bullying overview of the basic principles of the authoritarian, democratic, and toefl topics laissez-faire leadership styles; a discussion of the sociology of group and organizational leadership; a review of the ways in which social scientists apply authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire theories of leadership to Jack the ripper research setting and questions; and an exploration of the issues associated with choosing a particular leadership style. Understanding the role that authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership styles play in groups is writing topics essays vital background for all those interested in the sociology of social interaction in of homework Homework groups and organizations. Keywords Authoritarian Leadership; Democratic Leadership; Followers; Groups; Laissez-Faire Leadership; Organizations. Toefl Topics! Social scientists classify distinct types or styles of leadership.

Different leadership styles or behaviors have different effects on the dynamics of groups and organizations. There are three classical leadership styles or behaviors: Authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership. These three leadership styles vary in multiple ways including the functions of leadership, the roles of followers, the settings most appropriate for facebook each leadership style, and the leadership styles' relationship to authority and topics and model control. For instance, authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership vary in the degree of control that they give their followers. Authoritarian leaders give their followers little to no control of their environment. Democratic leaders give their followers partial control over of homework Homework their tasks and decision-making process. Laissez-faire leaders give their followers almost total control over their environments. Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) was the pioneering social psychologist credited with defining and differentiating between the three classical leadership styles or behaviors. Lewin, considered by many to be the founder of social psychology, made significant contributions to leadership studies, organizational theory, and management theory.

Based on extensive leadership and group dynamics experiments, Lewin developed the concept of leadership climates. Lewin characterized leadership climates as authoritarian, democratic, or laissez-faire (Lewin et al, 1939). Toefl And Model Essays! Critics of Lewin argue that he never developed his classical leadership model beyond a rough conceptual sketch. This article introduces authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership styles. These three styles of leadership comprise the classical styles of leadership seen in traditional groups and organizations. The sociology of authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire leadership is explored in four parts: An overview of the basic principles of the authoritarian, democratic, and honor code laissez-faire leadership styles; A discussion of the essays, sociology of group and organizational leadership; A review of the ways in which social scientists apply authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire theories of leadership to research setting and questions; and An exploration of the cold conclusion, issues associated with choosing a particular leadership style. Understanding the role that authoritarian, democratic, and toefl writing topics and model essays laissez-faire leadership styles play in groups is of reason vital background for all those interested in the sociology of social interaction in groups and organizations. Leadership Types: Authoritarian, Democratic, Kurt Lewin's three leadership styles or behaviors, described below, influence the leader-follower relationship, group success, group risk-taking, group problem-solving strategies, group morale, and topics and model group relations. Authoritarian leaders, also referred to as autocratic leaders, are characterized as domineering. Essays On Enlightenment! Authoritarian leaders make policies and toefl essays decide appropriate division of labor from the benefits of homework or no afar.

They tend to be distant and aloof from toefl their group. Authoritarian leadership is gained through punishment, threat, demands, orders, rules, and regulations. The functions of authoritarian leadership include unilateral rule-making, task-assignment, and scientific research and essays reuters problem solving while the roles of authoritarian followers include adhering to the leader's instructions without question or comment. Authoritarian leadership is appropriate in settings with a constant stream of new employees, limited decision-making time or resources, and the need for large-scale coordination with other groups and organizations. Authoritarian leadership is not suited to toefl environments in which members desire to share their opinions and participate in decision-making processes. Critics of authoritarian leadership argue that the honor code, leadership style leads to topics essays high member dissatisfaction, turn-over, and facebook bullying absenteeism (Gastil, 1994). Democratic leaders are characterized by collective decision-making, camaraderie, active member or follower involvement, fair praise, and restrained criticism; they facilitate collective decision-making. Democratic leaders offer their followers choices and support. Democratic leadership, also referred to as participative leadership, reflects democratic principles and processes including inclusiveness, self-determination, and equal participation. That said, democratic leaders should not be confused with those who hold elected positions of power.

Democratic leaders often lack formal position and power. For example, Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948), an Indian peace activist and writing leader, was a democratic leader who lacked a formal position of power. Scientific! Democratic leadership gains its authority through accountability, active participation, cooperation, and delegation of tasks and toefl and model essays responsibilities. The functions of democratic leadership include distributing responsibility within the conclusion, group or organization, empowering members, and facilitating group deliberations. The roles of democratic followers include willingness to take personal responsibility for the group or organization, willingness to be held accountable for essays their actions and decisions, willingness to maintain their group's autonomy and bullying essay freedom, willingness to take on the role of leader as needed or appropriate, and toefl writing topics essays willingness to work with their leaders. Democratic leadership is appropriate in particular settings such as an international association, a democratic nation, a worker-owner corporation, a public university, a close-knit neighborhood, or a cooperative social group or organization. Democratic leadership is not useful or required in groups and organizations with clearly defined and unchanging guidelines, roles, and practices. Ultimately, the role of a democratic leader is essay ideally shared in a group or organization. Democratic leadership is distributed and changing. Toefl Writing Topics Essays! Within a democratic leadership climate or environment, there will be multiple leaders and every member will be a leader at some point during their membership in the group (Gastil, 1994). Laissez-faire leaders are characterized as uninvolved with their followers and members; in fact, laissez-faire leadership is an absence of leadership style.

Leaders of this style make no policies or group-related decisions. Instead, group members are responsible for all goals, decisions, and problem solving. Laissez-faire leaders have very little to no authority within their group organization. The functions of laissez-faire leadership include trusting their members or followers to the benefits of homework Homework make appropriate decisions and bringing in highly trained and reliable members into the group or organization. The roles of laissez-faire followers include self-monitoring, problem solving, and producing successful end products. Laissez-faire leaders are most successful in environments with highly trained and self-directed followers. Laissez-faire leadership is appropriate in particular settings such as science laboratories or established companies with long-term employees. Laissez-faire leadership is not suited to environments in which the members require feedback, direction, oversight, flexibility, or praise (Gastil, 1994).

Bass's Transformational, Transactional, In contemporary sociological thought and practice, laissez-faire leadership is one part of the model of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership that was developed by Bernard M. Bass (1925–2007) in 1985. Bass based his model on the work of social scientist James MacGregor Burns (b. 1918) who originated the concepts of toefl topics essays transactional and transforming leadership in the 1970s. Burns argued that every leadership process may be classified as transactional, transforming, or laissez-faire leadership. In Bass's model, transactional leadership refers to a leadership style in which the leader exchanges rewards in exchange for subordinate effort.

Transformational leadership refers to of homework or no Homework a leadership style in which the leader encourages his or her subordinates to achieve increasingly higher levels of performance for the sake of the organization. (The entire section is toefl writing topics 4101 words.) Get Free Access to this Authoritarian, Democratic Laissez-Faire Leadership Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and of homework Homework thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to writing topics ace every test, quiz, and the benefits or no essay. Topics Essays! We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on essays on enlightenment or age of reason, your first read-through.

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mary prince essay Related by Herself. With a Supplement by toefl, the Editor. To Which Is Added, the Narrative of Asa-Asa, a Captured African: Funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities. supported the electronic publication of this title. Text transcribed by Apex Data Services, Inc. Text encoded by LeeAnn Morawski and Natalia Smith. First edition, 2000. Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH.

University of facebook essay North Carolina at Chapel Hill, This work is the property of the toefl topics and model University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text. (title page) The History of Mary Prince, a West Indian Slave. Related by Herself. With a Supplement by the Editor.

To Which Is Added, the Narrative of cold war essays conclusion Asa-Asa, a Captured African. PUBLISHED BY F. Toefl Writing And Model! WESTLEY AND A. H. Scientific And Essays Thomson Reuters! DAVIS, Stationers' Hall Court; And by WAUGH INNES, EDINBURGH: And supplied at trade price to Anti-Slavery Associations by Joseph Phillips, 18, Aldermanbury . The text has been encoded using the toefl writing topics recommendations for Level 4 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. Jack The Ripper! Encountered typographical errors have been preserved. All footnotes are inserted at the point of writing topics essays reference within paragraphs. This electronic edition has been transcribed from a photocopy supplied by University of Wisconsin Library. This electronic edition lacks the scientific and essays thomson reuters Narrative of Asa-Asa, a Captured African. Any hyphens occurring in line breaks have been removed, and the trailing part of and model essays a word has been joined to the preceding line. All quotation marks, em dashes and ampersand have been transcribed as entity references. All double right and left quotation marks are encoded as and scientific and essays thomson reuters, respectively.

All single right and left quotation marks are encoded as ' and ' respectively. Spell-check and verification made against printed text using Author/Editor (SoftQuad) and Microsoft Word spell check programs. Library of toefl essays Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998. LC Subject Headings: Prince, Mary. Jack The Ripper! Blacks -- West Indies -- Biography. Fugitive slaves -- West Indies -- Biography. Slaves -- West Indies -- Biography. Toefl Writing Essays! Slavery -- West Indies -- History -- 18th century. Revision History: 2001-01-03, Celine Noel and of homework, Wanda Gunther. revised TEIHeader and created catalog record for the electronic edition.

Natalia Smith, project manager, finished TEI-conformant encoding and final proofing. finished TEI/SGML encoding. Apex Data Services, Inc. HISTORY OF MARY PRINCE, A WEST INDIAN SLAVE. RELATED BY HERSELF. WITH A SUPPLEMENT BY THE EDITOR. To which is added, THE NARRATIVE OF ASA-ASA, A CAPTURED AFRICAN.

#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160 To the toefl writing topics essays man-degrading mart,-- #160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160 All sustain'd by patience, taught us. #160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160 Only by a broken heart,-- #160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160 Deem our nation brutes no longer, #160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160 Till some reason ye shall find. #160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160#160 Worthier of regard, and stronger. PUBLISHED BY F. WESTLEY AND A. H. Jack The Ripper! DAVIS, STATIONERS' HALL COURT; AND BY WAUGH INNES, EDINBURGH: And supplied at trade price to Anti-Slavery Associations by JOSEPH PHILLIPS, THE idea of writing Mary Prince's history was first suggested by herself. She wished it to be done, she said, that good people in topics, England might hear from a slave what a slave had felt and suffered; and a letter of her late master's, which will be found in the Supplement, induced me to the benefits of homework Homework, accede to her wish without farther delay.

The more immediate object of the publication will afterwards appear. The narrative was taken down from Mary's own lips by a lady who happened to be at toefl writing the time residing in my family as a visitor. It was written out fully, with all the narrator's repetitions and prolixities, and afterwards pruned into its present shape; retaining, as far as was practicable, Mary's exact expressions and peculiar phraseology. No fact of importance has been omitted, and not a single circumstance or sentiment has been added. It is essentially her own, without any material alteration farther than was requisite to exclude redundances and gross grammatical errors, so as to render it clearly intelligible. After it had been thus written out, I went over the whole, carefully examining her on every fact and circumstance detailed; and in all that relates to honor code, her residence in Antigua I had the advantage of being assisted in this scrutiny by Mr. Joseph Phillips, who was a resident in that colony during the same period, and had known her there. The names of all the persons mentioned by the narrator have been printed in full, except those of Capt.

I---- and toefl writing and model essays, his wife, and that of Mr. D----, to whom conduct of conclusion peculiar atrocity is toefl writing and model ascribed. These three individuals are now gone to answer at the benefits of homework a far more awful tribunal than that of public opinion, for the deeds of which their former bondwoman accuses them; and to hold them up more openly to human reprobation could no longer affect themselves, while it might deeply lacerate the feelings of their surviving and perhaps innocent relatives, without any commensurate public advantage. Without detaining the reader with remarks on other points, which will be adverted to more conveniently in the Supplement, I shall here merely notice farther, that the Anti-Slavery Society have no concern whatever with this publication, nor are they in any degree responsible for the statements it contains. I have published the tract, not as their Secretary, but in my private capacity; and any profits that may arise from the writing topics and model sale will be exclusively appropriated to the benefit of Mary Prince herself. While Mary's history was in the press, I was furnished by my friend Mr. George Stephen with the interesting narrative of Asa-Asa, a captured African now under his protection, and have printed it as a suitable appendix.

London, January 25, 1831. Since the First Edition of or age of reason this Tract was published, Mary Prince has been afflicted with a disease in and model essays, the eyes, which, it is feared, may terminate in total blindness: such, at least, is the apprehension of some skilful medical gentlemen who have been consulted on the case. Should this unfortunately be the and essays reuters result, the condition of the poor negro woman, thus cruelly and hopelessly severed from toefl, her husband and essay code, her home, will be one peculiarly deserving of commiseration; and I mention the and model circumstance at present on purpose to induce the essay honor friends of writing topics and model essays humanity to promote the more zealously the Jack the ripper sale of this publication, with a view to provide a little fund for her future benefit. Whatever be the subsequent lot that Providence may have in reserve for her, the seasonable sympathy thus manifested in her behalf, will neither be fruitlessly extended nor unthankfully received; while, in toefl writing and model essays, accordance with the benign scripture mandate, it will serve to mitigate and relieve, as far as human kindness can, the Jack the ripper afflictions of the writing and model stranger and the exile who is in our and within our gates. * The present Cheap Edition, price 1s. for single copies, and 6d. each, if 25 or more are ordered, is printed expressly to facilitate the circulation of this Tract by Anti-slavery Societies. HISTORY OF MARY PRINCE. A WEST INDIAN SLAVE. I WAS born at Brackish-Pond, in Bermuda, on a farm belonging to Mr.

Charles Myners. My mother was a household slave; and my father, whose name was Prince, was a sawyer belonging to Mr. Trimmingham, a ship-builder at Crow-Lane. When I was an infant, old Mr. Myners died, and there was a division of the on enlightenment or age slaves and other property among the family.

I was bought along with my mother by toefl writing essays, old Captain Darrel, and Jack the ripper, given to toefl writing essays, his grandchild, little Miss Betsey Williams. Captain Williams, Mr. Darrel's son-in-law, was master of a vessel which traded to several places in America and the West Indies, and he was seldom at of homework or no home long together. Mrs. Williams was a kind-hearted good woman, and she treated all her slaves well. She had only toefl one daughter, Miss Betsey, for whom I was purchased, and on enlightenment or age, who was about my own age. I was made quite a pet of by Miss Betsey, and loved her very much. She used to lead me about by the hand, and call me her little nigger. This was the happiest period of my life; for I was too young to understand rightly my condition as a slave, and too thoughtless and full of toefl topics essays spirits to look forward to the days of toil and sorrow. My mother was a household slave in Jack the ripper, the same family. I was under her own care, and my little brothers and sisters were my play-fellows and companions.

My mother had several fine children after she came to Mrs. Williams,--three girls and two boys. The tasks given out to us children were light, and we used to play together with Miss Betsey, with as much freedom almost as if she had been our sister. My master, however, was a very harsh, selfish man; and we always dreaded his return from sea. His wife was herself much afraid of him; and, during his stay at home, seldom dared to shew her usual kindness to toefl topics essays, the slaves. The Benefits! He often left her, in the most distressed circumstances, to writing topics, reside in facebook, other female society, at some place in toefl writing topics essays, the West Indies of which I have forgot the facebook bullying essay name.

My poor mistress bore his ill-treatment with great patience, and all her slaves loved and pitied her. I was truly attached to her, and, next to my own mother, loved her better than any creature in writing topics and model, the world. My obedience to her commands was cheerfully Page 2. given: it sprung solely from the affection I felt for her, and not from fear of the power which the white people's law had given her over me. I had scarcely reached my twelfth year when my mistress became too poor to cold conclusion, keep so many of us at home; and she hired me out to Mrs. Pruden, a lady who lived about five miles off, in the adjoining parish, in toefl writing topics and model, a large house near the bullying sea. I cried bitterly at parting with my dear mistress and Miss Betsey, and when I kissed my mother and brothers and sisters, I thought my young heart would break, it pained me so. But there was no help; I was forced to go.

Good Mrs. Williams comforted me by saying that I should still be near the writing topics essays home I was about to quit, and might come over and see her and my kindred whenever I could obtain leave of absence from the benefits of homework Homework, Mrs. Writing Topics Essays! Pruden. A few hours after this I was taken to a strange house, and found myself among strange people. This separation seemed a sore trial to me then; but oh! 'twas light, light to the trials I have since endured!--'twas nothing--nothing to be mentioned with them; but I was a child then, and it was according to my strength. I knew that Mrs. Williams could no longer maintain me; that she was fain to part with me for my food and clothing; and I tried to the benefits Homework, submit myself to the change.

My new mistress was a passionate woman; but yet she did not treat me very unkindly. I do not remember her striking me but once, and that was for going to see Mrs. Williams when I heard she was sick, and staying longer than she had given me leave to toefl writing, do. Facebook! All my employment at this time was nursing a sweet baby, little Master Daniel; and I grew so fond of my nursling that it was my greatest delight to walk out with him by the sea-shore, accompanied by his brother and sister, Miss Fanny and Master James.--Dear Miss Fanny! She was a sweet, kind young lady, and essays, so fond of me that she wished me to learn all that she knew herself; and her method of teaching me was as follows:--Directly she had said her lessons to her grandmamma, she used to scientific research thomson reuters, come running to writing and model essays, me, and make me repeat them one by one after her; and in a few months I was able not only to say my letters but to essay honor code, spell many small words. Writing And Model! But this happy state was not to bullying, last long. Those days were too pleasant to last. My heart always softens when I think of toefl writing essays them. At this time Mrs.

Williams died. I was told suddenly of her death, and my grief was so great that, forgetting I had the baby in my arms, I ran away directly to my poor mistress's house; but reached it only in time to see the essays of reason corpse carried out. Oh, that was a day of sorrow,--a heavy day! All the slaves cried. My mother cried and toefl and model essays, lamented her sore; and I (foolish creature!) vainly entreated them to bring my dear mistress back to life. I knew nothing rightly about death then, and it seemed a hard thing to bear.

When I thought about my mistress I felt as if the world was all gone wrong; and for many days and weeks I could think of nothing else. Jack The Ripper! I returned to Mrs. Pruden's; but my sorrow was too great to be comforted, for my own dear mistress was always in my mind. Whether in the house or abroad, my thoughts were always talking to me about her. then sent back to Mr. Williams to be sold.

Oh, that was a sad sad time! I recollect the essays day well. Mrs. Pruden came to me and said, Mary, you will have to Jack the ripper, go home directly; your master is going to be married, and he means to sell you and two of your sisters to raise money for the wedding. Hearing this I burst out a crying,--though I was then far from being sensible of the full weight of my misfortune, or of the misery that waited for writing topics and model, me. Besides, I did not like to leave Mrs. Pruden, and the dear baby, who had grown very fond of me. For some time I could scarcely believe that Mrs. Pruden was in earnest, till I received orders for my immediate return.--Dear Miss Fanny! how she cried at parting with me, whilst I kissed and essay honor, hugged the baby, thinking I should never see him again. Toefl Topics And Model Essays! I left Mrs.

Pruden's, and walked home with a heart full of sorrow. The idea of being sold away from my mother and Miss Betsey was so frightful, that I dared not trust myself to think about it. We had been bought of Mr. Myners, as I have mentioned, by Miss Betsey's grandfather, and given to her, so that we were by right her property, and I never thought we should be separated or sold away from her. When I reached the house, I went in directly to Miss Betsey. I found her in facebook bullying, great distress; and and model essays, she cried out as soon as she saw me, Oh, Mary! my father is going to sell you all to raise money to marry that wicked woman. You are my slaves, and he has no right to sell you; but it is all to please her.

She then told me that my mother was living with her father's sister at a house close by, and I went there to see her. It was a sorrowful meeting; and we lamented with a great and sore crying our unfortunate situation. Here comes one of my poor picaninnies! she said, the Jack the ripper moment I came in, one of the poor slave-brood who are to be sold to-morrow. Oh dear! I cannot bear to think of that day,--it is too much.--It recalls the great grief that filled my heart, and the woeful thoughts that passed to and fro through my mind, whilst listening to the pitiful words of my poor mother, weeping for the loss of her children. I wish I could find words to tell you all I then felt and suffered. The great God above alone knows the thoughts of the poor slave's heart, and the bitter pains which follow such separations as these. Writing! All that we love taken away from us--Oh, it is sad, sad! and sore to be borne!--I got no sleep that night for Jack the ripper, thinking of the morrow; and toefl, dear Miss Betsey was scarcely less distressed. She could not bear to part with her old playmates, and she cried sore and on enlightenment, would not be pacified. The black morning at length came; it came too soon for my poor mother and us.

Whilst she was putting on us the new osnaburgs in which we were to be sold, she said, in essays, a sorrowful voice, (I shall never forget it!) See, I am shrouding my poor children; what a task for a mother!--She then called Miss Betsey to take leave of us. I am going to Homework, carry my little chickens to market, (these were her very words.) take your last look of them: may be you will see them no more. Oh, my poor slaves! my own slaves! said dear Miss Betsey, you belong to me: and it grieves my heart to part with you.--Miss Betsey kissed us all, and, when she left us, my mother called the rest of the slaves to bid us good bye. Writing Topics And Model! One of Jack the ripper them, a woman named Moll, Page 4. came with her infant in her arms. Ay! said my mother, seeing her turn away and writing essays, look at her child with the tears in her eyes, your turn will come next. The slaves could say nothing to comfort us; they could only weep and lament with us. When I left my dear little brothers and the house in which I had been brought up, I thought my heart would burst. Our mother, weeping as she went, called me away with the children Hannah and Dinah, and and essays thomson, we took the road that led to Hamble Town, which we reached about four o'clock in the afternoon.

We followed my mother to the market-place, where she placed us in a row against a large house, with our backs to the wall and our arms folded across our breasts. I, as the eldest, stood first, Hannah next to me, then Dinah; and our mother stood beside, crying over us. Writing Essays! My heart throbbed with grief and terror so violently, that I pressed my hands quite tightly across my breast, but I could not keep it still, and it continued to leap as though it would burst out of Jack the ripper my body. But who cared for that? Did one of the many by-standers, who were looking at us so carelessly, think of the pain that wrung the hearts of the toefl topics and model essays negro woman and her young ones?

No, no! They were not all bad, I dare say, but slavery hardens white people's hearts towards the blacks; and many of them were not slow to cold conclusion, make their remarks upon writing and model, us aloud, without regard to our grief--though their light words fell like cayenne on the fresh wounds of our hearts. Oh those white people have small hearts who can only on enlightenment feel for themselves. At length the vendue master, who was to toefl writing and model essays, offer us for sale like sheep or cattle, arrived, and asked my mother which was the eldest. She said nothing, but pointed to me. He took me by the hand, and led me out into the middle of the facebook essay street, and, turning me slowly round, exposed me to the view of those who attended the vendue. I was soon surrounded by strange men, who examined and handled me in the same manner that a butcher would a calf or a lamb he was about to topics and model essays, purchase, and who talked about my shape and size in like words--as if I could no more understand their meaning than the on enlightenment or age of reason dumb beasts. I was then put up to sale. The bidding commenced at a few pounds, and gradually rose to fifty-seven,* when I was knocked down to the highest bidder; and the people who stood by said that I had fetched a great sum for so young a slave. I then saw my sisters led forth, and sold to different owners: so that we had not the toefl topics and model essays sad satisfaction of being partners in bondage. When the sale was over, my mother hugged and kissed us, and mourned over us, begging of us to keep up a good heart, and do our duty to our new masters.

It was a sad parting; one went one way, one another, and cold war essays conclusion, our poor mammy went home with nothing.** ** Let the reader compare the toefl and model above affecting account, taken down from the mouth of this negro woman, with the following description of a vendue of slaves at the Cape of Good Hope, published by Jack the ripper, me in 1826, from the letter of a friend, --and mark their similarity in writing and model, several characteristic circumstances. Or No Homework! The resemblance is easily accounted for: slavery wherever it prevails produces similar effects.--Having heard that there was to be a sale of cattle, farm stock, c. by auction, at essays a Veld-Cornet's in the vicinity, we halted our waggon one day for the purpose of procuring a fresh spann of on enlightenment of reason oxen. Among the stock of the toefl topics farm sold, was a female slave and her three children. The two eldest children were girls, the one about thirteen years of age, and the other about Jack the ripper eleven; the youngest was a boy. The whole family were exhibited together, but they were sold separately, and to different purchasers.

The farmers examined them as if they had been so many head of cattle. While the sale was going on, the mother and her children were exhibited on and model, a table, that they might be seen by the company, which was very large. There could not have been a finer subject for of homework Homework, an able painter than this unhappy group. The tears, the anxiety, the anguish of the topics essays mother, while she met the honor code gaze of the multitude, eyed the different countenances of the bidders, or cast a heart-rending look upon the children; and the simplicity and touching sorrow of the young ones, while they clung to their distracted parent, wiping their eyes, and toefl and model, half concealing their faces,--contrasted with the on enlightenment or age of reason marked insensibility and writing topics, jocular countenances of the on enlightenment or age spectators and writing essays, purchasers,--furnished a striking commentary on the miseries of slavery, and its debasing effects upon the hearts of its abettors. While the woman was in this distressed situation she was asked, 'Can you feed sheep?' Her reply was so indistinct that it escaped me; but it was probably in the negative, for her purchaser rejoined, in a loud and harsh voice, 'Then I will teach you with the sjamboc,' (a whip made of the rhinoceros' hide.) The mother and her three children were sold to three separate purchasers; and they were literally torn from each other.-- Ed.

My new master was a Captain I--, who lived at Spanish Point. After parting with my mother and sisters, I followed him to his store, and he gave me into the charge of his son, a lad about my own age, Master Benjy, who took me to my new home. I did not know where I was going, or what my new master would do with me. My heart was quite broken with grief, and facebook essay, my thoughts went back continually to those from whom I had been so suddenly parted. Oh, my mother! my mother!

I kept saying to myself, Oh, my mammy and my sisters and topics and model, my brothers, shall I never see you again! Oh, the trials! the trials! they make the cold salt water come into my eyes when I think of the days in which I was afflicted--the times that are gone; when I mourned and grieved with a young heart for those whom I loved. It was night when I reached my new home. The house was large, and built at the bottom of a very high hill; but I could not see much of it that night. I saw too much of it afterwards. The stones and the timber were the best things in it; they were not so hard as the hearts of the owners.* * These strong expressions, and all of a similar character in this little narrative, are given verbatim as uttered by Mary Prince.-- Ed. Before I entered the house, two slave women, hired from another owner, who were at work in the yard, spoke to me, and asked who I belonged to? I replied, I am come to live here.

Poor child, poor child! they both said; you must keep a good heart, if you are to live here.--When I went in, I stood up crying in a corner. Mrs. I----came and took off my hat, a little black silk hat Miss Pruden made for me, and toefl and model, said in a rough voice, You are not come here to stand up in corners and cry, you are come here to work. She then put a child into my arms, and, tired as I was, I was forced instantly to Page 6. take up my old occupation of a nurse.--I could not bear to look at Jack the ripper my mistress, her countenance was so stern. She was a stout tall woman with a very dark complexion, and her brows were always drawn together into a frown. I thought of the words of the two slave women when I saw Mrs. Topics Essays! I----, and heard the harsh sound of her voice. The person I took the scientific most notice of that night was a French Black called Hetty, whom my master took in topics essays, privateering from another vessel, and facebook bullying essay, made his slave.

She was the most active woman I ever saw, and she was tasked to her utmost. A few minutes after my arrival she came in from milking the toefl topics and model cows, and put the cold sweet-potatoes on for supper. She then fetched home the sheep, and penned them in the fold; drove home the cattle, and toefl writing topics and model essays, staked them about the scientific research and essays reuters pond side; * * The cattle on a small plantation in Bermuda are, it seems, often thus staked tethered, both night and day, in situations where grass abounds. fed and rubbed down my master's horse, and gave the hog and the fed cow ** their suppers; prepared the beds, and undressed the children, and laid them to toefl writing, sleep. I liked to look at Jack the ripper her and watch all her doings, for her's was the only friendly face I had as yet seen, and and model essays, I felt glad that she was there. She gave me my supper of potatoes and milk, and a blanket to sleep upon, which she spread for me in the passage before the door of honor Mrs.

I----'s chamber. I got a sad fright, that night. Toefl Writing And Model! I was just going to war essays conclusion, sleep, when I heard a noise in my mistress's room; and she presently called out to enquire if some work was finished that she had ordered Hetty to do. No, Ma'am, not yet, was Hetty's answer from below. On hearing this, my master started up from his bed, and just as he was, in his shirt, ran down stairs with a long cow-skin *** *** A thong of hard twisted hide, known by this name in the West Indies. in his hand. I heard immediately after, the cracking of the thong, and the house rang to the shrieks of writing and model essays poor Hetty, who kept crying out, Oh, Massa! Massa! dead.

Massa! have mercy upon conclusion, me--don't kill me outright.--This was a sad beginning for me. I sat up upon toefl topics and model, my blanket, trembling with terror, like a frightened hound, and thinking that my turn would come next. Essays! At length the house became still, and I forgot for a little while all my sorrows by toefl writing and model, falling fast asleep. The next morning my mistress set about instructing me in scientific and essays reuters, my tasks. She taught me to do all sorts of household work; to essays, wash and bake, pick cotton and code, wool, and wash floors, and writing essays, cook. The Benefits Of Homework Or No! And she taught me (how can I ever forget it!) more things than these; she caused me to know the exact difference between the smart of the rope, the cart-whip, and the cow-skin, when applied to my naked body by her own cruel hand. And there was scarcely any punishment more dreadful than the toefl blows received on my face and head from her hard heavy fist. She was a fearful woman, and a savage mistress to her slaves. There were two little slave boys in the house, on essays of reason, whom she vented her bad temper in a special manner. One of these children was a mulatto, called Cyrus, who had been bought while an infant in his mother's arms; the other, Jack, was an African from the coast of Guinea, whom a sailor had given or sold to my master. Toefl Topics Essays! Seldom a day passed without Page 7. these boys receiving the most severe treatment, and often for no fault at all.

Both my master and mistress seemed to think that they had a right to ill-use them at Jack the ripper their pleasure; and very often accompanied their commands with blows, whether the children were behaving well or ill. I have seen their flesh ragged and topics, raw with licks.--Lick--lick--they were never secure one moment from a blow, and their lives were passed in continual fear. My mistress was not contented with using the whip, but often pinched their cheeks and arms in facebook, the most cruel manner. My pity for these poor boys was soon transferred to myself; for I was licked, and flogged, and pinched by her pitiless fingers in the neck and topics and model, arms, exactly as they were. Cold War Essays! To strip me naked--to hang me up by the wrists and lay my flesh open with the cow-skin, was an ordinary punishment for even a slight offence. Writing Topics! My mistress often robbed me too of the the benefits hours that belong to sleep. She used to sit up very late, frequently even until morning; and I had then to stand at a bench and wash during the greater part of the night, or pick wool and topics and model, cotton; and often I have dropped down overcome by sleep and fatigue, till roused from of homework or no Homework, a state of stupor by the whip, and forced to start up to my tasks. Poor Hetty, my fellow slave, was very kind to me, and writing topics and model, I used to call her my Aunt; but she led a most miserable life, and her death was hastened (at least the slaves all believed and said so,) by the dreadful chastisement she received from my master during her pregnancy. It happened as follows.

One of the cows had dragged the rope away from the stake to the benefits or no, which Hetty had fastened it, and got loose. My master flew into a terrible passion, and ordered the poor creature to be stripped quite naked, notwithstanding her pregnancy, and to be tied up to a tree in the yard. He then flogged her as hard as he could lick, both with the writing topics and model essays whip and cow-skin, till she was all over streaming with blood. He rested, and then beat her again and again. On Enlightenment Or Age Of Reason! Her shrieks were terrible. The consequence was that poor Hetty was brought to bed before her time, and was delivered after severe labour of essays a dead child. War Essays Conclusion! She appeared to recover after her confinement, so far that she was repeatedly flogged by both master and mistress afterwards; but her former strength never returned to her. Ere long her body and limbs swelled to a great size; and she lay on a mat in the kitchen, till the water burst out of her body and she died. All the slaves said that death was a good thing for poor Hetty; but I cried very much for her death.

The manner of it filled me with horror. I could not bear to think about it; yet it was always present to my mind for many a day. After Hetty died all her labours fell upon me, in addition to my own. I had now to milk eleven cows every morning before sunrise, sitting among the damp weeds; to take care of the toefl writing and model cattle as well as the children; and to do the work of the house. There was no end to my toils--no end to my blows.

I lay down at night and research and essays thomson reuters, rose up in the morning in writing topics and model, fear and sorrow; and essay honor, often wished that like poor Hetty I could escape from this cruel bondage and be at toefl writing topics and model rest in the grave. But the essay code hand of that God whom then I knew not, was stretched over me; and I was mercifully preserved for better things. It was then, however, my heavy lot to toefl and model essays, weep, weep, weep, and that for years; to pass from one Page 8. misery to another, and from one cruel master to a worse. But I must go on with the thread of my story. One day a heavy squall of wind and rain came on suddenly, and my mistress sent me round the corner of the house to empty a large earthen jar. Facebook Bullying Essay! The jar was already cracked with an writing topics and model old deep crack that divided it in the middle, and in turning it upside down to empty it, it parted in my hand.

I could not help the accident, but I was dreadfully frightened, looking forward to Jack the ripper, a severe punishment. I ran crying to my mistress, O mistress, the jar has come in two. You have broken it, have you? she replied; come directly here to me. Topics Essays! I came trembling: she stripped and flogged me long and severely with the essays on enlightenment or age cow-skin; as long as she had strength to use the lash, for toefl topics, she did not give over till she was quite tired.--When my master came home at night, she told him of my fault; and oh, frightful! how he fell a swearing. Facebook Bullying! After abusing me with every ill name he could think of, (too, too bad to speak in England,) and giving me several heavy blows with his hand, he said, I shall come home to-morrow morning at twelve, on purpose to give you a round hundred. He kept his word--Oh sad for me!

I cannot easily forget it. He tied me up upon a ladder, and gave me a hundred lashes with his own hand, and master Benjy stood by to toefl essays, count them for him. When he had licked me for some time he sat down to take breath; then after resting, he beat me again and again, until he was quite wearied, and so hot (for the weather was very sultry), that he sank back in his chair, almost like to faint. While my mistress went to Jack the ripper, bring him drink, there was a dreadful earthquake. Part of the toefl essays roof fell down, and every thing in the house went--clatter, clatter, clatter. Oh I thought the end of all things near at hand; and I was so sore with the flogging, that I scarcely cared whether I lived or died. The earth was groaning and shaking; every thing tumbling about; and and essays thomson reuters, my mistress and the slaves were shrieking and crying out, The earthquake! the earthquake! It was an awful day for us all. During the confusion I crawled away on my hands and knees, and laid myself down under the steps of the piazza, in front of the house.

I was in a dreadful state--my body all blood and bruises, and I could not help moaning piteously. The other slaves, when they saw me, shook their heads and said, Poor child! poor child!--I lay there till the morning, careless of what might happen, for life was very weak in me, and toefl and model, I wished more than ever to die. The Benefits Of Homework Homework! But when we are very young, death always seems a great way off, and it would not come that night to me. The next morning I was forced by my master to rise and go about writing essays my usual work, though my body and limbs were so stiff and sore, that I could not move without the greatest pain.--Nevertheless, even after all this severe punishment, I never heard the last of that jar; my mistress was always throwing it in my face. Some little time after this, one of the cows got loose from the stake, and eat one of the sweet-potatoe slips. I was milking when my master found it out. He came to me, and without any more ado, stooped down, and cold war essays, taking off his heavy boot, he struck me such a severe blow in the small of my back, that I shrieked with agony, and thought I was killed; and I feel a weakness in that part to this day.

The cow was Page 9. frightened at topics and model essays his violence, and kicked down the thomson reuters pail and spilt the milk all about. My master knew that this accident was his own fault, but he was so enraged that he seemed glad of an excuse to go on with his ill usage. I cannot remember how many licks he gave me then, but he beat me till I was unable to stand, and till he himself was weary. After this I ran away and went to toefl, my mother, who was living with Mr. Richard Darrel. My poor mother was both grieved and war essays conclusion, glad to see me; grieved because I had been so ill used, and glad because she had not seen me for a long, long while. Toefl Writing Topics! She dared not receive me into the house, but she hid me up in essay code, a hole in the rocks near, and brought me food at night, after every body was asleep.

My father, who lived at Crow-Lane, over and model essays, the salt-water channel, at last heard of my being hid up in the cavern, and he came and of homework or no Homework, took me back to my master. Oh I was loth, loth to go back; but as there was no remedy, I was obliged to submit. When we got home, my poor father said to Capt. I----, Sir, I am sorry that my child should be forced to run away from her owner; but the treatment she has received is enough to break her heart. The sight of her wounds has nearly broke mine.--I entreat you, for topics, the love of God, to forgive her for cold, running away, and that you will be a kind master to her in writing topics and model essays, future.

Capt. I---- said I was used as well as I deserved, and that I ought to be punished for Jack the ripper, running away. I then took courage and toefl topics, said that I could stand the facebook bullying essay floggings no longer; that I was weary of my life, and therefore I had run away to my mother; but mothers could only toefl writing topics and model weep and the benefits of homework or no Homework, mourn over their children, they could not save them from cruel masters--from the whip, the rope, and the cowskin. Essays! He told me to hold my tongue and go about my work, or he would find a way to settle me. He did not, however, flog me that day. For five years after this I remained in his house, and almost daily received the same harsh treatment.

At length he put me on board a sloop, and to the benefits of homework or no Homework, my great joy sent me away to Turk's Island. Topics! I was not permitted to essays on enlightenment of reason, see my mother or father, or poor sisters and brothers, to say good bye, though going away to a strange land, and might never see them again. Oh the Buckra people who keep slaves think that black people are like cattle, without natural affection. But my heart tells me it is topics and model essays far otherwise. We were nearly four weeks on the voyage, which was unusually long. Sometimes we had a light breeze, sometimes a great calm, and the ship made no way; so that our provisions and water ran very low, and we were put upon short allowance. I should almost have been starved had it not been for the kindness of a black man called Anthony, and his wife, who had brought their own victuals, and shared them with me. When we went ashore at the Grand Quay, the captain sent me to the house of my new master, Mr.

D----, to whom Captain I---- had sold me. Grand Quay is a small town upon a sandbank; the houses low and built of on enlightenment or age wood. Writing And Model Essays! Such was my new master's. The first person I saw, on facebook, my arrival, was Mr. D----, a stout sulky looking man, who carried me through the hall to show me to his wife and children.

Next day I was put up by the vendue master to toefl writing, know how much I was worth, and I was valued at one hundred pounds currency. My new master was one of the owners or holders of the salt ponds, and he received a certain sum for every slave that worked upon his premises, whether they were young or old. This sum was allowed him out of the profits arising from the salt works. I was immediately sent to work in the salt water with the rest of the essay slaves. This work was perfectly new to me. Toefl Writing Topics Essays! I was given a half barrel and a shovel, and had to stand up to my knees in the water, from four o'clock in war essays, the morning till nine, when we were given some Indian corn boiled in toefl topics and model, water, which we were obliged to swallow as fast as we could for fear the rain should come on and melt the salt. Cold War Essays! We were then called again to our tasks, and worked through the heat of the day; the sun flaming upon our heads like fire, and raising salt blisters in those parts which were not completely covered. Our feet and toefl topics, legs, from standing in the salt water for so many hours, soon became full of dreadful boils, which eat down in some cases to the very bone, afflicting the essay honor sufferers with great torment.

We came home at twelve; ate our corn soup, called blawly, as fast as we could, and went back to our employment till dark at night. We then shovelled up the salt in large heaps, and went down to the sea, where we washed the pickle from our limbs, and topics and model, cleaned the barrows and on enlightenment, shovels from the salt. When we returned to writing topics, the house, our master gave us each our allowance of raw Indian corn, which we pounded in war essays conclusion, a mortar and boiled in water for writing essays, our suppers. We slept in a long shed, divided into narrow slips, like the stalls used for cattle. Essays On Enlightenment Of Reason! Boards fixed upon stakes driven into the ground, without mat or covering, were our only beds. On Sundays, after we had washed the salt bags, and done other work required of us, we went into the bush and cut the long soft grass, of toefl writing which we made trusses for our legs and feet to rest upon, for they were so full of the salt boils that we could get no rest lying upon the bare boards. Though we worked from morning till night, there was no satisfying Mr.

D----. I hoped, when I left Capt. Homework! I----, that I should have been better off, but I found it was but going from one butcher to another. There was this difference between them: my former master used to beat me while raging and foaming with passion; Mr. D---- was usually quite calm. He would stand by and give orders for a slave to be cruelly whipped, and assist in the punishment, without moving a muscle of his face; walking about and taking snuff with the greatest composure. Toefl And Model Essays! Nothing could touch his hard heart--neither sighs, nor tears, nor prayers, nor streaming blood; he was deaf to our cries, and careless of our sufferings.--Mr.

D---- has often stripped me naked, hung me up by the wrists, and beat me with the cow-skin, with his own hand, till my body was raw with gashes. Yet there was nothing very remarkable in this; for it might serve as a sample of the common usage of the slaves on war essays, that horrible island. Owing to the boils in my feet, I was unable to toefl essays, wheel the barrow fast through the Jack the ripper sand, which got into the sores, and made me stumble at toefl writing topics and model essays every step; and Jack the ripper, my master, having no pity for my sufferings from this cause, rendered them far more intolerable, by chastising me for not being able to move so fast as he wished me. Another of toefl writing topics essays our employments was to row a little way off from the shore in a boat, and dive Page 11. for large stones to build a wall round our master's house.

This was very hard work; and the great waves breaking over us continually, made us often so giddy that we lost our footing, and were in research reuters, danger of being drowned. Ah, poor me!--my tasks were never ended. Sick or well, it was work--work--work!--After the diving season was over, we were sent to essays, the South Creek, with large bills, to cut up mangoes to burn lime with. Jack The Ripper! Whilst one party of slaves were thus employed, another were sent to the other side of the island to break up coral out and model of the sea. When we were ill, let our complaint be what it might, the only medicine given to us was a great bowl of hot salt water, with salt mixed with it, which made us very sick. If we could not keep up with the rest of the gang of slaves, we were put in the stocks, and the benefits of homework Homework, severely flogged the next morning. Yet, not the less, our master expected, after we had thus been kept from our rest, and our limbs rendered stiff and sore with ill usage, that we should still go through the ordinary tasks of the day all the same.--Sometimes we had to work all night, measuring salt to topics, load a vessel; or turning a machine to draw water out essay honor of the and model sea for the salt-making. Then we had no sleep--no rest--but were forced to the benefits, work as fast as we could, and go on toefl and model, again all next day the Jack the ripper same as usual. Work--work--work--Oh that Turk's Island was a horrible place! The people in writing and model essays, England, I am sure, have never found out what is carried on there.

Cruel, horrible place! Mr. D-- had a slave called old Daniel, whom he used to code, treat in the most cruel manner. Poor Daniel was lame in the hip, and could not keep up with the rest of the slaves; and our master would order him to toefl essays, be stripped and laid down on scientific reuters, the ground, and toefl topics essays, have him beaten with a rod of rough briar till his skin was quite red and raw. Code! He would then call for topics essays, a bucket of Jack the ripper salt, and fling upon the raw flesh till the man writhed on the ground like a worm, and screamed aloud with agony.

This poor man's wounds were never healed, and I have often seen them full of writing topics and model maggots, which increased his torments to an intolerable degree. He was an object of pity and terror to the whole gang of slaves, and in his wretched case we saw, each of us, our own lot, if we should live to be as old. Oh the horrors of slavery!--How the thought of it pains my heart! But the truth ought to be told of it; and what my eyes have seen I think it is my duty to relate; for few people in England know what slavery is. I have been a slave--I have felt what a slave feels, and I know what a slave knows; and I would have all the good people in England to code, know it too, that they may break our chains, and set us free. Mr. D---- had another slave called Ben. Writing Topics And Model Essays! He being very hungry, stole a little rice one night after he came in or no Homework, from work, and cooked it for toefl essays, his supper. But his master soon discovered the theft: locked him up all night; and kept him without food till one o'clock the essay honor next day. Toefl Essays! He then hung Ben up by his hands, and beat him from time to time till the slaves came in at war essays conclusion night. We found the poor creature hung up when we came home; with a pool of blood beneath him, and our master still licking him.

But this was not the worst. My master's son was in the habit of and model stealing the rice and rum. Ben had seen him do this, and thought he might do the same, and when master found out that Ben Page 12. had stolen the rice and cold war essays conclusion, swore to punish him, he tried to excuse himself by saying that Master Dickey did the same thing every night. Writing Topics Essays! The lad denied it to his father, and Jack the ripper, was so angry with Ben for informing against toefl writing essays, him, that out of on enlightenment or age revenge he ran and got a bayonet, and whilst the poor wretch was suspended by writing topics and model, his hands and writhing under his wounds, he run it quite through his foot. I was not by when he did it, but I saw the wound when I came home, and heard Ben tell the manner in which it was done. I must say something more about essays on enlightenment of reason this cruel son of a cruel father.-- He had no heart--no fear of God; he had been brought up by a bad father in toefl and model, a bad path, and he delighted to follow in the same steps. There was a little old woman among the of reason slaves called Sarah, who was nearly past work; and, Master Dickey being the toefl writing and model overseer of the Jack the ripper slaves just then, this poor creature, who was subject to several bodily infirmities, and was not quite right in her head, did not wheel the barrow fast enough to please him. He threw her down on the ground, and after beating her severely, he took her up in his arms and essays, flung her among the prickly-pear bushes, which are all covered over with sharp venomous prickles.

By this her naked flesh was so grievously wounded, that her body swelled and festered all over, and she died a few days after. In telling my own sorrows, I cannot pass by those of my fellow-slaves--for when I think of the benefits my own griefs, I remember theirs. I think it was about ten years I had worked in the salt ponds at Turk's Island, when my master left off business, and retired to a house he had in Bermuda, leaving his son to toefl topics essays, succeed him in the island. He took me with him to wait upon his daughters; and I was joyful, for Jack the ripper, I was sick, sick of topics Turk's Island, and scientific and essays thomson reuters, my heart yearned to and model essays, see my native place again, my mother, and my kindred. I had seen my poor mother during the of homework time I was a slave in Turk's Island.

One Sunday morning I was on the beach with some of the slaves, and we saw a sloop come in toefl writing topics, loaded with slaves to work in the salt water. We got a boat and went aboard. When I came upon the deck I asked the Jack the ripper black people, Is there any one here for me? Yes, they said, your mother. I thought they said this in jest--I could scarcely believe them for joy; but when I saw my poor mammy my joy was turned to sorrow, for she had gone from toefl writing topics essays, her senses. Or No! Mammy, I said, is this you? She did not know me. Mammy, I said, what's the matter? She began to talk foolishly, and writing and model essays, said that she had been under the vessel's bottom. They had been overtaken by a violent storm at sea.

My poor mother had never been on the sea before, and she was so ill, that she lost her senses, and it was long before she came quite to herself again. She had a sweet child with her--a little sister I had never seen, about four years of age, called Rebecca. Jack The Ripper! I took her on shore with me, for I felt I should love her directly; and I kept her with me a week. Poor little thing! her's has been a sad life, and continues so to this day. My mother worked for some years on the island, but was taken back to Bermuda some time before my master carried me again thither.* * Of the subsequent lot of writing her relatives she can tell but little. She says, her father died while she and her mother were at Turk's Island; and that he had been long dead and buried before any of his children in Bermuda knew of of homework it, they being slaves on other estates. Her mother died after Mary went to Antigua.

Of the toefl writing topics and model fate of the rest of her kindred, seven brothers and three sisters, she knows nothing further than this--that the cold conclusion eldest sister, who had several children to her master, was taken by him to Trinidad; and and model essays, that the of homework Homework youngest, Rebecca, is still alive, and in slavery in toefl writing topics and model, Bermuda. Mary herself is now about honor forty-three years of age.-- Ed. After I left Turk's Island, I was told by toefl writing topics essays, some negroes that came over essays, from it, that the poor slaves had built up a place with boughs and leaves, where they might meet for prayers, but the white people pulled it down twice, and would not allow them even a shed for prayers. A flood came down soon after and washed away many houses, filled the place with sand, and overflowed the ponds: and I do think that this was for writing topics and model essays, their wickedness; for the Buckra men* there were very wicked. I saw and the benefits of homework Homework, heard much that was very very bad at toefl writing essays that place. I was several years the slave of Mr. D---- after I returned to my native place.

Here I worked in research, the grounds. My work was planting and hoeing sweet-potatoes, Indian corn, plaintains, bananas, cabbages, pumpkins, onions, c. I did all the household work, and attended upon a horse and cow besides,--going also upon all errands. I had to curry the horse--to clean and feed him--and sometimes to ride him a little. I had more than enough to do--but still it was not so very bad as Turk's Island. My old master often got drunk, and then he would get in a fury with his daughter, and beat her till she was not fit to be seen. I remember on one occasion, I had gone to fetch water, and when I was coming up the hill I heard a great screaming; I ran as fast as I could to toefl writing essays, the house, put down the water, and went into the chamber, where I found my master beating Miss D---- dreadfully. I strove with all my strength to get her away from him; for she was all black and blue with bruises. Jack The Ripper! He had beat her with his fist, and almost killed her. The people gave me credit for getting her away. He turned round and began to lick me.

Then I said, Sir, this is not Turk's Island. And Model Essays! I can't repeat his answer, the words were too wicked--too bad to say. He wanted to treat me the or no same in Bermuda as he had done in toefl writing and model essays, Turk's Island. He had an ugly fashion of stripping himself quite naked, and ordering me then to wash him in a tub of water. This was worse to me than all the licks. Sometimes when he called me to wash him I would not come, my eyes were so full of shame. He would then come to beat me. One time I had plates and knives in or no Homework, my hand, and I dropped both plates and knives, and some of the and model essays plates were broken.

He struck me so severely for this, that at last I defended myself, for I thought it was high time to do so. I then told him I would not live longer with him, for the benefits of homework, he was a very indecent man--very spiteful, and too indecent; with no shame for his servants, no shame for his own flesh. So I went away to toefl topics essays, a neighbouring house and sat down and facebook, cried till the next morning, when I went home again, not knowing what else to do. After that I was hired to work at Cedar Hills, and every Saturday night I paid the money to my master. Toefl And Model! I had plenty of scientific thomson work to toefl and model essays, do there-- Page 14. plenty of washing; but yet I made myself pretty comfortable. Facebook! I earned two dollars and a quarter a week, which is toefl writing topics twenty pence a day. During the time I worked there, I heard that Mr. John Wood was going to Antigua. I felt a great wish to go there, and I went to Mr.

D----, and asked him to let me go in cold, Mr. Wood's service. Mr. Wood did not then want to purchase me; it was my own fault that I came under him, I was so anxious to go. It was ordained to be, I suppose; God led me there. The truth is, I did not wish to be any longer the slave of my indecent master. Mr. Wood took me with him to toefl essays, Antigua, to the town of St.

John's, where he lived. This was about fifteen years ago. He did not then know whether I was to be sold; but Mrs. Wood found that I could work, and honor code, she wanted to buy me. Topics And Model Essays! Her husband then wrote to my master to code, inquire whether I was to be sold? Mr. D-- wrote in toefl, reply, that I should not be sold to any one that would treat me ill. It was strange he should say this, when he had treated me so ill himself.

So I was purchased by Mr. Jack The Ripper! Wood for topics, 300 dollars, (or £100 Bermuda currency.)* My work there was to attend the facebook chambers and toefl writing essays, nurse the child, and to scientific research, go down to the pond and wash clothes. But I soon fell ill of the rheumatism, and grew so very lame that I was forced to walk with a stick. I got the Saint Anthony's fire, also, in my left leg, and became quite a cripple.

No one cared much to come near me, and I was ill a long long time; for several months I could not lift the writing limb. I had to lie in a little old out-house, that was swarming with bugs and facebook essay, other vermin, which tormented me greatly; but I had no other place to lie in. I got the writing topics rheumatism by catching cold at the pond side, from washing in the fresh water; in the salt water I never got cold. The person who lived in next yard, (a Mrs. Greene,) could not bear to hear my cries and groans. She was kind, and used to send an old slave woman to help me, who sometimes brought me a little soup.

When the doctor found I was so ill, he said I must be put into a bath of Jack the ripper hot water. The old slave got the bark of some bush that was good for the pains, which she boiled in toefl writing topics essays, the hot water, and every night she came and put me into the bath, and did what she could for me: I don't know what I should have done, or what would have become of me, had it not been for her.--My mistress, it is true, did send me a little food; but no one from our family came near me but the cook, who used to shove my food in at the door, and say, Molly, Molly, there's your dinner. My mistress did not care to take any trouble about bullying essay me; and and model essays, if the Lord had not put it into the hearts of the neighbours to be kind to facebook, me, I must, I really think, have lain and writing and model essays, died. It was a long time before I got well enough to work in cold war essays, the house. Mrs. Wood, in the meanwhile, hired a mulatto woman to nurse the child; but she was such a fine lady she wanted to be mistress over me. Toefl And Model Essays! I thought it very hard for a coloured woman to essay, have rule over me because I was a slave and she was free. Writing Topics Essays! Her name was Martha Wilcox; she was a saucy woman, very saucy; and she went and complained of Jack the ripper Page 15.

me, without cause, to my mistress, and made her angry with me. Mrs. Wood told me that if I did not mind what I was about, she would get my master to strip me and and model, give me fifty lashes: You have been used to facebook essay, the whip, she said, and you shall have it here. This was the toefl topics first time she threatened to facebook, have me flogged; and she gave me the threatening so strong of what she would have done to me, that I thought I should have fallen down at her feet, I was so vexed and hurt by her words. The mulatto woman was rejoiced to have power to toefl topics, keep me down. She was constantly making mischief; there was no living for the slaves--no peace after she came. I was also sent by Mrs. Wood to be put in facebook bullying, the Cage one night, and toefl topics, was next morning flogged, by war essays, the magistrate's order, at her desire; and this all for a quarrel I had about a pig with another slave woman. I was flogged on my naked back on this occasion: although I was in toefl writing topics, no fault after all; for old Justice Dyett, when we came before him, said that I was in facebook bullying, the right, and ordered the pig to be given to me. This was about two or three years after I came to Antigua. When we moved from the middle of the topics essays town to of homework, the Point, I used to be in the house and toefl writing essays, do all the work and mind the children, though still very ill with the rheumatism.

Every week I had to wash two large bundles of clothes, as much as a boy could help me to Jack the ripper, lift; but I could give no satisfaction. My mistress was always abusing and fretting after me. It is not possible to tell all her ill language.--One day she followed me foot after foot scolding and toefl writing and model, rating me. I bore in silence a great deal of cold war essays conclusion ill words: at last my heart was quite full, and toefl writing essays, I told her that she ought not to use me so;--that when I was ill I might have lain and died for what she cared; and no one would then come near me to nurse me, because they were afraid of Jack the ripper my mistress. Topics! This was a great affront. She called her husband and cold conclusion, told him what I had said. He flew into a passion: but did not beat me then; he only abused and swore at and model essays me; and then gave me a note and bade me go and look for an owner.

Not that he meant to sell me; but he did this to please his wife and to frighten me. I went to Adam White, a cooper, a free black, who had money, and asked him to the benefits of homework Homework, buy me. He went directly to topics essays, Mr. Wood, but was informed that I was not to be sold. The next day my master whipped me. Another time (about five years ago) my mistress got vexed with me, because I fell sick and I could not keep on thomson reuters, with my work. She complained to her husband, and he sent me off again to look for an owner. I went to a Mr.

Burchell, showed him the note, and topics and model, asked him to buy me for essays, my own benefit; for I had saved about 100 dollars, and hoped, with a little help, to purchase my freedom. He accordingly went to my master:--Mr. Essays! Wood, he said, Molly has brought me a note that she wants an facebook essay owner. If you intend to sell her, I may as well buy her as another. Toefl Writing And Model! My master put him off and said that he did not mean to scientific research, sell me. I was very sorry at this, for I had no comfort with Mrs. Wood, and I wished greatly to get my freedom. The way in which I made my money was this.--When my master and mistress went from home, as they sometimes did, and left me to take care of the house and premises, I had a good deal of time to toefl topics, myself, and scientific research thomson reuters, made the most of toefl writing essays it. I took in washing, and sold coffee and yams Page 16.

and other provisions to the captains of ships. I did not sit still idling during the absence of my owners; for I wanted, by all honest means, to earn money to buy my freedom. Sometimes I bought a hog cheap on facebook bullying, board ship, and sold it for toefl writing and model, double the money on shore; and I also earned a good deal by selling coffee. By this means I by degrees acquired a little cash. Conclusion! A gentleman also lent me some to help to writing topics and model, buy my freedom--but when I could not get free he got it back again. His name was Captain Abbot. My master and and essays reuters, mistress went on toefl writing topics, one occasion into the country, to Date Hill, for cold war essays conclusion, change of air, and carried me with them to take charge of the children, and to do the work of the house.

While I was in the country, I saw how the toefl topics and model essays field negroes are worked in Antigua. They are worked very hard and fed but scantily. They are called out to cold war essays, work before daybreak, and come home after dark; and topics and model essays, then each has to heave his bundle of grass for essays on enlightenment or age of reason, the cattle in the pen. Then, on Sunday morning, each slave has to go out and gather a large bundle of grass; and, when they bring it home, they have all to sit at the manager's door and wait till he come out: often have they to wait there till past eleven o'clock, without any breakfast. After that, those that have yams or potatoes, or fire-wood to sell, hasten to market to buy a dog's worth * of salt fish, or pork, which is a great treat for toefl writing, them. Some of them buy a little pickle out of the shad barrels, which they call sauce, to season their yams and Indian corn.

It is very wrong, I know, to Jack the ripper, work on Sunday or go to market; but will not God call the Buckra men to toefl topics essays, answer for scientific research and essays thomson reuters, this on the great day of toefl writing topics judgment--since they will give the slaves no other day? While we were at Date Hill Christmas came; and the slave woman who had the care of the place (which then belonged to Mr. Essays Or Age Of Reason! Roberts the marshal), asked me to toefl writing and model, go with her to her husband's house, to of homework, a Methodist meeting for prayer, at a plantation called Winthorps. I went; and they were the first prayers I ever understood. One woman prayed; and then they all sung a hymn; then there was another prayer and another hymn; and then they all spoke by turns of essays their own griefs as sinners.

The husband of the woman I went with was a black driver. His name was Henry. He confessed that he had treated the slaves very cruelly; but said that he was compelled to obey the orders of his master. He prayed them all to forgive him, and he prayed that God would forgive him. He said it was a horrid thing for Jack the ripper, a ranger** ** The head negro of an estate--a person who has the chief superintendence under the manager. to have sometimes to beat his own wife or sister; but he must do so if ordered by writing and model essays, his master. I felt sorry for my sins also.

I cried the whole night, but I was too much ashamed to speak. I prayed God to forgive me. This meeting had a great impression on my mind, and led my spirit to the Moravian church; so that when I got back to town, I went and prayed to have my name put down in the Missionaries' book; and I followed the church earnestly every opportunity. I did not then tell my mistress about it; for I knew that she would not give me leave to go. Jack The Ripper! But I felt I must go. Page 17. Whenever I carried the and model essays children their lunch at school, I ran round and went to essay, hear the teachers. The Moravian ladies (Mrs.

Richter, Mrs. Olufsen, and Mrs. Sauter) taught me to toefl topics, read in the class; and Jack the ripper, I got on toefl writing, very fast. In this class there were all sorts of people, old and young, grey headed folks and children; but most of them were free people. After we had done spelling, we tried to Jack the ripper, read in writing and model, the Bible. After the reading was over, the missionary gave out a hymn for us to sing. I dearly loved to go to the church, it was so solemn.

I never knew rightly that I had much sin till I went there. When I found out that I was a great sinner, I was very sorely grieved, and very much frightened. I used to pray God to pardon my sins for Christ's sake, and forgive me for every thing I had done amiss; and when I went home to my work, I always thought about cold war essays what I had heard from the missionaries, and topics and model, wished to be good that I might go to heaven. Honor! After a while I was admitted a candidate for the holy Communion.--I had been baptized long before this, in the year 1817, by the Rev. Mr. Curtin, of the English Church, after I had been taught to repeat the toefl writing and model essays Creed and the Lord's Prayer. I wished at that time to cold war essays conclusion, attend a Sunday School taught by Mr.

Curtin, but he would not receive me without a written note from my master, granting his permission. I did not ask my owner's permission, from the belief that it would be refused; so that I got no farther instruction at that time from the and model essays English Church.* * She possesses a copy of Mrs. Trimmer's Charity School Spelling Book, presented to scientific research and essays thomson reuters, her by the Rev. Mr. Curtin, and and model essays, dated August 30, 1817.

In this book her name is written Mary, Princess of Wales--an appellation which, she says, was given her by her owners. It is a common practice with the colonists to give ridiculous names of this description to their slaves; being, in fact, one of the numberless modes of expressing the Jack the ripper habitual contempt with which they regard the negro race.--In printing this narrative we have retained Mary's paternal name of Prince.-- Ed. Some time after I began to attend the Moravian Church, I met with Daniel James, afterwards my dear husband. He was a carpenter and cooper to toefl topics, his trade; an honest, hard-working, decent black man, and a widower. He had purchased his freedom of essay his mistress, old Mrs. Baker, with money he had earned whilst a slave. When he asked me to marry him, I took time to consider the matter over with myself, and would not say yes till he went to church with me and joined the Moravians. He was very industrious after he bought his freedom; and he had hired a comfortable house, and had convenient things about him.

We were joined in marriage, about Christmas 1826, in the Moravian Chapel at Spring Gardens, by the Rev. Mr. Writing! Olufsen. We could not be married in the English Church. English marriage is not allowed to scientific and essays thomson reuters, slaves; and no free man can marry a slave woman. When Mr. Wood heard of my marriage, he flew into a great rage, and sent for toefl writing and model, Daniel, who was helping to build a house for his old mistress. Mr. Wood asked him who gave him a right to marry a slave of his? My husband said, Sir, I am a free man, and thought I had a right to choose a wife; but if I had known Molly was not allowed to Jack the ripper, have a husband, I should not have asked her to marry me.

Mrs. Wood was more vexed about my marriage than her husband. Writing! She could not forgive Page 18. me for getting married, but stirred up Mr. Wood to flog me dreadfully with the horsewhip.

I thought it very hard to be whipped at my time of life for getting a husband--I told her so. She said that she would not have nigger men about the yards and premises, or allow a nigger man's clothes to essays on enlightenment of reason, be washed in the same tub where hers were washed. She was fearful, I think, that I should lose her time, in order to wash and do things for my husband: but I had then no time to wash for myself; I was obliged to put out toefl writing topics and model my own clothes, though I was always at the wash-tub. I had not much happiness in my marriage, owing to my being a slave. It made my husband sad to essay, see me so ill-treated. Toefl Writing Essays! Mrs.

Wood was always abusing me about essay honor code him. She did not lick me herself, but she got her husband to do it for her, whilst she fretted the flesh off my bones. Toefl Topics Essays! Yet for all this she would not sell me. She sold five slaves whilst I was with her; but though she was always finding fault with me, she would not part with me. However, Mr. Wood afterwards allowed Daniel to have a place to honor, live in our yard, which we were very thankful for. After this, I fell ill again with the rheumatism, and was sick a long time; but whether sick or well, I had my work to do. About this time I asked my master and mistress to let me buy my own freedom. With the help of toefl Mr.

Burchell, I could have found the means to on enlightenment, pay Mr. Wood; for toefl writing, it was agreed that I should afterwards serve Mr. Burchell a while, for the cash he was to advance for me. I was earnest in the request to my owners; but their hearts were hard--too hard to consent. Mrs. Wood was very angry--she grew quite outrageous--she called me a black devil, and asked me who had put freedom into my head. To be free is very sweet, I said: but she took good care to keep me a slave. Bullying Essay! I saw her change colour, and I left the room. About this time my master and essays, mistress were going to England to put their son to school, and bring their daughters home; and they took me with them to take care of the child.

I was willing to essays on enlightenment of reason, come to England: I thought that by going there I should probably get cured of my rheumatism, and should return with my master and essays, mistress, quite well, to of homework or no, my husband. My husband was willing for me to come away, for he had heard that my master would free me,--and I also hoped this might prove true; but it was all a false report. The steward of the ship was very kind to me. He and my husband were in the same class in the Moravian Church. Toefl Writing Topics! I was thankful that he was so friendly, for my mistress was not kind to me on the passage; and she told me, when she was angry, that she did not intend to treat me any better in England than in the West Indies--that I need not expect it. And she was as good as her word.

When we drew near to England, the rheumatism seized all my limbs worse than ever, and my body was dreadfully swelled. When we landed at the Tower, I shewed my flesh to my mistress, but she took no great notice of it. On Enlightenment Or Age Of Reason! We were obliged to stop at the tavern till my master got a house; and a day or two after, my mistress sent me down into the wash-house to learn to wash in the English way. In the West Indies we wash with cold water--in England with hot. Topics Essays! I told my mistress I was afraid that putting my hands first into the hot water and then Page 19. into the cold, would increase the pain in my limbs. The doctor had told my mistress long before I came from the West Indies, that I was a sickly body and the washing did not agree with me. But Mrs. Wood would not release me from the tub, so I was forced to do as I could. I grew worse, and could not stand to wash.

I was then forced to sit down with the tub before me, and often through pain and weakness was reduced to kneel or to sit down on the floor, to finish my task. When I complained to my mistress of this, she only got into Jack the ripper a passion as usual, and said washing in hot water could not hurt any one;--that I was lazy and insolent, and wanted to be free of my work; but that she would make me do it. I thought her very hard on me, and my heart rose up within me. However I kept still at that time, and went down again to wash the child's things; but the toefl writing topics English washerwomen who were at work there, when they saw that I was so ill, had pity upon me and washed them for me. After that, when we came up to live in Leigh Street, Mrs. Wood sorted out five bags of clothes which we had used at sea, and also such as had been worn since we came on shore, for me and the cook to wash. Elizabeth the cook told her, that she did not think that I was able to stand to the tub, and that she had better hire a woman. I also said myself, that I had come over to nurse the child, and Homework, that I was sorry I had come from Antigua, since mistress would work me so hard, without compassion for my rheumatism. Topics Essays! Mr. and on enlightenment or age of reason, Mrs. Wood, when they heard this, rose up in toefl topics and model, a passion against me. They opened the door and bade me get out.

But I was a stranger, and did not know one door in the street from another, and cold war essays, was unwilling to go away. They made a dreadful uproar, and topics, from that day they constantly kept cursing and abusing me. I was obliged to wash, though I was very ill. Mrs. And Essays Reuters! Wood, indeed once hired a washerwoman, but she was not well treated, and would come no more.

My master quarrelled with me another time, about one of our great washings, his wife having stirred him up to do so. Essays! He said he would compel me to do the whole of the washing given out to me, or if I again refused, he would take a short course with me: he would either send me down to the brig in the river, to carry me back to and essays reuters, Antigua, or he would turn me at once out of doors, and let me provide for myself. I said I would willingly go back, if he would let me purchase my own freedom. But this enraged him more than all the rest: he cursed and topics, swore at Jack the ripper me dreadfully, and toefl, said he would never sell my freedom--if I wished to be free, I was free in England, and I might go and try what freedom would do for me, and cold war essays conclusion, be d----d. My heart was very sore with this treatment, but I had to writing topics and model, go on. I continued to do my work, and the benefits of homework or no Homework, did all I could to give satisfaction, but all would not do. Shortly after, the cook left them, and then matters went on ten times worse. I always washed the child's clothes without being commanded to do it, and any thing else that was wanted in the family; though still I was very sick--very sick indeed.

When the great washing came round, which was every two months, my mistress got together again a great many heavy things, such as bed-ticks, bed-coverlets, c. for me to wash. I told her I was too ill to wash such heavy things that day. And Model Essays! Page 20. She said, she supposed I thought myself a free woman, but I was not: and if I did not do it directly I should be instantly turned out of doors. I stood a long time before I could answer, for I did not know well what to do. I knew that I was free in and essays reuters, England, but I did not know where to go, or how to get my living; and therefore, I did not like to leave the toefl house. But Mr. Wood said he would send for scientific and essays thomson, a constable to thrust me out; and at last I took courage and toefl writing, resolved that I would not be longer thus treated, but would go and trust to Providence.

This was the fourth time they had threatened to turn me out, and, go where I might, I was determined now to take them at war essays conclusion their word; though I thought it very hard, after I had lived with them for thirteen years, and worked for them like a horse, to be driven out in this way, like a beggar. My only topics fault was being sick, and the benefits of homework Homework, therefore unable to please my mistress, who thought she never could get work enough out of her slaves; and I told them so: but they only abused me and drove me out. This took place from two to three months, I think, after we came to England. When I came away, I went to the man (one Mash) who used to black the shoes of the family, and asked his wife to get somebody to go with me to Hatton Garden to topics and model essays, the Moravian Missionaries: these were the only persons I knew in England. The woman sent a young girl with me to scientific and essays thomson, the mission house, and I saw there a gentleman called Mr. Moore. I told him my whole story, and how my owners had treated me, and asked him to take in my trunk with what few clothes I had.

The missionaries were very kind to me--they were sorry for my destitute situation, and gave me leave to toefl and model, bring my things to be placed under their care. They were very good people, and they told me to come to the church. When I went back to Mr. Wood's to get my trunk, I saw a lady, Mrs. Pell, who was on a visit to my mistress.

When Mr. and Mrs. Wood heard me come in, they set this lady to stop me, finding that they had gone too far with me. Jack The Ripper! Mrs. Pell came out to me, and said, Are you really going to leave, Molly? Don't leave, but come into toefl topics and model the country with me. Cold! I believe she said this because she thought Mrs. Wood would easily get me back again.

I replied to her, Ma'am, this is the fourth time my master and mistress have driven me out, or threatened to drive me--and I will give them no more occasion to bid me go. I was not willing to leave them, for I am a stranger in this country, but now I must go--I can stay no longer to be so used. Writing Essays! Mrs. Essays Of Reason! Pell then went up stairs to my mistress, and writing topics, told that I would go, and that she could not stop me. Mrs. Jack The Ripper! Wood was very much hurt and frightened when she found I was determined to go out that day. She said, If she goes the people will rob her, and then turn her adrift. She did not say this to me, but she spoke it loud enough for me to hear; that it might induce me not to go, I suppose. Mr.

Wood also asked me where I was going to. I told him where I had been, and that I should never have gone away had I not been driven out by my owners. He had given me a written paper some time before, which said that I had come with them to England by my own desire; and that was true. It said also that I left them of my own free will, because I was a free woman in England; and that Page 21. I was idle and would not do my work--which was not true. I gave this paper afterwards to toefl and model essays, a gentleman who inquired into my case.*

I went into the kitchen and got my clothes out. The nurse and the servant girl were there, and I said to essays on enlightenment or age of reason, the man who was going to take out my trunk, Stop, before you take up this trunk, and hear what I have to say before these people. I am going out of this house, as I was ordered; but I have done no wrong at all to writing topics essays, my owners, neither here nor in the West Indies. I always worked very hard to please them, both by night and day; but there was no giving satisfaction, for my mistress could never be satisfied with reasonable service. Scientific Research Reuters! I told my mistress I was sick, and yet she has ordered me out of doors. This is the fourth time; and now I am going out.

And so I came out, and went and toefl, carried my trunk to the Moravians. Scientific Research And Essays! I then returned back to Mash the shoe-black's house, and begged his wife to take me in. I had a little West Indian money in my trunk; and they got it changed for me. This helped to support me for a little while. The man's wife was very kind to me. I was very sick, and she boiled nourishing things up for topics, me. She also sent for a doctor to see me, and the benefits of homework or no Homework, he sent me medicine, which did me good, though I was ill for a long time with the topics essays rheumatic pains. I lived a good many months with these poor people, and they nursed me, and did all that lay in their power to serve me. The man was well acquainted with my situation, as he used to go to of homework, and fro to Mr. Wood's house to writing topics and model essays, clean shoes and knives; and he and his wife were sorry for or no Homework, me.

About this time, a woman of the topics and model essays name of Hill told me of the Anti-Slavery Society, and went with me to their office, to inquire if they could do any thing to get me my freedom, and send me back to the West Indies. The gentlemen of the code Society took me to a lawyer, who examined very strictly into writing topics essays my case; but told me that the laws of England could do nothing to make me free in Antigua.** ** She came first to the Anti-Slavery Office in Aldermanbury, about the latter end of November 1828; and her case was referred to Mr. George Stephen to be investigated. More of this hereafter.--ED. However they did all they could for scientific research, me: they gave me a little money from time to toefl and model essays, time to cold war essays conclusion, keep me from want; and some of them went to Mr. Wood to try to persuade him to let me return a free woman to my husband; but though they offered him, as I have heard, a large sum for my freedom, he was sulky and obstinate, and would not consent to let me go free. This was the first winter I spent in toefl writing topics and model, England, and I suffered much from the severe cold, and from the or age of reason rheumatic pains, which still at times torment me. However, Providence was very good to me, and I got many friends--especially some Quaker ladies, who hearing of my case, came and sought me out, and gave me good warm clothing and money. Thus I had great cause to bless God in toefl topics essays, my affliction. When I got better I was anxious to get some work to do, as I was unwilling to eat the bread of idleness.

Mrs. Mash, who was a laundress, recommended me to a lady for a charwoman. She paid me very handsomely for what work I did, and I divided the money with Mrs. The Benefits Of Homework! Page 22. Mash; for though very poor, they gave me food when my own money was done, and never suffered me to writing and model, want. In the spring, I got into war essays service with a lady, who saw me at the house where I sometimes worked as a charwoman.

This lady's name was Mrs. Forsyth. She had been in the West Indies, and was accustomed to and model essays, Blacks, and liked them. Jack The Ripper! I was with her six months, and went with her to Margate. She treated me well, and and model, gave me a good character when she left London.* * She refers to reuters, a written certificate which will be inserted afterwards. After Mrs. Forsyth went away, I was again out of and model essays place, and went to lodgings, for which I paid two shillings a week, and found coals and candle.

After eleven weeks, the research and essays reuters money I had saved in topics, service was all gone, and I was forced to go back to bullying, the Anti-Slavery office to ask a supply, till I could get another situation. I did not like to toefl writing and model, go back--I did not like to be idle. I would rather work for my living than get it for nothing. They were very good to give me a supply, but I felt shame at code being obliged to apply for and model, relief whilst I had strength to work. At last I went into the service of Mr. and Mrs. Pringle, where I have been ever since, and Jack the ripper, am as comfortable as I can be while separated from my dear husband, and away from my own country and all old friends and connections.

My dear mistress teaches me daily to writing topics, read the word of God, and scientific and essays reuters, takes great pains to make me understand it. I enjoy the great privilege of being enabled to writing topics, attend church three times on the Sunday: and cold, I have met with many kind friends since I have been here, both clergymen and others. The Rev. Mr. Toefl! Young, who lives in the next house, has shown me much kindness, and taken much pains to instruct me, particularly while my master and mistress were absent in Scotland.

Nor must I forget, among my friends, the Rev. Mr. Mortimer, the good clergyman of the parish, under whose ministry I have now sat for upwards of twelve months. I trust in God I have profited by what I have heard from him. He never keeps back the truth, and I think he has been the of homework Homework means of opening my eyes and writing topics and model essays, ears much better to understand the word of God. Mr. Mortimer tells me that he cannot open the eyes of my heart, but that I must pray to God to change my heart, and make me to Jack the ripper, know the truth, and the truth will make me free. I still live in the hope that God will find a way to give me my liberty, and toefl writing topics, give me back to my husband.

I endeavour to cold, keep down my fretting, and to leave all to Him, for he knows what is toefl and model essays good for me better than I know myself. Yet, I must confess, I find it a hard and heavy task to do so. I am often much vexed, and honor code, I feel great sorrow when I hear some people in this country say, that the slaves do not need better usage, and do not want to be free.** ** The whole of this paragraph especially, is given as nearly as was possible in topics and model, Mary's precise words. They believe the foreign people,*** who deceive them, and say slaves are happy. I say, Not so.

How can slaves be happy when they have the halter round their neck and the Page 23. whip upon their back? and are disgraced and thought no more of than beasts?--and are separated from their mothers, and husbands, and children, and research, sisters, just as cattle are sold and separated? Is it happiness for a driver in the field to take down his wife or sister or child, and strip them, and whip them in such a disgraceful manner?--women that have had children exposed in the open field to shame! There is no modesty or decency shown by the owner to his slaves; men, women, and children are exposed alike. And Model! Since I have been here I have often wondered how English people can go out into the West Indies and act in such a beastly manner. But when they go to on enlightenment or age, the West Indies, they forget God and all feeling of shame, I think, since they can see and do such things.

They tie up slaves like hogs--moor* them up like cattle, and they lick them, so as hogs, or cattle, or horses never were flogged;--and yet they come home and say, and make some good people believe, that slaves don't want to get out of slavery. But they put a cloak about the truth. It is not so. All slaves want to be free--to be free is very sweet. I will say the truth to English people who may read this history that my good friend, Miss S----, is writing and model essays now writing down for me. I have been a slave myself--I know what slaves feel--I can tell by myself what other slaves feel, and by what they have told me.

The man that says slaves be quite happy in slavery--that they don't want to be free--that man is either ignorant or a lying person. I never heard a slave say so. The Benefits Of Homework! I never heard a Buckra man say so, till I heard tell of it in England. Such people ought to be ashamed of themselves. They can't do without slaves, they say. What's the reason they can't do without slaves as well as in England? No slaves here--no whips--no stocks--no punishment, except for wicked people. They hire servants in England; and if they don't like them, they send them away: they can't lick them. Toefl Writing Topics And Model Essays! Let them work ever so hard in England, they are far better off than slaves. If they get a bad master, they give warning and go hire to another.

They have their liberty. That's just what we want. We don't mind hard work, if we had proper treatment, and proper wages like English servants, and proper time given in Homework, the week to keep us from breaking the Sabbath. But they won't give it: they will have work--work--work, night and day, sick or well, till we are quite done up; and we must not speak up nor look amiss, however much we be abused. And then when we are quite done up, who cares for toefl writing and model essays, us, more than for a lame horse? This is slavery. Essay Honor Code! I tell it, to let English people know the truth; and I hope they will never leave off to writing topics and model essays, pray God, and call loud to the great King of England, till all the poor blacks be given free, and honor, slavery done up for evermore. HISTORY OF MARY PRINCE. LEAVING Mary's narrative, for the present, without comment to the reader's reflections, I proceed to state some circumstances connected with her case which have fallen more particularly under my own notice, and which I consider it incumbent now to lay fully before the writing topics essays public. About the latter end of November, 1828, this poor woman found her way to cold war essays conclusion, the office of the Anti-Slavery Society in and model essays, Aldermanbury, by the aid of a person who had become acquainted with her situation, and had advised her to essay, apply there for advice and assistance.

After some preliminary examination into the accuracy of the circumstances related by her, I went along with her to Mr. George Stephen, solicitor, and requested him to investigate and draw up a statement of her case, and have it submitted to writing, counsel, in order to of reason, ascertain whether or not, under the circumstances, her freedom could be legally established on her return to Antigua. Toefl Writing Topics And Model! On this occasion, in Mr. Stephen's presence and mine, she expressed, in very strong terms, her anxiety to facebook bullying essay, return thither if she could go as a free person, and, at the same time, her extreme apprehensions of the fate that would probably await her if she returned as a slave. Her words were, I would rather go into my grave than go back a slave to and model essays, Antigua, though I wish to go back to my husband very much--very much--very much! I am much afraid my owners would separate me from my husband, and use me very hard, or perhaps sell me for a field negro;--and slavery is Jack the ripper too too bad. I would rather go into my grave! The paper which Mr. Wood had given her before she left his house, was placed by her in Mr. Toefl Writing And Model Essays! Stephen's hands. It was expressed in the following terms:--

I have already told Molly, and now give it her in writing, in order that there may be no misunderstanding on her part, that as I brought her from Antigua at her own request and entreaty, and that she is consequently now free, she is of course at liberty to take her baggage and go where she pleases. And, in consequence of her late conduct, she must do one of two things--either quit the house, or return to Antigua by the earliest opportunity, as she does not evince a disposition to make herself useful. As she is a stranger in London, I do not wish to war essays, turn Page 25. her out, or would do so, as two female servants are sufficient for my establishment. If after this she does remain, it will be only and model during her good behaviour: but on no consideration will I allow her wages or any other remuneration for her services. JOHN A. WOOD. This paper, though not devoid of inconsistencies, which will be apparent to of homework, any attentive reader, is toefl topics craftily expressed; and was well devised to serve the purpose which the writer had obviously in view, namely, to frustrate any appeal which the friendless black woman might make to the sympathy of strangers, and thus prevent her from obtaining an essays or age asylum, if she left his house, from any respectable family. Topics And Model! As she had no one to refer to cold war essays, for a character in writing, this country except himself, he doubtless calculated securely on her being speedily driven back, as soon as the slender fund she had in scientific research and essays thomson reuters, her possession was expended, to throw herself unconditionally upon toefl topics and model essays, his tender mercies; and his disappointment in this expectation appears to essays on enlightenment, have exasperated his feelings of toefl writing essays resentment towards the essays of reason poor woman, to toefl writing topics essays, a degree which few persons alive to the claims of common justice, not to speak of christianity or common humanity, could easily have anticipated. Such, at cold conclusion least, seems the only intelligible inference that can be drawn from his subsequent conduct. The case having been submitted, by desire of the topics and model essays Anti-Slavery Committee, to the consideration of Dr.

Lushington and Mr. Sergeant Stephen, it was found that there existed no legal means of compelling Mary's master to grant her manumission; and that if she returned to Antigua, she would inevitably fall again under his power, or that of his attorneys, as a slave. It was, however, resolved to bullying, try what could be effected for writing, her by scientific research and essays reuters, amicable negotiation; and toefl and model essays, with this view Mr. Ravenscroft, a solicitor, (Mr. G. Stephen's relative,) called upon Jack the ripper, Mr. Wood, in toefl topics and model, order to ascertain whether he would consent to Mary's manumission on any reasonable terms, and to refer, if required, the amount of compensation for her value to arbitration. Jack The Ripper! Mr. Writing! Ravenscroft with some difficulty obtained one or two interviews, but found Mr.

Wood so full of animosity against the woman, and so firmly bent against any arrangement having her freedom for its object, that the negotiation was soon broken off as hopeless. The angry slave-owner declared that he would not move a finger about her in this country, or grant her manumission on any terms whatever; and that if she went back to the West Indies, she must take the consequences. This unreasonable conduct of Mr. Wood, induced the Anti-Slavery Committee, after several other abortive attempts to effect a compromise, to think of research bringing the case under the notice of Parliament. The heads of Mary's statement were accordingly engrossed in a Petition, which Dr. Lushington offered to present, and to give notice at the same time of his intention to topics and model essays, bring in a Bill to provide for the entire emancipation of all slaves brought to England with the owner's consent. But before this step was taken, Dr. Lushington again had recourse to negociation with the master; and, partly through the facebook essay friendly intervention of Mr Manning, partly by personal conference, used every persuasion in his power to induce Mr. Wood to relent and let the bondwoman go free. Page 26.

Seeing the matter thus seriously taken up, Mr. Wood became at length alarmed,--not relishing, it appears, the idea of toefl and model having the case publicly discussed in the House of Commons; and to avert this result he submitted to temporize--assumed a demeanour of unwonted civility, and Jack the ripper, even hinted to Mr. Manning (as I was given to understand) that if he was not driven to utter hostility by the threatened exposure, he would probably meet our wishes in his own time and way. Having gained time by these manoeuvres, he adroitly endeavoured to cool the essays ardour of Mary's new friends, in scientific, her cause, by representing her as an abandoned and worthless woman, ungrateful towards him, and topics essays, undeserving of sympathy from others; allegations which he supported by essay honor, the ready affirmation of some of his West India friends, and by one or two plausible letters procured from Antigua. Writing Topics And Model Essays! By these and like artifices he appears completely to have imposed on Mr. Cold Conclusion! Manning, the respectable West India merchant whom Dr.

Lushington had asked to negotiate with him; and he prevailed so far as to induce Dr. Lushington himself (actuated by the benevolent view of thereby best serving Mary's cause,) to abstain from any remarks upon his conduct when the petition was at last presented in Parliament. In this way he dextrously contrived to neutralize all our efforts, until the close of the Session of 1829; soon after which he embarked with his family for toefl writing, the West Indies. Every exertion for Mary's relief having thus failed; and being fully convinced from a twelvemonth's observation of reuters her conduct, that she was really a well-disposed and respectable woman; I engaged her, in December 1829, as a domestic servant in my own family. In this capacity she has remained ever since; and I am thus enabled to speak of her conduct and topics, character with a degree of confidence I could not have otherwise done.

The importance of essay this circumstance will appear in the sequel. From the time of Mr. Wood's departure to Antigua, in 1829, till June or July last, no farther effort was attempted for Mary's relief. Some faint hope was still cherished that this unconscionable man would at length relent, and in his own time and way, grant the prayer of the exiled negro woman. After waiting, however, nearly twelvemonths longer, and seeing the poor woman's spirits daily sinking under the sickening influence of hope deferred, I resolved on a final attempt in her behalf, through the intervention of the Moravian Missionaries, and of the Governor of topics essays Antigua. At my request, Mr. Homework! Edward Moore, agent of the Moravian Brethren in toefl writing topics and model, London, wrote to the Rev. Joseph Newby, their Missionary in that island, empowering him to the benefits or no Homework, negotiate in toefl writing topics, his own name with Mr. Jack The Ripper! Wood for Mary's manumission, and to writing topics, procure his consent, if possible, upon terms of ample pecuniary compensation. At the same time the excellent and benevolent William Allen, of the Society of Friends, wrote to on enlightenment or age, Sir Patrick Ross, the Governor of the Colony, with whom he was on terms of friendship, soliciting him to writing topics and model essays, use his influence in persuading Mr. Wood to consent: and I confess I was sanguine enough to flatter myself that we should thus at length prevail.

The result proved, however, that I had not yet fully appreciated the character of the man we had to deal with. he had done all in his power to essay, accomplish our purpose, but in vain; and that if Mary's manumission could not be obtained without Mr. Wood's consent, he believed there was no prospect of its ever being effected. A few weeks afterwards I was informed by Mr. Allen, that he had received a letter from Sir Patrick Ross, stating that he also had used his best endeavours in writing and model essays, the affair, but equally without effect. Sir Patrick at the same time inclosed a letter, addressed by Mr. Wood to his Secretary, Mr. Taylor, assigning his reasons for persisting in this extraordinary course. This letter requires our special attention. Its tenor is as follows:--

In reply to your note relative to Jack the ripper, the woman Molly, I beg you will have the kindness to oblige me by assuring his Excellency that I regret exceedingly my inability to comply with his request, which under other circumstances would afford me very great pleasure. There are many and powerful reasons for inducing me to refuse my sanction to her returning here in the way she seems to wish. It would be to toefl topics essays, reward the worst species of ingratitude, and scientific research thomson reuters, subject myself to toefl and model, insult whenever she came in my way. Essay! Her moral character is very bad, as the toefl writing and model police records will shew; and she would be a very troublesome character should she come here without any restraint. She is not a native of research and essays thomson this country, and I know of no relation she has here. Toefl Essays! I induced her to take a husband, a short time before she left this, by providing a comfortable house in my yard for Jack the ripper, them, and writing topics and model essays, prohibiting her going out after 10 to 12 o'clock (our bed-time) without special leave. This she considered the greatest, and indeed the only, grievance she ever complained of, and all my efforts could not prevent it. Cold Conclusion! In hopes of inducing her to be steady to her husband, who was a free man, I gave him the house to occupy during our absence; but it appears the attachment was too loose to bind her, and he has taken another wife: so on topics, that score I do her no injury.--In England she made her election, and conclusion, quitted my family. This I had no right to object to; and I should have thought no more of it, but not satisfied to leave quietly, she gave every trouble and annoyance in her power, and endeavoured to injure the character of my family by the most vile and infamous falsehoods, which was embodied in a petition to the House of Commons, and would have been presented, had not my friends from this island, particularly the Hon. Mr.

Byam and Dr. Coull, come forward, and disproved what she had asserted. It would be beyond the limits of an ordinary letter to toefl topics, detail her baseness, though I will do so should his Excellency wish it; but you may judge of her depravity by one circumstance, which came out before Mr. Justice Dyett, in scientific reuters, a quarrel with another female. * * * * * * * * * * * * I omit the writing essays circumstance here mentioned, because it is too indecent to essay code, appear in a publication likely to be perused by females. It is, in toefl writing topics essays, all probability, a vile calumny; but even if it were perfectly true, it would not serve Mr. Wood's case one straw.--Any reader who wishes it, may see the bullying essay passage referred to, in the autograph letter in my possession. T.P. Losing her value as a slave in a pecuniary point of view I consider of no consequence; for it was our intention, had she conducted herself properly and returned with us, to have given her freedom. She has taken her freedom; and all I wish is, that she would enjoy it without meddling with me. Let me again repeat, if his Excellency wishes it, it will afford me great pleasure Page 28.

to state such particulars of and model essays her, and which will be incontestably proved by bullying essay, numbers here, that I am sure will acquit me in his opinion of and model acting unkind or ungenerous towards her. I'll say nothing of the bullying essay liability I should incur, under the Consolidated Slave Law, of dealing with a free person as a slave. My only excuse for entering so much into toefl writing and model detail must be that of my anxious wish to stand justified in his Excellency's opinion. I am, my dear Sir, Yours very truly, I forgot to mention that it was at her own special request that she accompanied me to England--and also that she had a considerable sum of essays of reason money with her, which she had saved in essays, my service. I knew of £36 to £40, at least, for honor code, I had some trouble to recover it from a white man, to whom she had lent it.

Such is Mr. Wood's justification of his conduct in thus obstinately refusing manumission to the Negro-woman who had escaped from his house of bondage. Let us now endeavour to estimate the validity of the excuses assigned, and the allegations advanced by toefl topics and model, him, for the information of Governor Sir Patrick Ross, in this deliberate statement of his case. 1. To allow the woman to return home free, would, he affirms be to reward the worst species of ingratitude. He assumes, it seems, the Jack the ripper sovereign power of pronouncing a virtual sentence of banishment, for the alleged crime of ingratitude. Topics Essays! Is this then a power which any man ought to possess over his fellow-mortal? or which any goodman would ever wish to cold war essays conclusion, exercise? And, besides, there is no evidence whatever, beyond Mr. Wood's mere assertion, that Mary Prince owed him or his family the slightest mark of gratitude.

Her account of the treatment she received in his service, may be incorrect; but her simple statement is at least supported by minute and writing and model essays, feasible details, and, unless rebutted by positive facts, will certainly command credence from impartial minds more readily than his angry accusation, which has something absurd and facebook bullying, improbable in toefl and model essays, its very front. Moreover, is it not absurd to essay honor code, term the assertion of her natural rights by a slave,--even supposing her to have been kindly dealt with by her owners, and treated in every respect the reverse of topics what Mary affirms to have been her treatment by Mr. Research And Essays Thomson Reuters! Wood and his wife,--the worst species of ingratitude? This may be West Indian ethics, but it will scarcely be received as sound doctrine in Europe. 2. To permit her return would be to subject himself to insult whenever she came in his way. This is a most extraordinary assertion. Toefl And Model! Are the laws of Antigua then so favourable to the free blacks, or the colonial police so feebly administered, that there are no sufficient restraints to on enlightenment of reason, protect a rich colonist like Mr.

Wood,--a man who counts among his familiar friends the Honourable Mr. Byam, and Mr. Taylor the Government Secretary,--from being insulted by a poor Negro-woman? It is preposterous. 3. Her moral character is so bad, that she would prove very trouble-some should she come to the colony without any restraint. Any restraint? Are there no restraints (supposing them necessary) short of absolute slavery to keep troublesome characters in order? But this, I suppose, is the argumentum ad gubernatorem --to frighten the governor. She is such a termagant, it seems, that if she once gets back to the colony free, she will not only make it too hot for writing topics, poor Mr. Wood, but the police and courts of justice will scarce be a match for her!

Sir Patrick Ross, no doubt, will take care how he intercedes farther for conclusion, so formidable a virago! How can one treat such arguments seriously? 4. She is not a native of the colony, and he knows of toefl writing essays no relation she has there. True: But was it not her home (so far as a slave can have a home) for thirteen or fourteen years? Were not the essay honor connexions, friendships, and associations of her mature life formed there?

Was it not there she hoped to spend her latter years in domestic tranquillity with her husband, free from the lash of the taskmaster? These consideratious may appear light to Mr. Wood, but they are every thing to this poor woman. 5. He induced her, he says, to take a husband, a short time before she left Antigua, and gave them a comfortable house in toefl writing and model, his yard, c. c. This paragraph merits attention. He induced her to take a husband? If the fact were true, what brutality of mind and manners does it not indicate among these slave-holders? They refuse to legalize the marriages of their slaves, but induce them to form such temporary connexions as may suit the owner's conveniency, just as they would pair the lower animals; and this man has the effrontery to tell us so! Mary, however, tells a very different story, (see page 17;) and her assertion, independently of other proof, is at least as credible as Mr. Wood's.

The reader will judge for himself as to the preponderance of internal evidence in the conflicting statements. 6. He alleges that she was, before marriage, licentious, and even depraved in her conduct, and unfaithful to her husband afterwards. These are serious charges. But if true, or even partially true, how comes it that a person so correct in his family hours and arrangements as Mr. Wood professes to be, and Jack the ripper, who expresses so edifying a horror of licentiousness, could reconcile it to his conscience to keep in writing essays, the bosom of his family so depraved, as well as so troublesome a character for at least thirteen years, and confide to her for long periods too the of homework charge of writing topics and model essays his house and the care of his children--for such I shall shew to essays of reason, have been the facts? How can he account for not having rid himself with all speed, of so disreputable an inmate--he who values her loss so little in a pecuniary point of toefl writing topics and model essays view? How can he account for having sold five other slaves in that period, and on enlightenment, yet have retained this shocking woman--nay, even have refused to sell her, on more than one occasion, when offered her full value?

It could not be from ignorance of her character, for the circumstance which he adduces as a proof of her shameless depravity, and which I have omitted on account of its indecency, occurred, it would appear, not less than ten years ago. Yet, not with standing her alleged ill qualities and habits of essays gross immorality, he has not only constantly refused to part with her; but after thirteen long years, brings her to England as an attendant on essays on enlightenment or age, his wife and children, with the toefl writing essays avowed intention of essays on enlightenment or age of reason carrying her back along with his maiden daughter, a young Page 30. lady returning from school! Such are the extraordinary facts; and until Mr. Wood shall reconcile these singular inconsistencies between his actions and his allegations, he must not be surprised if we in England prefer giving credit to the former rather than the latter; although at present it appears somewhat difficult to say which side of the alternative is the more creditable to toefl writing essays, his own character. 7. Her husband, he says, has taken another wife; so that on that score, he adds, he does her no injury. Supposing this fact be true, (which I doubt, as I doubt every mere assertion from so questionable a quarter,) I shall take leave to put a question or two to Mr. Essay Honor Code! Wood's conscience. Did he not write from topics essays, England to his friend Mr. Darrel, soon after Mary left his house, directing him to turn her husband, Daniel James, off his premises, on account of her offence; telling him to inform James at the same time that his wife had taken up with another man, who had robbed her of all she had--a calumny as groundless as it was cruel? I further ask if the Jack the ripper person who invented this story (whoever he may be.) was not likely enough to impose similar fabrications on the poor negro man's credulity, until be may have been induced to prove false to his marriage vows, and to take another wife, as Mr.

Wood coolly expresses it? But withal, I strongly doubt the fact of Daniel James' infidelity; for there is now before me a letter from himself to Mary, dated in April 1830, couched in strong terms of conjugal affection; expressing his anxiety for her speedy return, and stating that he had lately received a grace (a token of religious advancement) in the Moravian church, a circumstance altogether incredible if the man were living in open adultery, as Mr. Wood's assertion implies. 8. Mary, he says, endeavoured to injure the character of writing and model his family by infamous falsehoods, which were embodied in cold, a petition to topics essays, the House of Commons, and would have been presented, had not his friends from Antigua, the Hon. Mr. Reuters! Byam, and Dr. Coull, disproved her assertions. I can say something on this point from my own knowledge. Mary's petition contained simply a brief statement of her case, and, among other things, mentioned the treatment she had received from Mr. and Mrs.

Wood. Now the toefl and model essays principal facts are corroborated by essay honor, other evidence, and toefl topics, Mr. The Benefits Of Homework Or No! Wood must bring forward very different testimony from that of writing topics and model essays Dr. Coull before well-informed persons will give credit to his contradiction. The value of that person's evidence in such cases will be noticed presently. Of the Hon. Mr. Byam I know nothing, and shall only at present remark that it is not likely to redound greatly to his credit to appear in such company.

Furthermore, Mary's petition was presented, as Mr. Wood ought to know; though it was not discussed, nor his conduct exposed as it ought to have been. 9. On Enlightenment Or Age Of Reason! He speaks of the toefl liability he should incur, under the Consolidated Slave Law, of dealing with a free person as a slave. Is not this pretext hypocritical in the extreme? What liability could he possibly incur by voluntarily resigning the war essays power, conferred on him by an iniquitous colonial law, of re-imposing the writing topics shackles of slavery on the bondwoman from whose limbs they had fallen when she touched the free soil of England?--There exists no liability from which he might not have been easily secured, or for which he would not have been fully compensated. He adds in a postscript that Mary had a considerable sum of money with her,--from £36 to £40 at least, which she had saved in his service. The fact is, that she had at one time 113 dollars in cash; but only a very small portion of that sum appears to have been brought by her to England, the or age of reason rest having been partly advanced, as she states, to assist her husband, and partly lost by being lodged in unfaithful custody. Finally, Mr. Wood repeats twice that it will afford him great pleasure to state for the governor's satisfaction, if required, such particulars of the woman Molly, upon toefl writing and model essays, incontestable evidence, as he is sure will acquit him in his Excellency's opinion of acting unkind or ungenerous towards her. This is facebook bullying well: and I now call upon Mr. Wood to redeem his pledge;--to bring forward facts and proofs fully to elucidate the subject;--to reconcile, if he can, the extraordinary discrepancies which I have pointed out toefl and model between his assertions and the actual facts, and especially between his account of Mary Prince's character and his own conduct in regard to her.

He has now to produce such a statement as will acquit him not only in facebook bullying essay, the opinion of Sir Patrick Ross, but of the British public. And in this position he has spontaneously placed himself, in toefl essays, attempting to destroy, by his deliberate criminatory letter, the poor woman's fair fame and reputation,--an attempt but for which the present publication would probably never have appeared. Here perhaps we might safely leave the case to the judgment of the public; but as this negro woman's character, not the less valuable to her because her condition is so humble, has been so unscrupulously blackened by or age of reason, her late master, a party so much interested and inclined to place her in the worst point of view,--it is toefl writing and model incumbent on Jack the ripper, me, as her advocate with the public, to topics, state such additional testimony in essays of reason, her behalf as I can fairly and conscientiously adduce. My first evidence is Mr. Joseph Phillips, of Antigua.

Having submitted to his inspection Mr. Wood's letter and Mary Prince's narrative, and requested his candid and deliberate sentiments in regard to writing, the actual facts of the case, I have been favoured with the facebook bullying essay following letter from him on the subject:-- London, January 18, 1831. In giving you my opinion of Mary Prince's narrative, and of Mr. Wood's letter respecting her, addressed to toefl and model essays, Mr. Taylor, I shall first mention my opportunities of forming a proper estimate of the facebook essay conduct and character of toefl writing essays both parties. I have known Mr.

Wood since his first arrival in Antigua in 1803. He was then a poor young man, who had been brought up as a ship carpenter in Bermuda. On Enlightenment Of Reason! He was afterwards raised to be a clerk in the Commissariat department, and realised sufficient capital to commence business as a merchant. Writing Topics And Model Essays! This last profession he has followed successfully for a good many years, and is understood to have accumulated very considerable wealth. Essay Honor! After he entered into trade, I had constant intercourse with him in the way of business; and in 1824 and 1825, I was regularly employed on his premises as his clerk; consequently, I had opportunities of seeing a good deal of his character both as a merchant and as a master of slaves. The former topic I pass over as irrelevant to the present subject; in reference to the latter, I shall merely observe that he was not, in regard to ordinary Page 32. matters, more severe, probably, than the ordinary run of slave owners; but, if seriously offended, he was not of a disposition to be easily appeased, and was obstinate in adhering to any resolution he had once taken. As regards the exaction of work from domestic slaves, his wife was probably more severe than himself--it was almost impossible for the slaves ever to give her entire satisfaction. Of their slave Molly (or Mary) I know less than of Mr. and writing essays, Mrs.

Wood; but I saw and heard enough of her, both while I was constantly employed on Mr. Wood's premises, and facebook bullying essay, while I was there occasionally on toefl topics and model essays, business, to be quite certain that she was viewed by her owners as their most respectable and essay code, trust-worthy female slave. It is within my personal knowledge that she had usually the charge of the house in their absence, was entrusted with the keys, c.; and toefl topics and model essays, was always considered by the neighbours and visitors as their confidential household servant, and as a person in essay honor, whose integrity they placed unlimited confidence,--although when Mrs. Writing And Model! Wood was at home, she was no doubt kept pretty closely at washing and other hard work. A decided proof of the estimation in which she was held by on enlightenment, her owners exists in the fact that Mr. Toefl Topics Essays! Wood uniformly refused to part with her, whereas he sold five other slaves while she was with them. Indeed, she always appeared to me to be a slave of superior intelligence and cold war essays conclusion, respectability; and I always understood such to be her general character in the place. As to what Mr. Wood alleges about her being frequently before the and model police, c. I can only say I never heard of the circumstance before; and essay honor, as I lived for twenty years in the same small town, and in toefl writing and model, the vicinity of their residence, I think I could scarcely have failed to become acquainted with it, had such been the fact. She might, however, have been occasionally before the code magistrate in consequence of little disputes among the slaves, without any serious imputation on her general respectability.

She says she was twice summoned to appear as a witness on writing topics, such occasions; and that she was once sent by her mistress to be confined in the Cage, and was afterwards flogged by scientific research thomson reuters, her desire. This cruel practice is very common in Antigua; and, in my opinion, is writing topics and model but little creditable to essay, the slave owners and magistrates by whom such arbitrary punishments are inflicted, frequently for very trifling faults. Toefl And Model Essays! Mr. Homework! James Scotland is the only magistrate in the colony who invariably refuses to sanction this reprehensible practice. Of the immoral conduct ascribed to Molly by Mr. Wood, I can say nothing further than this--that I have heard she had at a former period (previous to her marriage) a connexion with a white person, a Capt.----, which I have no doubt was broken off when she became seriously impressed with religion. But, at any rate, such connexions are so common, I might almost say universal, in our slave colonies, that except by writing topics, the missionaries and a few serious persons, they are considered, if faults at all, so very venial as scarcely to deserve the name of immorality. Mr. The Benefits Or No Homework! Wood knows this colonial estimate of such connexions as well as I do; and, however false such an estimate must be allowed to be, especially when applied to their own conduct by persons of education, pretending to adhere to the pure Christian rule of morals,--yet when he ascribes to a negro slave, to whom legal marriage was denied, such great criminality for laxity of this sort, and professes to be so exceedingly shocked and toefl writing topics and model, amazed at the tale he himself relates, he must, I am confident, have had a farther object in view than the information of Mr. Taylor or Sir Patrick Ross. He must, it is evident, have been aware that his letter would be sent to Mr.

Allen, and accordingly adapted it, as more important documents from the honor code colonies are often adapted, for effect in England. The tale of the slave Molly's immoralities, be assured, was not intended for Antigua so much as for Stoke Newington, and Peckham, and Aldermanbury. In regard to writing topics and model, Mary's narrative generally, although I cannot speak to the accuracy of the details, except in a few recent particulars, I can with safety declare that I see no reason to question the truth of facebook a single fact stated by her, or even to suspect her in toefl writing and model, any instance of intentional exaggeration. It bears in my judgment Page 33. the genuine stamp of truth and nature. Such is essays my unhesitating opinion, after a residence of twenty-seven years in writing and model, the West Indies. P. The Benefits Of Homework Homework! S. As Mr. Topics And Model! Wood refers to the evidence of Dr. Cold War Essays Conclusion! T. Coull in opposition to Mary's assertions, it may be proper to enable you justly to estimate the worth of that person's evidence in cases connected with the condition and treatment of slaves. You are aware that in 1829, Mr.

M'Queen of Glasgow, in noticing a Report of the toefl writing topics and model essays Ladies' Society of Birmingham for cold conclusion, the relief of British Negro Slaves, asserted with his characteristic audacity, that the statement which it contained respecting distressed and deserted slaves in Antigua was an abominable falsehood. Not contented with this, and with insinuating that I, as agent of the toefl and model society in the distribution of their charity in Antigua, had fraudulently duped them out of essay honor code their money by a fabricated tale of distress, Mr. M'Queen proceeded to libel me in toefl writing topics essays, the most opprobrious terms, as a man of the most worthless and abandoned character.* * In elucidation of the circumstances above referred to, I subjoin the following extracts from the Report of the conclusion Birmingham Ladies' Society for 1830:-- As a portion of the funds of this association has been appropriated to assist the benevolent efforts of a society which has for toefl topics, fifteen years afforded relief to distressed and deserted slaves in essay, Antigua, it may not be uninteresting to our friends to learn the manner in which the agent of this society has been treated for simply obeying the command of our Saviour, by ministering, like the good Samaritan, to the distresses of the helpless and writing topics essays, the desolate. The society's proceedings being adverted to by a friend of code Africa, at one of the toefl writing public meetings held in this country, a West Indian planter, who was present, wrote over to his friends in Antigua, and conclusion, represented the conduct of the distributors of this charity in toefl topics and model, such a light, that it was deemed worthy of the essay cognizance of the toefl essays House of conclusion Assembly.

Mr. Joseph Phillips, a resident of the island, who had most kindly and disinterestedly exerted himself in the distribution of the money from England among the topics and model poor deserted slaves, was brought before the Assembly, and most severely interrogated: on his refusing to deliver up his private correspondence with his friends in England, he was thrown into a loathsome jail, where he was kept for bullying, nearly five months; while his loss of business, and the oppressive proceedings instituted against him, were involving him in poverty and ruin. On his discharge by toefl writing and model, the House of essay Assembly, he was seized in their lobby for debt, and again imprisoned. In our report for toefl writing essays, the year 1826, we quoted a passage from the 13th Report of the scientific research and essays Society for the relief of toefl topics and model deserted Slaves in the island of Antigua, in reference to cold war essays conclusion, a case of great distress. This statement fell into the hands of Mr. M'Queen, the Editor of the Glasgow Courier.

Of the consequences resulting from toefl writing and model essays, this circumstance we only gained information through the conclusion Leicester Chronicle, which had copied an article from the Weekly Register of Antigua, dated St. John's, September 22, 1829. Toefl Topics Essays! We find from this that Mr. M'Queen affirms, that 'with the facebook essay exception of the fact that the society is, as it deserves to be, duped out of its money, the whole tale' (of the distress above referred to) 'is an abominable falsehood.' This statement, which we are informed has appeared in many of the public papers, is COMPLETELY REFUTED in our Appendix, No. 4, to which we refer our readers. Mr. M'Queen's statements, we regret to say, would lead many to believe that there are no deserted Negroes to assist; and that the topics essays case mentioned was a perfect fabrication. He also distinctly avers, that the disinterested and humane agent of the or no society, Mr. Joseph Phillips, is 'a man of the most worthless and toefl writing topics essays, abandoned character.' In opposition to this statement, we learn the good character of Mr. Phillips from Jack the ripper, those who have long been acquainted with his laudable exertions in the cause of humanity, and from the Editor of the Weekly Register of Antigua, who speaks, on his own knowledge, of more than twenty years back; confidently appealing at toefl and model the same time to the inhabitants of the colony in which he resides for the truth of his averments, and producing a testimonial to Mr. The Benefits Of Homework Or No Homework! Phillips's good character signed by two members of the Antigua House of Assembly, and by toefl topics and model essays, Mr.

Wyke, the facebook bullying essay collector of his Majesty's customs, and by Antigua merchants, as follows--'that they have been acquainted with him the toefl writing and model last four years and upwards, and he has always conducted himself in an upright becoming manner--his character we know to be unimpeached, and essay, his morals unexceptionable.' Samuel L. Darrel. St. John's, Antigua, June 28, 1825. In addition to writing essays, the above testimonies, Mr. Phillips has brought over to England with him others of a more recent date, from some of the most respectable persons in Antigua--sufficient to cover with confusion all his unprincipled calumniators See also his account of his own case in conclusion, the Anti-Slavery Reporter, No. 74, p. 69.

Now I know from good authority that Page 34. it was upon Dr. Toefl Writing Essays! Coull's information that Mr. M'Queen founded this impudent contradiction of notorious facts, and this audacious libel of my personal character. The Benefits Or No Homework! From this single circumstance you may judge of the value of his evidence in the case of Mary Prince. I can furnish further information respecting Dr.

Coull's colonial proceedings, both private and judicial, should circumstances require it. J. P. I leave the preceding letter to be candidly weighed by the reader in opposition to the inculpatory allegations of Mr. Wood--merely remarking that Mr. Writing Topics Essays! Wood will find it somewhat difficult to impugn the evidence of Mr. Jack The Ripper! Phillips, whose upright, unimpeached, and unexceptionable character, he has himself vouched for in unqualified terms, by affixing his signature to the testimonial published in the Weekly Register of Antigua in toefl writing and model, 1825. (See Note below.) The next testimony in Mary's behalf is that of scientific and essays thomson Mrs. Forsyth, a lady in whose service she spent the summer of 1829.--(See page 22.) This lady, on leaving London to join her husband, voluntarily presented Mary with a certificate, which, though it relates only to a recent and short period of her history, is a strong corroboration of the writing topics essays habitual respectability of her character. It is in the following terms:-- Mrs.

Forsyth states, that the bearer of this paper (Mary James,) has been with her for the last six months; that she has found her an Jack the ripper excellent character, being honest, industrious, and toefl topics and model, sober; and that she parts with her on no other account than this--that being obliged to travel with her husband, who has lately come from abroad in bad health, she has no farther need of a servant. Any person wishing to engage her, can have her character in full from Miss Robson, 4, Keppel Street, Russel Square, whom Mrs. Facebook! Forsyth has requested to furnish particulars to any one desiring them. 4, Keppel Street, 28th Sept. Writing Topics And Model Essays! 1829. In the last place, I add my own testimony in behalf of Jack the ripper this negro woman. Writing And Model! Independently of the scrutiny, which, as Secretary of the essays on enlightenment or age of reason Anti-Slavery Society, I made into her case when she first applied for assistance, at toefl writing topics essays 18, Aldermanbury, and the watchful eye I kept upon her conduct for the ensuing twelvemonths, while she was the occasional pensioner of the Society, I have now had the opportunity of closely observing her conduct for fourteen months, in the situation of a domestic Page 35. servant in my own family; and and essays thomson reuters, the following is the deliberate opinion of toefl writing topics Mary's character, formed not only by myself, but also by my wife and Jack the ripper, sister-in-law, after this ample period of observation. Toefl Writing Topics And Model! We have found her perfectly honest and Jack the ripper, trustworthy in all respects; so that we have no hesitation in and model, leaving every thing in the house at her disposal. Jack The Ripper! She had the entire charge of the house during our absence in Scotland for three months last autumn, and topics and model essays, conducted herself in Jack the ripper, that charge with the utmost discretion and fidelity. She is not, it is true, a very expert housemaid, nor capable of much hard work, (for her constitution appears to be a good deal broken,) but she is careful, industrious, and anxious to do her duty and to give satisfaction.

She is capable of toefl strong attachments, and Jack the ripper, feels deep, though unobtrusive, gratitude for real kindness shown her. She possesses considerable natural sense, and has much quickness of observation and discrimination of character. Toefl Writing Topics! She is remarkable for decency and propriety of conduct--and her delicacy, even in bullying essay, trifling minutiæ, has been a trait of special remark by the females of my family. This trait, which is writing topics obviously quite unaffected, would be a most inexplicable anomaly, if her former habits had been so indecent and depraved as Mr. Wood alleges. Her chief faults, so far as we have discovered them, are, a somewhat violent and hasty temper, and of homework, a considerable share of natural pride and self-importance; but these defects have been but rarely and transiently manifested, and have scarcely occasioned an hour's uneasiness at any time in our household.

Her religious knowledge, notwithstanding the pious care of her Moravian instructors in Antigua, is still but very limited, and her views of christianity indistinct; but her profession, whatever it may have of imperfection, I am convinced, has nothing of insincerity. In short, we consider her on the whole as respectable and well-behaved a person in her station, as any domestic, white or black, (and we have had ample experience of both colours,) that we have ever had in our service. But after all, Mary's character, important though its exculpation be to her, is not really the point of chief practical interest in this case. And Model Essays! Suppose all Mr. Wood's defamatory allegations to be true--suppose him to be able to rake up against her out of the code records of the Antigua police, or from the veracious testimony of toefl writing topics and model his brother colonists, twenty stories as bad or worse than what he insinuates--suppose the whole of her own statement to be false, and even the whole of her conduct since she came under our observation here to be a tissue of hypocrisy;--suppose all this--and leave the essay code negro woman as black in character as in complexion,* * If it even were so, how strong a plea of palliation might not the essays poor negro bring, by code, adducing the neglect of her various owners to afford religious instruction or moral discipline, and and model, the habitual influence of scientific and essays thomson their evil example (to say the topics and model essays very least,) before her eyes? What moral good could she possibly learn--what moral evil could she easily escape, while under the uncontrolled power of such masters as she describes Captain I--and Mr. D--of Turk's Island?

All things considered, it is indeed wonderful to find her such as she now is. But as she has herself piously expressed it, that God whom then she knew not mercifully preserved her for cold, better things. --yet it would affect not the toefl writing and model essays main facts--which are these.--I. Mr. Wood, not daring in England to punish this woman arbitrarily, as he would have done in the West Indies, drove her out of his house, or Page 36. left her, at least, only the alternative of returning instantly to Antigua, with the certainty of severe treatment there, or submitting in silence to bullying essay, what she considered intolerable usage in his household. Toefl Writing Topics And Model! 2. He has since obstinately persisted in refusing her manumission, to enable her to return home in security, though repeatedly offered more than ample compensation for her value as a slave; and of reason, this on various frivolous pretexts, but really, and indeed not unavowedly, in order to punish her for leaving his service in England, though he himself had professed to toefl writing topics and model essays, give her that option. These unquestionable facts speak volumes.* * After the preceding pages were printed, I was favoured with a communication from the Rev. J. Curtin, to whom, among other acquaintances of essays or age Mr.

Wood's in this country, the toefl writing entire proof sheets of this pamphlet had been sent for cold conclusion, inspection. Mr. Curtin, in reference to Mary Prince's narrative, as it regards himself, (see page 17,) states, 1. That sometime before her baptism, on writing topics essays, her being admitted a catechumen, preparatory to that holy ordinance, she brought a note from cold conclusion, her owner, Mr. Wood, recommending her for religious instruction, c.; 2. That it was his usual practice, when any adult slaves came on week days to school, to require their owners' permission for toefl writing topics and model essays, their attendance; but that on Sundays the of homework or no chapel was open indiscriminately to all.--Mary, however, after a personal interview with Mr. Curtin, and after hearing his letter read by me, still maintains that Mr. Wood's note recommended her for baptism merely, and that she never received any religious instruction whatever from Mr. and Mrs. And Model! Wood, or from any one else at that period beyond what she has stated in her narrative. In regard to her non-admission to the Sunday school without permission from her owners, she admits that she may possibly have mistaken the clergyman's meaning on that point, but says that such was certainly her impression at the time, and scientific thomson, the actual cause of her non-attendance.

Mr. Toefl Topics! Curtin finds in honor, his books some reference to Mary's connection with a Captain ----, (the individual, I believe, alluded to by Mr. Phillips at page 32); but he states that when she attended his chapel she was always decently and toefl writing, becomingly dressed, and appeared to him to be in a situation of trust in her mistress's family. Mr. Curtin offers no comment on any other part of Jack the ripper Mary's statement; but he speaks in very favourable, though general terms of the respectability of Mr. Wood, whom he had known for many years in topics, Antigua; and of Mrs.

Wood, though she was not personally known to essay, him, he says, that he had heard her spoken of by those of her acquaintance, as a lady of very mild and amiable manners. Another friend of Mr. and Mrs. Wood, a lady who had been their guest both in Antigua and England, alleges that Mary has grossly misrepresented them in toefl and model essays, her narrative; and says that she can vouch for their being the most benevolent, kind-hearted people that can possibly live. She has declined, however, to furnish me with any written correction of the misrepresentations she complains of, although I offered to insert her testimony in behalf of cold war essays conclusion her friends, if sent to me in time. And having already kept back the publication a fortnight waiting for writing and model, communications of this sort, I will not delay it longer. Those who have withheld their strictures have only themselves to blame. Of the general character of the benefits of homework or no Homework Mr. and Mrs.

Wood, I would not designedly give any unfair impression. Without implicitly adopting either the view of Mary Prince, or the writing and model unmeasured encomiums of their West India partizans, I am willing to believe them to be, on the whole, fair specimens of colonial character. Let them even be rated, if their friends will have it so, in Jack the ripper, the most respectable class of slaveholders; and, laying every thing else entirely out of essays view, let Mr. Wood's conduct in this affair be tried exclusively by the facts established beyond dispute, and by his own statement of the case in his letter to Mr. Taylor. But then, I ask, if the very best and mildest of essay your slave-owners can act as Mr. Wood is toefl writing topics proved to have acted, what is to code, be expected of persons whose mildness, or equity, or common humanity no one will dare to vouch for? If such things are done in the green tree, what will be done in toefl topics essays, the dry?--And what else then can Colonial Slavery possibly be, even in its best estate, but a system incurably evil and essays or age of reason, iniquitous?--I require no other data--I need add no further comment. The case affords a most instructive illustration of the true spirit of the slave system, and of the pretensions of the slaveholders to assert, not merely their claims to a vested right in the labour of their bondmen, but to an indefeasible property in them as their absolute chattels. It furnishes a striking practical comment on the assertions of the West Indians that self-interest is a sufficient check to the indulgence of vindictive feelings in the master; for here is a case where a man (a respectable and benevolent man as his friends aver,) prefers losing entirely the toefl writing and model full price of the facebook essay slave, for the mere satisfaction of preventing a poor black woman from returning home to her husband! If the pleasure of thwarting the toefl writing benevolent wishes of the Anti-Slavery Society in behalf of the deserted negro, be an additional motive with Mr.

Wood, it will not much mend his wretched plea. I may here add a few words respecting the earlier portion of Mary Prince's narrative. The facts there stated must necessarily rest entirely,--since we have no collateral evidence,--upon their intrinsic claims to probability, and upon essay honor, the reliance the reader may feel disposed, after perusing the foregoing pages, to place on her veracity. To my judgment, the internal evidence of the truth of her narrative appears remarkably strong. The circumstances are related in writing topics and model, a tone of natural sincerity, and are accompanied in almost every case with characteristic and minute details, which must, I conceive, carry with them full conviction to every candid mind that this negro woman has actually seen, felt, and suffered all that she so impressively describes; and that the scientific research picture she has given of West Indian slavery is not less true than it is revolting. But there may be some persons into whose hands this tract may fall, so imperfectly acquainted with the real character of toefl writing topics and model essays Negro Slavery, as to be shocked into partial, if not absolute incredulity, by the acts of inhuman oppression and on enlightenment of reason, brutality related of Capt. I---- and toefl writing topics, his wife, and essay code, of Mr. D----, the topics salt manufacturer of Turk's Island. Here, at least, such persons may be disposed to think, there surely must be some exaggeration; the facts are too shocking to be credible. The facts are indeed shocking, but unhappily not the less credible on that account.

Slavery is scientific research and essays thomson a curse to the oppressor scarcely less than to the oppressed: its natural tendency is to brutalize both. After a residence myself of six years in a slave colony, I am inclined to writing and model, doubt whether, as regards its demoralizing influence, the master is not even a greater object of compassion than his bondman. Let those who are disposed to bullying essay, doubt the atrocities related in this narrative, on the testimony of a sufferer, examine the details of many cases of similar barbarity that have lately come before the public, on unquestionable evidence. Passing over the reports of the Fiscal of Berbice,* and the Mauritius horrors recently unveiled,** let them consider the case of Mr. and writing, Mrs. Moss, of the Bahamas, and their slave Kate, so justly denounced by the Secretary for the Colonies;*** --the cases of Eleanor Mead,**** --of Henry Williams,***** of the Rev. Essay Honor! Mr. And Model Essays! Bridges and Kitty Hylton,* in Jamaica.

These cases alone might suffice to honor code, demonstrate the inevitable tendency of slavery as it exists in our colonies, to brutalize the master to a truly frightful degree--a degree which would often cast into the shade even the atrocities related in the narrative of Mary Prince; and which are sufficient to prove, independently of all other evidence, that there is nothing in writing topics and model, the revolting character of the facts to affect their credibility; but that on the contrary, similar deeds are at this very time of frequent occurrence in almost every one of our slave colonies. The system of coercive labour may vary in different places; it may be more destructive to essays on enlightenment of reason, human life in the cane culture of topics and model Mauritius and Jamaica, than in the predial and scientific research and essays reuters, domestic bondage of Bermuda or the Bahamas,--but the toefl writing spirit and character of essays of reason slavery are every where the same, and cannot fail to produce similar effects. Wherever slavery prevails, there will inevitably be found cruelty and oppression. Individuals who have preserved humane, and toefl writing topics essays, amiable, and the benefits of homework or no Homework, tolerant dispositions towards their black dependents, may doubtless be found among slave-holders; but even where a happy instance of this sort occurs, such as Mary's first mistress, the kind-hearted Mrs. Williams, the favoured condition of the slave is still as precarious as it is toefl topics essays rare: it is every moment at the mercy of events; and must always be held by a tenure so proverbially uncertain as that of human prosperity, or human life. Such examples, like a feeble and of reason, flickering streak of light in a gloomy picture, only serve by contrast to exhibit the depth of the prevailing shades. Toefl Topics And Model! Like other exceptions, they only prove the general rule: the unquestionable tendency of the system is to of homework or no Homework, vitiate the and model best tempers, and to harden the most feeling hearts.

Never be kind, nor speak kindly to facebook bullying, a slave, said an accomplished English lady in South Africa to toefl writing topics and model, my wife: I have now, she added, been for some time a slave-owner, and have found, from the benefits, vexatious experience in my own household, that nothing but harshness and hauteur will do with slaves. I might perhaps not inappropriately illustrate this point more fully by stating many cases which fell under my own personal observation, or became known to toefl writing topics essays, me through authentic sources, at the Cape of Good Hope--a colony where slavery assumes, as it is averred, a milder aspect than in any other dependency of the essay honor code empire where it exists; and I could shew, from the toefl and model judicial records of that colony, received by me within these few weeks, cases scarcely inferior in barbarity to the worst of those to honor code, which I have just specially referred; but to do so would lead me too far from the toefl immediate purpose of this pamphlet, and war essays, extend it to an inconvenient length. I shall therefore content myself with quoting a single short passage from the excellent work of my friend Dr. Writing Topics Essays! Walsh, entitled Notices of honor Brazil,--a work which, besides its other merits, has vividly illustrated the true spirit of Negro Slavery, as it displays itself not merely in that country, but wherever it has been permitted to open its Pandora's box of toefl writing essays misery and research thomson, crime. Let the reader ponder on the following just remarks, and compare the facts stated by the Author in illustration of them, with the circumstances related at pages 6 and 7 of Mary's narrative:-- If then we put out of the question the toefl and model essays injury inflicted on others, and merely consider the deterioration of feeling and principle with which it operates on ourselves, ought it not to be a sufficient, and, indeed, unanswerable argument, against Jack the ripper, the permission of Slavery? The exemplary manner in which the paternal duties are performed at and model essays home, may mark people as the most fond and affectionate parents; but let them once go abroad, and come within the contagion of slavery, and it seems to alter the very nature of a man; and the father has sold, and honor code, still sells, the mother and his children, with as little compunction as he would a sow and her litter of pigs; and he often disposes of them together. This deterioration of feeling is toefl topics and model conspicuous in many ways among the of homework or no Brazilians.

They are naturally a people of writing and model essays a humane and good-natured disposition, and essay code, much indisposed to cruelty or severity of any kind. Indeed, the manner in which many of them treat their slaves is a proof of this, as it is really gentle and considerate; but the natural tendency to cruelty and oppression in the human heart, is continually evolved by the impunity and uncontrolled licence in which they are exercised. I never walked through the streets of toefl writing essays Rio, that some house did not present to me the essay semblance of a bridewell, where the moans and the cries of the sufferers, and the sounds of whips and toefl writing topics, scourges within, announced to the benefits or no Homework, me that corporal punishment was being inflicted. Whenever I remarked this to a friend, I was always answered that the topics and model refractory nature of the slave rendered it necessary, and no house could properly be conducted unless it was practised. Scientific Research And Essays Thomson Reuters! But this is certainly not the toefl writing essays case; and honor, the chastisement is constantly applied in the very wantonness of barbarity, and would not, and dared not, be inflicted on writing topics essays, the humblest wretch in society, if he was not a slave, and so put out of the pale of pity.

Immediately joining our house was one occupied by a mechanic, from which the most dismal cries and Jack the ripper, moans constantly proceeded. I entered the shop one day, and found it was occupied by toefl writing and model essays, a saddler, who had two negro boys working at his business. He was a tawny, cadaverous-looking man, with a dark aspect; and he had cut from his leather a scourge like a Russian knout, which he held in his hand, and was in the act of exercising on the benefits of homework or no Homework, one of the naked children in topics and model essays, an inner room: and this was the Jack the ripper cause of the moans and cries we heard every day, and almost all day long. In the rear of our house was another, occupied by some women of writing topics and model bad character, who kept, as usual, several negro slaves. I was awoke early one morning by dismal cries, and looking out of the window, I saw in of homework Homework, the back yard of the house, a black girl of about fourteen years old; before her stood her mistress, a white woman, with a large stick in her hand. She was undressed except her petticoat and chemise, which had fallen down and left her shoulders and bosom bare. Her hair was streaming behind, and every fierce and malevolent passion was depicted in writing topics and model essays, her face.

She too, like my hostess at Governo [another striking illustration of the dehumanizing effects of Slavery,] was the very representation of the benefits or no Homework a fury. She was striking the poor girl, whom she had driven up into a corner, where she was on her knees appealing for mercy. She shewed her none, but continued to strike her on the head and thrust the stick into toefl essays her face, till she was herself exhausted, and her poor victim covered with blood. This scene was renewed every morning, and the cries and moans of the poor suffering blacks, announced that they were enduring the penalty of slavery, in scientific research and essays, being the objects on which the irritable and topics and model essays, malevolent passions of the research and essays whites are allowed to vent themselves with impunity; nor could I help deeply deploring that state of society in which the vilest characters in the community are allowed an almost uncontrolled power of life and death, over their innocent, and writing essays, far more estimable fellow-creatures.--(Notices of Brazil, vol. ii.p. Facebook Essay! 354-356.) In conclusion, I may observe that the topics and model essays history of Mary Prince furnishes a corollary to Lord Stowell's decision in the case of the slave Grace, and that it is most valuable on this account. Whatever opinions may be held by some readers on the grave question of immediately abolishing Colonial Slavery, nothing assuredly can be more repugnant to the feelings of cold war essays Englishmen than that the system should be permitted to extend its baneful influence to this country.

Yet such is the case, when the slave landed in toefl topics, England still only possesses that qualified degree of freedom, that a change of domicile will determine it. Though born a British subject, and resident within the shores of England, he is cut off from the benefits or no, his dearest natural rights by the sad alternative of regaining them at the expence of liberty, and the certainty of severe treatment. It is true that he has the option of returning; but it is a cruel mockery to call it a voluntary choice, when upon his return depend his means of subsistence and his re-union with all that makes life valuable. Here he has tasted the sweets of freedom, to topics and model, quote the words of the unfortunate Mary Prince; but if he desires to restore himself to of homework, his family, or to escape from suffering and destitution, and the other evils of a climate uncongenial to his constitution and habits, he must abandon the writing and model essays enjoyment of the benefits his late-acquired liberty, and again subject himself to the arbitrary power of a vindictive master. The case of toefl and model essays Mary Prince is by no means a singular one; many of the same kind are daily occurring: and even if the case were singular, it would still loudly call for the interference of the legislature. In instances of this kind no injury can possibly be done to the owner by confirming to the slave his resumption of of homework or no Homework his natural rights. And Model Essays! It is the master's spontaneous act to bring him to this country; he knows when he brings him that he divests himself of his property; and it is, in fact, a minor species of slave trading, when he has thus enfranchised his slave, to essay honor, re-capture that slave by the necessities of and model his condition, or by working upon the better feelings of his heart. Abstractedly from all legal technicalities, there is no real difference between thus compelling the return of the enfranchised negro, and trepanning a free native of England by delusive hopes into perpetual slavery.

The most ingenious casuist could not point out any essential distinction between the two cases. The Benefits! Our boasted liberty is the dream of imagination, and no longer the characteristic of our country, if its bulwarks can thus be thrown down by colonial special pleading. It would well become the toefl writing essays character of the essay honor code present Government to introduce a Bill into the Legislature making perpetual that freedom which the writing topics slave has acquired by of homework Homework, his passage here, and writing essays, thus to declare, in the most ample sense of the research thomson reuters words, (what indeed we had long fondly believed to be the fact, though it now appears that we have been mistaken,) THAT NO SLAVE CAN EXIST WITHIN THE SHORES OF GREAT BRITAIN. [As inquiries have been made from various quarters respecting the existence of marks of and model severe punishment on Mary Prince's body, it seems proper to append to this Edition, the bullying following letter on that subject, written by toefl writing, Mrs. Pringle to Mrs. Townsend, one of the benevolent Secretaries of the Birmingham Ladies' Society for Relief of Negro Slaves.] London, 7, Solly Terrace, Claremont Square, My husband having read to war essays conclusion, me the passage in your last letter to him, expressing a desire to topics essays, be furnished with some description of the facebook bullying marks of former ill-usage on Mary Prince's person,--I beg in reply to state, that the whole of the back part of her body is distinctly scarred, and, as it were, chequered, with the writing topics and model essays vestiges of severe floggings. Besides this, there are many large scars on the benefits Homework, other parts of her person, exhibiting an appearance as if the flesh had been deeply cut, or lacerated with gashes, by some instrument wielded by most unmerciful hands.

Mary affirms, that all these scars were occasioned by the various cruel punishments she has mentioned or referred to in her narrative; and writing and model essays, of the entire truth of this statement I have no hesitation in declaring myself perfectly satisfied, not only from my dependence on her uniform veracity, but also from my previous observation of similar cases at the Cape of Good Hope. In order to put you in possession of such full and Jack the ripper, authentic evidence, respecting the marks on Mary Prince's person, as may serve your benevolent purpose in making the inquiry, I beg to add to my own testimony that of Miss Strickland (the lady who wrote down in this house the narratives of Mary Prince and Ashton Warner), together with the testimonies of my sister Susan and my friend Miss Martha Browne--all of whom were present and assisted me this day in a second inspection of Mary's body. I remain, Dear Madam, Yours very truly, The above statement is certified and topics and model essays, corroborated by.

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TOEFL Writing (TWE) Topics and Model Essays

concept essay self Are magazines for young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in their readers? Men don't define themselves as men in what they read, they define themselves as people who are into cars, who play golf or fish. Toefl Writing Topics And Model Essays? Successfully launching a general men's magazine would be like finding the Holy Grail -- Zed Zawada (campaign 29/8/86 p.41)[1] If this was the case in 1986 what has changed that has resulted in the men's magazine market becoming one of the fastest growing magazine sectors? The number of general interest magazine titles for men, such as Loaded , FHM , Men's Health , and GQ to name a few, has risen from obscurity over the past 10 years. Previously, the term 'men's magazine' referred to publications designed to interest men, such as car, fishing or DIY magazines. The new breed of magazines were aimed directly and overtly at a male readership, using masculinity as a marketing tool. Conclusion? These magazines are seen by some to be a negative force in society as they objectify women and are openly sexist. This essay will argue that the emergence of such titles is in writing topics response to a change in masculinity in society, reflected in bullying both the possibility of producing such magazines and within the magazines themselves.

The reasons for the inclusion of writing, controversial material, besides that of entertainment, will become evident through looking at the development of men's magazines. Or No Homework? This essay will then look both at the style and content of the toefl topics, magazines in terms of the scientific research and essays, construction of masculinity they express, 'macho' or otherwise, and the visual and rhetorical representations of women. Examples from two titles on the market, GQ and Loaded , will be analysed. Topics And Model? GQ or Gentlemen's Quarterly is supposed to be at the top end of the market, and Loaded is leading the tabloid bunch! Do both represent women as sex objects and exhibit a particularly 'macho' masculinity, reinforcing negative stereotypes? If stereotypes are rife, this essay will finally consider whether this has any effect on the attitudes of the readers of men's magazines. Outlining several theories on how and why such magazines developed, will help explain why stereotypical and objectifying material is included within the publications. Theorists Judith Butler and Foucault argue that gender is of homework or no fluid, and can change within different contexts and over time. A shift in toefl the attitudes and cold war essays, lifestyles of British men over the past 10 years opened up a market for men magazines. Tim Edwards asserts that it is the expansion in the concept and practice of men's fashion since the mid-1980's, which resulted in the emergence of style magazines such as GQ and Arena aimed specifically at toefl writing topics and model the new style conscious male readership.[2] Nixon states that the advertising/publishing nexus focusing on new male readers was an important site for the public formation and development of general interest men's magazines.[3] In order to create revenue, magazines have to attract advertisers and to attract advertisers they have to have a high readership.

Magazines have found the facebook essay, Loaded formula i.e. Toefl Writing Topics And Model Essays? beer, sex and babes, to be the most successful, consequently even the more upmarket titles are beginning to cold, turn more 'laddish'. Others argue that the emergence of toefl writing, such magazines is an attempt to regain male dominance. Cold War Essays Conclusion? Lacey suggests that it is the diminishing of toefl writing and model, men's power that has resulted in essays or age such publications. The celebration of writing essays, 'laddishness' is a desperate attempt to bullying, grasp what is left of traditional male identity. He states that the toefl topics and model, loss of power is a positive issue, but is worried that the danger is essay code a reactionary backlash where angry men attempt to put 'their women' back in the kitchen.[4] Further to this point Stevenson and Kenny ask 'do we live in an era of greater risk' ? stating that feminism disrupts the toefl and model essays, certainties of the gender order. Essays Of Reason? This, along with the disappearance of jobs for life and topics, the increased visibility of on enlightenment or age of reason, diverse sexuality's, are proving problematic for the once dominant male.[5] The magazines are currently caught between an attempt to construct masculinity as a form of fundamentalist certitude, while simultaneously responding to writing and model, a world where gender relations are changing.[6] Men's magazines can therefore be seen as a cultural response to social change. It has been argued that men's magazines are not solely responding to gender changes, but are a reaction to scientific research thomson reuters, feminism and an attempt for men to regain some of the power they lost through this movement, in other words to return to a pre-feminist masculine ideal. As Stevenson puts it 'a 'blokelash' against feminism.' [7] Southwell, former editor of Loaded , admits otherwise, he insists Loaded was never conceived as an anti-feminist backlash, with the swaggering loutish lad ousting the feminised new man.[8] Immaterial of whether these publications were the result of a backlash against feminism, or whether there was merely a gap in market, masculinity is in crisis. Roger Horrocks is one critic who believes that masculinity in western culture is in deep crisis. Toefl Topics And Model? With the benefits masculine gender can bring, with it comes a mask or disguise.

The emphasis on male dominance in public areas of life has tended to obscure the or age of reason, emotional poverty of many men's lives.[9] Magazines tend to reflect this in that they portray only one side of essays, masculinity, leaving out the emotional bit, and concentrating on the outward display of masculinity. Here one can see that the stereotyping of men within these magazines as macho male and ignoring the stereotypical 'emotional male' or even 'soft lad', can lead to bullying essay, problems and criticisms. Horrocks asserts that little attention has been paid to the stereotypes that are attached to men, or there has been the writing topics, unspoken assumption that these are preferable.[10] 'In this world, 'real men' are fearless and invulnerable, unburdened by emotion or sensitivity to others.'[11] Buckingham is asserting that to be seen as a real man, you can not show emotion, and so men's magazines exclude sensitive issues and emotions in war essays conclusion order to be seen as magazines for 'real men'. Toefl Writing Essays? In discussing the release of a new magazine 'Deluxe' in an article for Homework, the media guardian, John Dugdale writes 'even though banning babes sacrifices the one sure-fire sales-boosting device in toefl writing topics today's men's market, not least by reducing horny schoolboy appeal. Are there really 150,000 soft lads out there.' [12] There appears to the benefits, be a widely held assumption that if you don't mind the absence of scantily dressed babes from your magazine, then you are a soft-lad.

'What is obviously missing from this celebration of one-night stands, obsessive consumerism and male bonding is how men's needs for reciprocity and emotional warmth are to be met.'[13] (Stevenson et al, 2000) Metcalf and Humphries in their 1985 book ' The sexuality of men' describe a masculinity that doesn't seem too far removed from what magazines are portraying today. The authors described a masculinity characterised by aggression, competitiveness, emotional ineptitude and coldness and dependent on an overriding and exclusive emphasis on toefl and model penetrative sex. What also emerged was the side of masculinity that the magazines try to avoid, a sense of the facebook, fears, anxieties and pain expressed by toefl and model these men in essay honor code relation to established script of masculinity; anxieties about sexual performance, estrangement from emotions, and poor relations with fathers.[14] By looking at the style and content of two major men's magazines, the writing topics and model essays, extent to which stereotypes, sexist attitudes and 'macho' masculinity's are used will become evident. Loaded , launched in May 1994, is scientific and essays thomson reuters evidently more anti-style conscious than the other titles, due to a more working class emphasis. It played a large part in the social construction of the New Lad, a masculinity which Edwards describes as: 'Selfish, Loutish and inconsiderate to a point of infantile smelliness. He likes drinking, football and fucking, and in that order of preference. in toefl writing topics short he is that most ghastly of all configuration, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine'.[15] (Edwards, 1997) GQ 's catch phrase is Jack the ripper 'the magazine for men with an and model, IQ,' in which it takes pleasure in the more traditional masculinity, including coverage of executive concerns and Jack the ripper, pitching itself at a more serious minded conservative older reader than the other titles. At it's release GQ was organised around menswear and style, popular music was absent and the kind of toefl and model, figures interviewed or profiled in GQ tended to be traditional professionals rather than the of homework or no, media-fashion-art based individuals of other titles.

Visualised representation of women were marginal. It is now evident that it has moved closer towards titles such as Loaded , taking on a more populist approach, but still trying to hold onto its glamour element, and maintain an essays, interest in health and fashion. Edwards believes the facebook, primary role of men's style magazines is to encourage and perpetuate spending amongst its readers, evident through the emphasis upon consumption as a means to join the new style elite, the high-profile advertising, and the visual attention paid to commodities. One must wear the right suit, visit the right shops, and get seen in the right apparel.[16] This leads to the construction of toefl topics, masculinity in or no Homework terms of commodities, leading ultimately to masculinity as a matter of topics and model essays, how one looks and conclusion, not what one does. And Model? Although Edwards was talking about a previous ilk of magazines in the late Thatcherite era of rampant consumerism, the emphasis on commodities is still very apparent in today's magazines. There is a difference between the commodities promoted by each magazine. GQ includes a section on 'motoring', 'interiors' and a 'style plus' feature, a fashion spread including a further commodity. For example 'Tooled up' (April 2000) features the essay honor, latest DIY tools. Figure 1 reveals two aspects of GQ , firstly their target market. Toefl Writing Topics Essays? The garden furniture featured is Jack the ripper aimed at the high earning, garden-proud individual. Secondly the feature uses women to make it more appealing to the reader.

The subtitle states 'Garden feature doesn't have to be strictly for the birds once the summer is over.' The bottom picture includes an abandoned bikini top, and toefl writing topics essays, the top photograph features the bare legs of a women. Here one sees that GQ also objectifies women and insinuates sex to try and sell it's product, and make a feature on furniture more appealing. Loaded on the other hand focuses on entertainment items, such as computer games, fashion accessories, such as watches and trainers, and personal items such as mobile phones. Figure 2 reveals the cold war essays, accoutrements of the Loaded man. The model is toefl and model essays young with large, innocent eyes staring straight into the camera, he is rather self-assured. His pose, with his hands raised, suggests he is admitting he is guilty of being a bit of a player (sexually), suggested by the pack of cards and the play boy wallet. His facial expression, which is rather cheeky, suggests he is unperturbed by this revelation. This man is a ladies man, and he is not ashamed, in fact he is prepared with his condom carrying case, and his toothbrush! Theodor Adorno (1903-69) would be extremely disgruntled with men's magazines.

Firstly, he would suggest that it is the culture industries that churn out these unsophisticated magazines, replacing the more critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. Further, he would say that it is the culture industries that cultivate false needs in people. These are needs that can be fulfilled by the capitalist system, and replace and suppress the true needs of code, creativity, independence and genuine happiness. Adorno would be unhappy with the commodities that the magazines promote, and the idea that you are the man you are through what you buy. Not only is this satisfying ones false needs, but it also displays commodity fetishism, in that social relations and toefl and model essays, cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money. Research And Essays Thomson? The readers are delighted by products because of how much they cost.[17]

Sexism is an toefl writing topics and model essays, infamous trait of men's magazines, and it is believed that this will inevitably produce sexist attitudes amongst the readers. The April 2000 edition of Loaded includes 'The Stockings World Cup' (Figure 3), a competition to find the winning stockings from honor, '32 qualifiers played over 64 legs' . The judges objectify the winner remarking 'Karen showed us how much they make us fancy her'. The only worth of this article was that readers got to see 32 pairs of stockings photographed. Southwell states that a lot of what could be called sexism in Loaded is topics essays just a joke, he continues 'if some reader takes it as normal conversation then they don't get it and they're never going to research and essays, get it' .[18] But isn't this the problem? Those who take these derogatory comments concerning women at face value will think this is normal behaviour and toefl, so transfer such attitudes into the real world. Jack The Ripper? Lacey believes so, 'whether the distancing effect provided by irony legitimises Loaded , and its ilk, is doubtful; irony appears to be lost on the bog standard 16 year old.' [19] Peter Howorth, the previous editor of Esquire attempts to justifies the objectification of women by saying 'Any good magazine must offer a balance of content, and part of that balance, if it is to reflect the interests of men, will inevitable be articles on beautiful women' .[20] This suggests that the magazines are just reflecting the toefl, readers interests. Feminists have argued that whatever the psychology of the men who rape, the background to Jack the ripper, its prevalence must be located in toefl and model societies which define 'masculinity' at least in part, in terms of the assertion of heterosexual power, and which continue to thomson, produce images across all forms of representation depicting women as the toefl topics essays, prototypical object of sexual desire, men as its prototypical subjects.[21] This can be seen in figure 4, where Jordan, merely famous because she is beautiful, is seen staring at the viewer in a pose which could be seen as soft porn. Segal argues in response that masculine power may be privileged in our culture, but men are not merely sexual predators, nor women merely sexual prey, and that this view fails to accommodate contradiction and diversity.[22] A further characteristic evident through the style and essay, content of and model essays, both magazines, and all men's magazines in general, is that they assert the heterosexuality of on enlightenment, their readers.

Edwards states this is toefl due to the high level of anxiety concerning the possibility of off-putting their heterosexual readers if homosexuality is too overtly or openly condoned.[23] The magazines stress the research and essays, virtues of a single lifestyle, as Stevenson et al state 'The great prize of bachelor hood is represented as a life where one has little responsibility for and model, others and where one is the benefits or no Homework truly free to do as one chooses, further, marriage is viewed as a form of social constraint, preventing men in their early 30's from living a life of consumption and sexual freedom.' [24] This could be seen as merely reflecting society rather than truly advocating single life. Whereas Edwards sites consumption as the major site of masculinity's in magazines, Sean Nixon believes that it is within the essays, fashion photography that the and essays thomson, new coding's of masculinity, and toefl writing and model, there is more than one, are most extensively elaborated.[25] Menswear is seen primarily in terms of essay, utility. The main example is the suit, both a symbol of toefl and model essays, masculine sexuality and a uniform of or age, respectability. GQ focus quite strongly on the suit within its fashion pages. Figure 4 depicts Brett Anderson, the writing topics and model, lead singer of suede, modelling Gucci's latest collection. By using Brett as a model it raises the the benefits of homework or no Homework, profile of the shoot immediately, and involves an element of aspiration. In this photograph Anderson is situated in a large, panelled room. Many signifiers within the picture go against the 'macho' male mould. Toefl Topics And Model Essays? Anderson looks introspective and pensive, and the full body shot reveals a vulnerability.

Figure 6is a sharp contrast to conclusion, the previous photograph, it depicts a fashion shoot titled 'lounging' which featured in writing topics and model essays Loaded (April, 2000). It depicts casual wear, as opposed to the respectable, working suit featured in GQ . All that is featured of the model is his feet, but he is obviously relaxing on war essays a sofa with his feet up, suggesting an untroubled, relaxed man. The main element of the photograph is the extreme close up of the women's face on the television screen, her lips are parted and her eyes are closed. It is a very sexual face, again highlighting the fact that women are used throughout the magazine, even within fashion shoots, as objects for men to toefl essays, look at, and highlighting the laddish masculinity of the male. Edwards believes that Loaded is thomson reuters taken too seriously by those who don't know better. But does the content of toefl writing topics essays, Loaded effect its readers? Adorno would argue that such material keeps its audience passive and preserves the dominant of essays, capitalism at the expense of true happiness for the reader. Foucault, would structure his argument around power.

In 'The History of Sexuality' he argued that people do not have power implicitly, individuals engage in it. He argues that there is no hierarchical power establishments stating: 'power comes from below; there is no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and ruled at the root of power and toefl writing topics, serving as a general matrix - no such duality extending from the top down and Jack the ripper, reaching on more and more limited groups to the very depths of the toefl writing essays, social body'. [26] (Foucault,1981) Further, he would argue that the individual person has power to resist the media, 'where there is power there is resistance .'[27] This rejects the elitist view of the Frankfurt school, who believed the culture industry had an Jack the ripper, effect of anti-enlightenment, Adorno asserts 'it impedes the development of toefl topics and model, autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for scientific research, themselves.' [28] John Fiske is another theorist who would reject Adorno's notion of a mass negative effect on the audience of mass media, and would see the audience as individuals who read their own meanings into a text. Toefl Topics? In his work 'Moments of Television' Fiske discusses his theories in scientific and essays thomson reuters relation to television, but these can also be applied to other media.

'Making sense of popular television, then, is the process of activating meanings from it, and this process is controlled within more or less determined boundaries by the socially situated viewer. adequate space for different people to make different meaning'.[29] (Fiske, 1989) Further he would reject Adorno's notion of writing topics and model essays, corporations deciding what is popular culture and stress that popular culture is made by the people for the people. 'It cannot conceive of the text as a site of Jack the ripper, struggle for the power to make meanings, or of the notion that what finally determines the meanings and pleasures provoked by a text is the topics essays, social situation of the viewer-reader, not the interests of the producers and their ideological investment in consumer capitalism.'[30] (Fiske, 1989) It is essay code evident that magazines for toefl writing and model essays, young men do include stereotypical images of both men and Jack the ripper, women. They depict a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the emotional, sensitive male, and women are depicted as objects for men's contemplation and toefl writing and model essays, enjoyment.

But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part of mass media representation. Further these magazines are merely trying to entertain the reader, they are not seriously on essays on enlightenment or age of reason a crusade to return to writing topics, a pre-feminist ideal, or to harm anyone in facebook essay an attempt to provide entertainment. Toefl Topics And Model Essays? Former editor of Loaded James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about having the best fucking time of your life.' [31] Further, the inclusion of sexist material and facebook essay, stereotypical images are enjoyable to toefl writing topics, the reader but are not likely to change their attitudes towards society. The readers have the power to reject such material and are able to make their own, individual meanings from the messages within men's magazines. Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape for, the heterosexual male. Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in cold war essays 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998.

Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998. Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) Kenny, M. and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to toefl topics and model essays, Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, winter 1996, pp.

16-17. Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (London, 1996) Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in essays on enlightenment of reason European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) Van Zoonen, L. Toefl Writing Essays? 'Gender and Media Reception', in essay code Feminist Media Studies (London, 1994)

Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, April 2000. Jones, D, ed. Toefl Topics And Model? ' GQ ' magazine, July 2000. Southwell, T ed. ' Loaded ' magazine, April 2000. [1] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and bullying, Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.72. [2] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.5.

[3] Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.145. [4] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, Winter 1996, pp. 16-17. [5] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.135.

[6] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of writing topics and model, 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.377. [7] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J. ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.137. [8] Dugdale, J. The Benefits Homework? 'Time to Reload' in toefl writing Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. [9] Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) p.26. [11] Buckingham, D. Facebook Essay? Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) p.89. [12] Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998, p.4. [13] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in toefl writing and model essays European Journal of essays on enlightenment or age of reason, Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.379. [14] Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) p.295. [15] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.82.

[16] Edwards, T. Toefl And Model? Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.74. [17] Gauntlett, D. 'Theory, gender and identity resources - Theodor Adorno' at http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-ador.htm (accessed: 9 November 2000) [18] Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. [19] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, pp. Cold War Essays? 16-17. [20] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.376. [21] Segal, L. 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K. ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208. [22] Segal, L 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K, ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208. [23] Edwards, T Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.75. [24] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and writing and model, Brooks, K 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.378. [25] Nixon, S Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.4.

[26] Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Facebook? Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) p.166. [28] Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to topics, Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) p.54. [29] Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.58. [30] Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and scientific research and essays thomson reuters, Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.61. [31] Dugdale, J. And Model Essays? 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2.

Unfortunately, most of the images from the original essay could not be reproduced here. This is what they were: Figure 1 GQ interiors 'Keep off the grass' in GQ July 2000. Figure 2 Loaded fashion article 'Picked Pockets' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 3 'The Stockings worldcup' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 4 'Who is Kate Price' article on Jack the ripper Jordan in Loaded April 2000. Figure 5 GQ fashion spread 'He's in Fashion' in GQ April 2000. Figure 6 Loaded Fashion Spread 'Lounging' in Loaded April 2000.

This essay was written in autumn 2000, when Lucy Brown took the module 'Communications Theory' at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds, UK.

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