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Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy: John
Writing Great Book Reports: Fiction and Nonfiction. You probably began writing book reports in elementary school. Essays. When you were younger, it seemed like an easy assignment. Sanjaya did many book reports when he was younger but this is the first one he will be doing in high school. His teacher has explained all the information that should be included. Sanjaya began by reading the first few pages of several books. He told the library about the features of animals kind of books he likes. The librarian made several suggestions.
This one combines interesting characters and some wild adventures. Essays On Some Questions. It#8217;s so good that Sanjaya hates to adaptive features of animals, put the book down for meals. Essays. Book Reports in lower grades were easy. They included. 1. Reading a book usually a book you wanted to read anyway. 2. Nursing. Writing about the story, without telling the essays on some questions ending. 3. Writing your opinion of the book including what you liked best and what you didn#8217;t like. Johannes Essay. 4. Students often ended y oral reports by telling classmates it was a great book and they should #8220;Read the essays on some book and find out what happened.#8221; 1. You are older and your teachers now expect book reports showing advanced organization and writing skills. Romeo Juliet Essay. 2. Each teacher who asks you to write a book report will have different instructions including the types of books, the length of reports, and the topics to cover. Some teachers might give you a list of essays, books to choose from.
If you really don#8217;t like any books on the list you could always ask the teacher if something you like of equal or greater difficulty could be substituted. Writing a Book Report on Works of Fiction. An English teacher will ask you to read fiction, possibly from a certain time period or by a certain author. They might tell you to romeo, include: 1. the setting (place, time, weather) 2. the characters (sometimes including the protagonist or main character and the antagonist or enemy) 3. the genre (category such as romance, science fiction, fantasy, mystery, adventure, suspense, horror, historical, or literary fiction.) If you aren#8217;t sure of the genre, ask a librarian to help. Some books are a combination of genres. One of my favorite authors writes mysteries on other plants: It is both mystery and science fiction. Others combine mysteries and questions, romance.
Vampire stories seem to nursing skills, have become a separate genre, at least for now. 4. a summary of the plot. This might include the essays on some type of conflict (if you have studied this) and a description of the climax. Thesis Hardcover. Be sure to find out on some, if the teacher wants you to include the ending or resolution of the conflict. 5. the tone, mood, or theme of the book. 6. the Point of View who is the narrator of the book? 7. When evaluating the book, you might support your opinions by including several quotations from the book. Your teacher might consider #8220;You should read this book to see what happens,#8221; to be out of place at your age. You might instead describe the strong and weak points in the book.
Writing a Book Report on a work of Nonfiction. This is adaptive features, less common but could be assigned in on some questions classes such as history or science. This will seem strange. You won#8217;t use setting, characters, genre, plot, theme, or point of view. Instead of a report on a book, you might be asked to report on an article. Your teacher will probably explain what they do expect. They will probably want: 1. The main idea of the entire book . This is the reason the author wrote the book. Sometimes there is a question that the writer attempts to answer. T.r.. Sometimes it is an analysis of a situation. Look for on some the author#8217;s thesis, the brief statement of their main idea.
Use this as the introduction to your report. 2. You cannot summarize every chapter in the book. Choose three or four of the romeo juliet thesis most important ideas that support the author#8217;s thesis. These should form the three or four paragraphs in on some the body of the report. 3. In nonfiction, the background of the personal essay author is important. What qualifies this author to write on this topic? Look at the bibliography and see how much research the author has done.
Are the books in essays on some questions the bibliography all from one particular perspective or from many different points of view? You might check the Internet for more information about the author. This along with the analysis of the thesis hardcover author#8217;s thinking might form the conclusion if it is brief. If they are detailed and significant, they can be additional paragraphs in the body of the report, followed by a conclusion. 4. Questions. It is important to use critical thinking. Does the author separate facts and opinions? Are the #8220;facts#8221; they use accepted as true by educated people in the field?
Does the author look at a topic from many points of view? Would you consider the author fair-minded or does the author show bias or a certain slant (particularly common in juliet thesis books on politics)? Does the author #8220;jump to conclusions#8221; without sufficient proof? Know what your report should include BEFORE you begin to read. As you read, take notes on appropriate topics. You could use bookmarks or sticky notes for pages you might want to re-read or take quotes from. Your outline is essays unsettled questions, easy. You will use the categories above or what your teacher recommends. Johannes Essay. Be sure you have three or four main ideas in each category. With this, the report should be easy to write. If your report includes an oral presentation, you might add visuals to make the report more interesting.
Try to begin with an essays, exciting introduction that will make your listeners want to hear more.
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John Stuart Mill: «Essays on some unsettled Questions of Political
robert gates resume The Iran-Contra Scandal, 1991 Confirmation Hearings, and Excerpts from new book Safe for Democracy. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 208. For more information contact: Thomas Blanton - 202/994-7000. By Tom Blanton and essays on some questions, Peter Kornbluh.
The New York Time s. John Prados has written the juliet essay first really comprehensive history of the essays questions CIA, thereby illluminating a basic fact of American intelligence--if you want to know what the CIA is doing, listen to what the president is hardcover, saying; and essays on some questions, if you want to know what the president really wants, watch what the CIA is thesis, doing. Safe for Democracy is history for adults--not White House spin but what really happened and why. For more than half a century the CIA, with marching orders from the president, has been trying to essays questions make the world safe for democracy. As Prados describes it, the result of developing skills, these adventures--little safety, less democracy--tells us what to questions expect from the latest crusade in Iraq. -- THOMAS POWERS , Pulitzer Prize-winner for national reporting and author of Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to personal in third person Al-Qeada. A masterful account of the CIA's covert and not-so-covert activities around the globe. Drawing on thousands of newly declassified documents, Prados brings together in essays on some unsettled, one colorful narrative a sweeping history of America's covert wars from the high plains of critical thinking skills, Tibet to the back alleys of Cairo. The result is an essays questions, authoritative book that demythologizes the agency and poses hard questions about the true costs of secrecy to democracies everywhere. -- KAI BIRD , co-author of American Prometheus: The Triumph and hardcover, Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer , winner of the 2006 Pulitzer Prize for biography.
John Prados is one of the essays on some questions most prolific and respected authors on johannes gutenberg essay national security issues today. In his troubling new book, Safe for Democracy , he draws on his many years of research to show that while the CIA wields the dagger, its aim is directed by the White House, often with disastrous results over the decades. At a time when the CIA is swallowed up in preemptive wars overseas and bureaucratic battles at home, this definitive history of unsettled questions, covert action is both timely and necessary. -- JAMES BAMFORD , author of The Puzzle Palace , Body of personal essay in third, Secrets , and A Pretext for War. John Prados has put it all together here in one great panorama of the CIA's covert actions. The chapters on Eisenhower make clear that he was the key president in promoting the schemes, setting the pattern for the Cold War. Highly readable, this is intelligence history, and essays questions, intelligent history, at romeo essay thesis its best.
-- LLOYD GARDNER , author of Approaching Vietnam , Spheres of Influence , and Pay Any Price. John Prados has again demonstrated his excellence as a researcher and writer--coupled with his in-depth understanding of intelligence issues--to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the CIA's 'secret wars.' Safe for Democracy will be carefully read by those in essays on some, and out thesis of the intelligence community--in many countries. -- NORMAN POLMAR , co-author, Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. Washington D.C., November 10, 2006 - Bush administration nominee for Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates had a long career in essays on some unsettled, government which showed a notable combination of critical thinking skills, ambition and caution, according to a new book by Archive senior analyst John Prados [ Safe for Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006)] which deals with Gates among its much wider coverage of the agency since its inception. As Director of Central Intelligence in the immediate aftermath of the essays on some unsettled questions Cold War, Gates faced criticism for personal in third person moving slowly with reforming the agency for the new era, and essays, thus missing a moment of extraordinary opportunity that occurred at that time. In earlier posts at top levels of the CIA, Gates figured in the Iran-Contra affair, in which he engaged in sins of omission if not commission, hesitating to make inquiries and pass warnings that might have headed off this abuse of t.r. malthus an essay on the of population summary, power. As the CIA's top manager for intelligence analysis in the early 1980s he was accused of essays on some, slanting intelligence to suit the predilections of the Reagan administration and his boss, Director William J. Casey. Excerpts from Safe for Democracy related to nursing skills Mr.
Gates are here posted by the Archive. They are accompanied by the full three volumes of the extraordinary confirmation hearings of Gates for CIA director which took place in unsettled, 1991, and which at thesis the time constituted the most detailed examination of U.S. intelligence practices carried out since the Church and Pike investigations of the 1970s. Also posted is the portion of the report by Iran-Contra special prosecutor Lawrence Walsh which concerns Mr. Essays. Gates , along with his response to those findings. A career intelligence officer, Robert M. Gates has emphasized the hardcover number of presidents he served and essays on some, the long sweep of history he witnessed. The sixty-three year old Gates indeed worked under every U.S. president from Richard M. Nixon to George Herbert Walker Bush, and has now been nominated by the second President Bush as secretary of defense. His resume includes some key periods in contemporary history, serving in a White House role as Deputy National Security Adviser during the first Gulf War, leading the U.S. T.r. Malthus An Essay Principle. intelligence community in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, being implicated in the Iran-Contra affair, taking an active role in directing CIA intelligence analysis during the Reagan administration, fulfilling assignment as a staff aide to National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski during the Carter administration, working on U.S. national intelligence estimates on the Soviet Union, and playing a peripheral role in nuclear arms limitation talks during their early years.
Gates holds a PhD from Georgetown University, graduated from the University of Indiana, and was born and raised in Wichita, Kansas. His only direct military experience was as a young officer in the United States Air Force, where he worked primarily as an essays on some unsettled questions, intelligence analyst, including for the Minuteman ICBM missile wing stationed at personal essay Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri. The record suggests that Gates combines caution and ambition. As Director of Central Intelligence, leading the CIA after the Cold War, Gates promised many reforms but went slowly in implementing them, carefully marshaling agency support before embarking on those reforms. In Iran-Contra, the record of the special prosecutor's investigation shows that Gates learned of essays on some unsettled, a number of the key developments at a time when he could have intervened, but remained hesitant to do so. That caution cost him the first two times he was nominated for thinking Senate confirmation-in both cases, to head the CIA-in 1987 and essays on some unsettled questions, 1991. In the in third person first instance, he was forced to withdraw from consideration. Gates' second nomination, in 1991, led to the contentious hearings posted here.
As a manager of intelligence analysis under CIA Director Casey, Gates again demonstrated his two most recognizable traits. Knowing that Casey wanted to see certain kinds of analyses, for instance that painted the on some Soviet threat in bleak terms, Gates, according to former intelligence officers, demanded that his staff comply and encouraged reporting that some insisted was blatantly slanted, to a degree that led a variety of intelligence analysts to developing nursing thinking oppose his nomination as director. Such opposition was and remains unprecedented in the history of the CIA. On the other hand, on the Nicaragua covert operation of the mid-1980s, Gates showed caution in advising Casey near the end of 1984, when Congress was on the verge of cutting off all aid to on some unsettled the U.S.-backed Contra rebels to hand off the project to some other U.S. agency, which would protect CIA from personal essay person, charges that resulted from questionable activities. In the Carter White House and as an aide to unsettled questions CIA Director Stansfield Turner, Gates also displayed his guardedness. Until 1986, when he emerged as Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, Gates functioned in a quintessentially staff role. Given his narrow background in military affairs, Robert Gates may be expected to go slowly in innovating new policy or strategy as Secretary of Defense, to devote considerable effort to reestablishing rapport between the Secretary's office and the military service chiefs, and to personal essay person work loyally in support of White House objectives. On Iraq, that may mean shifts in nuance but not direction. On the other hand, the Gates appointment may be a moderating influence on U.S. Iran policy, since he has dealt with this issue and has knowledge of the players going back more than two decades, was burned by policy missteps on Iran during the Reagan administration, and has in the past favored an opening to the Teheran government.
Excerpts from Safe for Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006) AN UNCOMFORTABLE INTERREGNUM followed Bill Casey's collapse [on December 15,1986]. With Casey in and out of the on some questions hospital, Robert M. Gates served as acting DCI. On February 2, 1987, Casey resigned. Adaptive Features. The White House faced the essays on some unsettled sudden need to find a new director of central intelligence. Years before, at the outset of Ronald Reagan's presidency, Gates had told colleagues he wanted the top job. Now he came close to getting it. Malthus On The Of Population Summary. So close. Essays Unsettled Questions. The day Casey resigned, President Reagan nominated Gates as DCI in his own right. Perhaps the Reagan White House, beset by Iran-Contra, had not the energy or vision to developing thinking skills seek out a new candidate for on some unsettled questions DCI.
Or possibly Reagan saw Gates as a loyalist. T.r. Malthus An Essay Principle. Perhaps the essays unsettled call was for nursing critical thinking a professional but not someone with roots in the clandestine service. Gates fit that bill too. In any event, for a time it looked like Bob Gates would be moving into the director's office. The Senate would have to approve the essays Gates nomination, but the juliet essay thesis White House had clearly felt out the ground there. In the essays on some 1986 off-year elections the Democrats regained control of Congress, making Oklahoma Senator David L. Boren chairman of the Senate Select Committee on adaptive Intelligence. Boren and a number of others reacted positively to the Gates nomination. Even Vermont's Pat Leahy saw the essays on some unsettled questions Gates appointment as a wise move. Opinion held that Gates would be asked tough questions on personal essay in third Iran-Contra but then confirmed. Bob Gates put his best foot forward. Essays On Some Unsettled. There could be no denying his background as a superbly qualified intelligence officer.
He had done that work for the air force and features, the CIA, beginning with Soviet nuclear weapons. He had seen diplomacy on the U.S. delegation to arms control talks. Gates had crafted the NIEs as an assistant national intelligence officer, as national intelligence officer, and later as ex officio chairman of the National Intelligence Council. Essays On Some. He had done management as an assistant to a CIA director, an executive staff director, and as deputy director. Gates had headed one of the agency's tribes as deputy director for intelligence. He knew the White House, serving there under Jimmy Carter.
As DDCI he had gotten a taste of romeo essay, covert operations and the clandestine service. On Some Unsettled Questions. In twenty-one years, in other words, Robert Gates had acquired wide agency experience. Romeo Thesis. He had made some enemies, in particular as he handled intelligence reporting during the Reagan years, but in 1987 those people did not contest his nomination, which seemed unstoppable. Except for Iran-Contra. Gates gave that his best shot too.
Not coincidentally it became known that when he took over as acting director, Gates had recorded a classified video affirming that the CIA would act only under legal authorities and essays on some, would never again do anything like the Iran arms shipments without a proper presidential finding. Thesis Hardcover. When hearings opened on February 17 , Gates quickly made it known that he felt Iran-Contra had broken all the rules. He would resign if ordered to do something like that. Essays On Some. Gates regretted not following up on the scattered indications of illegality he had perceived, But the nominee's assurances foundered on the rocks of the Iran-Contra investigations. A number of questions had yet to be answered then, including whether Gates had helped mislead Congress, the extent of his participation in concocting false chronologies, his role in efforts to have the CIA take over the Secord Enterprise, when Gates learned of the adaptive features of animals diversion of funds to the contras , and what he had done once he knew it.
The more questions, the questions more Bob Gates's chances disappeared into the maw of assorted illegalities. Had Gates known of violations o the gutenberg Arms Export Control Act? Had he known of the retrospective finding? What had he done? Again and again. At this point Congress created a joint committee to essays questions investigate Iran-Contra, and it did not expect answers for months. Then, on johannes gutenberg essay February 22, the public learned that in 1985 Gates had sent the White House a memorandum from one of unsettled questions, his national intelligence officers advocating the developing nursing thinking skills improvement of relations with Iran through arms sales, a view at variance with existing estimates. Two days later the Joint committee asked that Gates s nomination be put on hold. Senator Boren posed the on some unsettled questions alternatives of a vote or a withdrawal of the nomination while senior congressional leaders warned the White House that a fight over Gates would concentrate yet more attention on Iran Contra. Reagan who had just released a presidential commission report in an effort to put the scandal behind him did not care to hear that.
Robert Gates decided to withdraw. The next day the administration took back the gutenberg nomination. Gates issued a statement defending his actions during the Iran-Contra affair denying he had covered up evidence or suppressed improprieties. Essays. Eventually the joint committee cleared Gates of illegal actions, and the Iran Contra special prosecutor affirmed that conclusion, but there had been failings. Gates cites mitigating circumstances in his memoirs, where he writes: I would go over those points in my mind a thousand times in the months and years to come, but the criticisms still hit home. Essay. A thousand times I would go over the might-have-beens if I had raised more hell than I did with Casey about nonnotification of Congress, if I had demanded that the NSC get out of covert action, if I had insisted that CIA not play by essays unsettled, NSC rules, if I had been more aggressive with the DO in my first months as DDCI, if I had gone to the Attorney General.
It became Robert Gates's misfortune to be swept up in a web of illegality so immense it brought dangers of the adaptive impeachment of on some, a president, which made Gates small fry indeed and virtually overnight neutered Ronald Reagan. In withdrawing the nursing critical Gates nomination, President Reagan simultaneously announced his appointment of William B. Webster to lead the agency. Webster liked to be called Judge-he had been a jurist on essays questions the federal bench, eventually on the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals. Where CIA denizens begrudged Stansfield Turner his preferred title of admiral, no one held back with Judge Webster. Dedication to malthus on the of population the law and to his native St. Louis, at least as deep as Turner's to the navy, had seen Webster through law school at Washington University, then a decade as a St. Louis attorney, another as a U.S. district attorney, and then the bench. In 1978 President Carter named Webster to head the FBI, the post he held when Reagan asked him to move to essays on some unsettled questions Langley.
Three days shy of his fifty-third birthday, Judge Webster came with stellar reviews-squeaky clean, exactly what Reagan then needed. The Senate intelligence committee approved his nomination in early May, and the full Senate consented to it shortly thereafter. Judge Webster was sworn in critical thinking skills, immediately. Bob Gates felt the weight of unsettled, Iran-Contra lifted from his shoulders, only to hear from essay, his brother that their father had just died. As Gates dealt with personal tragedy, Webster established himself at Langley. Again like Admiral Turner, Judge Webster brought in questions, a coterie as his inner circle-this time of former FBI aides. That move scarcely endeared Webster to CIA staff, though he took some of the sting away by announcing Gates would remain DDCI.
The new CIA director had a background in government and essay in third, even in the security field, where his 'time at essays questions the FBI had included notable investigations of essay in third, corruption among congressmen, the Korean CIA, and, of course, Iran-Contra. On Some Unsettled. In Webster's last months at the FBI the Bureau had looked into Southern Air Transport, the agency's quasi-proprietary. But Webster's knowledge of malthus an essay on the principle of population, intelligence, mostly peripheral, resulted from participation in the National Foreign Intelligence Board, the DCI's committee of the directors of all the U.S. intelligence agencies. Essays On Some Unsettled. His background in foreign affairs, even thinner, did not help in the corridors at Langley. Webster's tenure has received mixed reviews. Melissa Boyle Mahle, an officer with the DO's Near East Division, saw the Judge as isolating himself, managing rather than leading CIA, passing Olympian judgments, treating the agency as something dirty or infectious. He did not lead the troops, or ever really try to get to hardcover know them, she writes.
The chief of station in Brussels, Richard Holm, felt Webster never really fit in but nevertheless had been a good choice, and on some questions, Holm was sorry when he left. Floyd Paseman, by 1987 a branch chief in the East Asia Division soon elevated to the management staff, believes Webster did a terrific job of restoring the CIA's image. Gutenberg. Dewey Clarridge asserts that Webster didn't have the stomach for bold moves of questions, any sort. Robert Gates acknowledges the criticisms but calls Webster a godsend to the CIA, observing that none of the complaints amounted to a hill of beans compared to what he brought to personal person CIA that May: leadership, the respect of unsettled questions, Congress, and a sterling character. Judge Webster may have been the most prominent casualty of the Gulf War. During the long interregnum between Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait and the beginning of the coalition military campaign came a period of diplomacy and economic sanctions. In Capitol Hill debates and the struggle for public opinion, Webster was called upon to render opinions on developing skills the effectiveness of sanctions, Iraqi intent, and the balance of forces. Others seized on Webster's words as ammunition.
This did not please Bush. Never that comfortable at Langley, Judge Webster decided he had had enough. Essays On Some. He let a few weeks go by after the Gulf triumph, then stepped down. The DO shed few tears. The White House announced the resignation on May 8, 1991.
Appearing briefly with Webster, President Bush said he had yet to think of a successor but praised Robert Gates. That same day Bush summoned Gates to his cabin aboard Air Force One and asked if the gutenberg essay former spook would accept the CIA nomination. Gates immediately agreed. Essays On Some. He expected a painful confirmation process, and he got one. Iran-Contra investigations continued, and Bob Gates would not be definitively cleared until the special prosecutor's final report, still two years in features, the future.
When Alan Fiers pleaded guilty in July 1991, Gates feared that Fiers would implicate him in unsettled, some way. The lowest point in my life came the day before the plea bargain was announced, Gates recalls. Acutely conscious of the fact that civil servants rarely rise to head their departments, Gates realized it had been a generation since Bill Colby had been confirmed. Gates had been close to some quite controversial people, from Kissinger to Casey. Then the summer of 1991 brought the final collapse of the Soviet Union, kicking off the debate as to whether the CIA had failed to predict it. Thesis. Of course Gates had had a dominant role in on some questions, CIA analysis of Russia for years. But this time, unlike 1987, Gates resolved to proceed with the confirmation process no matter what.
Charges that Robert Gates had politicized intelligence took center stage when confirmation hearings opened in September . At first an extended examination of the nominee was not planned. Marvin C. Ott, deputy director of the SSCI staff at the time, recalls that the developing critical thinking skills predisposition to let Gates sail through created a staff presumption that there was nothing to look into. Committee staff and members were flummoxed by the appearance of a succession of analysts who gave chapter and verse on many Gates interventions in intelligence analysis. Reports on Afghanistan and Nicaragua were among those cited. Evidence emerged that current employees, reluctant to criticize openly, also saw Gates as an interventionist. Essays Unsettled. Far from pro forma nomination hearings, those on thesis hardcover Gates morphed into a major CIA inquiry. The nominee presented a preemptive defense, attempting to disarm critics with examples of how he had simply tried to push analysts to back up their assertions, picturing some alleged interventions as his effort to tease out questions better reporting. Then a number of former analysts went before the committee to dispute that rendering, most notably Mel Goodman, who had been a colleague for years; Jennifer L. Glaudemans, a former Soviet analyst; and Harold P. Ford, one of the CIA's grand old men.
Alan Fiers appeared as part of the committee's fairly extensive coverage of Iran-Contra, but his testimony did Gates no harm. Adaptive. Others supported the nomination. Gates himself returned for something fairly dramatic, a round of follow-up testimony refuting critics. The hearings became the most extensive examination of U.S. intelligence since the Church and Pike investigations. Work at essays on some questions Langley ground to a halt as CIA officers watched every minute on television, much like Americans riveted by the 0. J. Simpson murder trial. The intelligence committee wrestled with its quandary. President Bush intervened, invoking party discipline to johannes gutenberg ensure that members backed the nominee.
Ott believes Gates appealed to the White House for this measure. Committee chairman David Boren staged his own covert operation, acting impartially in the camera's eye while laboring in secret to on some unsettled build support for romeo thesis the nominee. Boren agreed to one of the most extensive committee reports on a nomination ever, in which his committee attempted to reconcile Gates's testimony with the charges against him. In Ott's view, this episode became the essays questions first time in a decade where partisanship reigned on t.r. on the of population the SSCI. Finally the essays on some unsettled questions committee approved Bush's appointee.
Gates was confirmed early in November. For all the drama of the hearings, the sequel did not live up to the fears of opponents. Director Gates strove to preserve flexibility as Langley marched into the post-Cold War era. He showed a healthy appreciation for the need to change, forming a whole range of task forces, fourteen in all, each to recommend changes in some aspect of CIA activity. A group on openness figured among them, advising that a swath of records be made public. In 1992 Gates spoke before a conference of diplomatic historians and promised that the agency would open up, even in regard to covert operations. As an earnest of essay in third person, its intentions, the CIA declassified large portions of the body of NIEs on on some questions the Soviet Union and essay in third person, that December sponsored a conference reflecting on the period. On Some. Stansfield Turner gave the keynote address. One of the Gates study groups considered politicization.
Although its instructions were drawn so narrowly it could conclude there had been none, Gates gathered a large contingent of officers in The Bubble in March 1992 to ventilate the issue. In Third. Directly confronting the matter that had clouded his confirmation, Gates squared the circle by acknowledging that whether or not there had been politicization in the past, it was a danger to be guarded against. Essays On Some Questions. The director declared his determination to find better ways to prevent policy driven analysis. Another task force focused on covert action. Among the novelties there, a delegation of senior clandestine services officers met with scholars at the Institute of Policy Studies, a leftist think tank, to solicit their views on directions the agency might take. They did not flinch when told the DCI ought to abolish the Directorate for Operations. Of course no such advice made its way into the final report, but DDO Thomas Twetten was placed on notice that the old days were gone. Twetten, one of the anointed, who thought nothing of rejecting a Freedom of Information Act request for Mongoose documents whose substance was already in the Church Committee report, was forced to retrench.
The directorate consolidated operations in several African countries closing a number of stations-a move that soon came back to haunt the nursing thinking skills agency. A national center to target human intelligence assets flowed from Gates's concern for more spies. But DO officers in essays unsettled, the field met with silence when they proposed new operations or recruitments. Iran Contra showed that Langley would not back its officers in trouble, and now morale became difficult to sustain. One Latin American division field man told his mates, Pay attention this is the end of an era. Features. Clandestine officer Melissa Mahle pictures the atmosphere well: We were not listening. Operations officers felt they had been made the scapegoat of a failed White House policy… We did not hear the call to do …business in a new way, in a way that would be more attuned to the attitudes of the post-Cold War 1990s. In a climate in which the agency's goal seemed to have been achieved, Robert Gates could not stem the retirements and resignations that began about then. On Some Questions. The clandestine service denigrated him as a mere analyst who did not understand operations.
As far as covert action is concerned, Mahle makes the apt point that part of the CIA's problem was rooted in Reagan-era practice, in thesis hardcover, which covert operations were conducted openly and made the subject of political debate and partisan accusation, all to avoid explanations when projects did not go as advertised. She writes: The CIA entered into a new phase of 'overt covert action,' a marvelous oxymoron that should join the ranks of 'jumbo shrimp' and 'military intelligence. The consequences of essays, acting overtly included constant demands for thesis specifics-from Congress, the press, the public, foreign governments-that meant secrecy headaches. Operational details could be exposed. Essays Unsettled Questions. Political tumult could terminate actions in midstream, magnifying the t.r. on the of population fear of essays unsettled questions, abandonment of adaptive, CIA's proxies. And overt action amplified tensions between CIA and the Pentagon too, as the special warfare community pressed for greater control. Worse, the CIA's role became that of bag man, hiring the proxies, whether foreign security services or local factions, as spearpoints for U.S. action. Paramilitary capabilities atrophied with cutbacks in the Special Activities Division.
Operations also became less controllable as CIA steadily reduced its direct role. The growing importance of unsettled questions, proxies had implications for the use of covert action to implant democracy. To the old dilemma of skills, shady means in service of lofty goals was added the spoiler of agents who acted in essays unsettled, America's name with their own agendas, or those who took the CIA cash and wouldn't stay bought. These problems were, and are, intractable. As director, Robert Gates's vision involved gradual, planned change. Gutenberg. He put teeth into the idea of essays unsettled, support for military operations. One of the task forces worked on that alone. He tried to johannes turn the agency toward the challenges of unsettled questions, proliferation and transnational threats. T.r. Malthus Summary. Director Gates wanted more and better training for analysts, use of open source information, and techniques like competitive analysis. He ordered the revamping of questions, CIA file systems. Essay Person. He opposed restructuring, including talk of a national agency for mapping and essays unsettled, photographic interpretation, but agreed with the Pentagon on reforms at the National Reconnaissance Office.
When Gates came to Langley, 6o percent of the CIA budget aimed at Russia; when he left that figure had dropped to personal essay 13 percent. But Gates never completed his mission. Essays On Some Unsettled Questions. George H. Hardcover. W. On Some Unsettled. Bush lost the 1992 election to William J. Clinton. A few days later, on November 7, Gates announced his retirement. Developing Nursing Critical Thinking. He stayed only long enough for essays unsettled questions Clinton to choose his own director. Note: The following documents are in developing nursing, PDF format. You will need to download and essays unsettled questions, install the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view.
Chapter 16, Robert M. Gates - Excerpt from the thesis hardcover Final Report of the Independent Counsel for essays questions Iran/Contra Matters, Volume I: Investigations and Prosecutions, August 4, 1993. Robert M. Gates, Letter in Response to Findings of Independent Counsel Lawrence E. Malthus An Essay On The Summary. Walsh, September 22, 1993 - Excerpt from Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters, Volume III: Comments and essays on some unsettled, Materials Submitted by thesis, Individuals and Their Attorneys Responding to Volume I of the Final Report , December 3, 1993. Nomination of essays questions, Robert M. Gates, Hearings Before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Volume I, September 16, 17, 19, 20, 1991 - Part 1 of 2 (16MB) - Part 2 of 2 (16MB) Nomination of Robert M. Gates, Hearings Before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Volume II, September 24, October 1, 2, 1991 - Part 1 of 2 (10MB) - Part 2 of 2 (17MB) Nomination of Robert M. Gates, Hearings Before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Volume III, October 3, 4, 18, 1991 (15MB)
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John Stuart Mill - Essays on Some Unsettled Questions in Political
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Cold War and Global Hegemony, 1945-1991. University of Virginia. We are accustomed to viewing the cold war as a determined and heroic response of the U.S. to communist aggression spearheaded and orchestrated by the Soviet Union. This image was carefully constructed by presidents and their advisers in essays on some questions, their memoirs (1). This view also was incorporated in some of the first scholarly works on the cold war, but was then rebutted by a wide variety of thesis hardcover, revisionist historians who blamed officials in Washington as well as those in Moscow for the origins of the Soviet-American conflict (2). Nonetheless, in the aftermath of the cold war the traditional interpretation reemerged.
John Gaddis, arguably the most eminent historian of the cold war, wrote in the mid-1990s that the cold war was a struggle of good versus evil, of wise and democratic leaders in the West reacting to the crimes and inhumanity of Joseph Stalin, the unsettled questions brutal dictator in the Kremlin (3). This interpretation places the malthus an essay on the principle summary cold war in essays unsettled questions, a traditional framework. It is one way to essay, understand American foreign policy between the end of unsettled questions, World War II and the breakup of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) in 1991. But for quite some time now, historians, political scientists, and economists have been studying the cold war in a much larger global context. They do so because the new documents from the Soviet Union and essay, its former empire as well as older documents from the U.S. and its allies suggest that Stalin conducted a more complex and inconsistent foreign policy than previously imagined and that U.S. officials initially did not regard Stalin, notwithstanding his crimes and brutality, as an unacceptable partner with whom to essays questions, collaborate in stabilizing and remaking the postwar world. Most scholars looking at Soviet documents now agree that Stalin had no master plan to spread revolution or conquer the world. He was determined to establish a sphere of influence in eastern Europe where his communist minions would rule. But at malthus an essay principle of population, the same time, Stalin wanted to get along with his wartime allies in order to control the rebirth of essays unsettled questions, German and Japanese power, which he assumed was inevitable. Consequently, he frequently cautioned communist followers in France, Italy, Greece, and essay person, elsewhere to avoid provocative actions that might frighten or antagonize his wartime allies. Within his own country and his own sphere, he was cruel, evil, almost genocidal, just as Gaddis and on some, other traditional scholars suggest (4). T.r. Of Population! Yet U.S. and British officials were initially eager to work with him.
They rarely dwelled upon his domestic barbarism. Typically, President Harry S Truman wrote his wife, Bess, after his first meeting with Stalin: I like Stalin. He is essays, straightforward. Knows what he wants and will compromise when he can't get it. Adaptive Features! Typically, W. Averell Harriman, the U.S. ambassador to on some unsettled, Moscow, remonstrated that If it were possible to see him /Stalin/ more frequently, many of our difficulties would be overcome(5). Yet the difficulties were not overcome. American fears grew. To understand them, scholars nowadays examine the global context of postwar American and Soviet diplomacy.
They see the contest between American freedom and Soviet totalitarianism as part of an evolving fabric of malthus an essay on the principle of population, international economic and political conditions in the twentieth century. After World War II, they say, U.S. leaders assumed the role of hegemon, or leader, of the international economy and container of Soviet power. To explain why, scholars examine the operation of the world economy and the distribution of questions, power in the international system. Malthus An Essay On The Principle Of Population Summary! They look at transnational ideological conflict, the disruption of colonial empires, and the rise of revolutionary nationalism in Asia and Africa. They explain the spread of the cold war from on some unsettled Europe to Asia, Africa, the juliet essay thesis Middle East and Latin America by on some focusing on romeo essay decolonization, the rise of newly independent states, and on some, the yearnings of peoples everywhere to modernize their countries and enjoy higher standards of living. Critical Skills! Yet the capacity of the U.S. to assume the roles of hegemon, balancer, and container depended on more than its wealth and strength; the success of the U.S. also depended on the appeal of its ideology, the vitality of its institutions, and the attractiveness of its culture of mass consumption—what many scholars nowadays call soft power (6).
At the end of World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as the two strongest nations in the world and as exemplars of competing models of political economy. But it was a peculiar bipolarity. Unsettled Questions! The U.S. was incontestably the most powerful nation on the earth. It alone possessed the atomic bomb. It alone possessed a navy that could project power across the oceans and johannes gutenberg, an air force that could reach across the continents. The U.S. was also the on some unsettled richest nation in the world. Personal Person! It possessed two-thirds of the world's gold reserves and three-fourths of its invested capital. Its gross national product was three times that of the Soviet Union and five times that of the United Kingdom. Its wealth had grown enormously during the war while the Soviet Union had been devastated by the occupation by Nazi Germany.
Around 27 million inhabitants of the U.S.S.R. died during World War II compared to about 400,000 Americans. The Germans ravished the agricultural economy of Soviet Russia and devastated its mining and transportation infrastructure (7). Compared to essays questions, the U.S. in johannes, 1945, the Soviet Union was weak. Yet it loomed very large not only in the imagination of essays, U.S. officials, but also in the minds of political leaders throughout the world. It did not loom large because of fears of Soviet military aggression. Contemporary policymakers knew that Stalin did not want war. They did not expect Soviet troops to march across Europe.
Yet they feared that Stalin would capitalize on the manifold opportunities of the on the of population postwar world: the vacuums of power stemming from the defeat of Germany and Japan; the breakup of unsettled questions, colonial empires; popular yearnings for postwar social and economic reform; and widespread disillusionment with the functioning of democratic capitalist economies (8). During World War II, the American economy had demonstrated enormous vitality, but many contemporaries wondered whether the world capitalist system could be made to function effectively in peacetime. Its performance during their lifetimes had bred worldwide economic depression, social malaise, political instability, and personal disillusionment. Throughout Europe and Asia, people blamed capitalism for malthus the repetitive cycles of boom and bust and for military conflagrations that brought ruin and despair. Describing conditions at the end of the war, the historian Igor Lukes has written: Many in Czechoslovakia had come to essays on some unsettled, believe that capitalism. had become obsolete. Influential intellectuals saw the hardcover world emerging from the questions ashes of the war in black and white terms: here was Auschwitz and developing skills, there was Stalingrad. The former was a byproduct of a crisis in capitalist Europe of the 1930s; the latter stood for unsettled the superiority of socialism (9). Transnational ideological conflict shaped the cold war.
Peoples everywhere yearned for a more secure and better life; they pondered alternative ways of organizing their political and economic affairs. Everywhere, communist parties sought to present themselves as leaders of the critical thinking resistance against fascism, proponents of socioeconomic reform, and advocates of national self-interest. Their political clout grew quickly as their membership soared, for example, in Greece, from 17,000 in 1935 to 70,000 in essays, 1945; in Czechoslovakia, from 28,000 in May 1945 to t.r. an essay on the, 750,000 in September 1945; in Italy, from 5,000 in 1943 to 1,700,000 at the end of essays on some unsettled, 1945 (10). T.r. An Essay! For Stalin and his comrades in Moscow, these grassroots developments provided unsurpassed opportunities; for Truman and his advisers in essays on some unsettled questions, Washington, they inspired fear and hardcover, gloom. There is complete economic, social and political collapse going on in Central Europe, the extent of which is unparalleled in questions, history, wrote Assistant Secretary of War John McCloy in April 1945 (11). The Soviet Union, of essay thesis, course, was not responsible for these conditions. Danger nonetheless inhered in the capacity of the Kremlin to capitalize on them. The greatest danger to the security of the United States, the CIA concluded in one of its first reports, is the possibility of economic collapse in questions, Western Europe and the consequent accession to personal essay person, power of Communist elements (12).
Transnational ideological conflict impelled U.S. Essays On Some! officials to person, take action. They knew they had to restore hope that private markets could function effectively to serve the essays needs of humankind. People had suffered terribly, Assistant Secretary of features, State Dean G. Essays Unsettled Questions! Acheson told a congressional committee in 1945. They demanded land reform, nationalization, and social welfare. They believed that governments should take action to alleviate their misery. They felt it so deeply, said Acheson, that they will demand that the whole business of state control and state interference shall be pushed further and further (13). Policymakers like Acheson and McCloy, the officials who became known as the johannes Wise Men of the cold war, understood the causes for questions the malfunctioning of the capitalist world economy in the interwar years. Thesis! They were intent on essays questions correcting the fundamental weaknesses and vulnerabilities.
Long before they envisioned a cold war with the Soviet Union, they labored diligently during 1943 and johannes essay, 1944 to design the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. They urged Congress to reduce U.S. tariffs. They wanted the American people to buy more foreign goods. Essays On Some! They knew that foreign nations without sufficient dollars to purchase raw materials and fuel would not be able to recover easily. Personal Person! They realized that governments short of gold and short of dollars would seek to hoard their resources, establish quotas, and regulate the free flow of essays on some questions, capital. And they knew that these actions in the years between World War I and World War II had brought about the Great Depression and created the essay conditions for Nazism, fascism, and totalitarianism to unsettled questions, flourish (14). Now, as in gutenberg essay, the year 1920, President Truman declared in essays on some questions, early March 1947, we have reached a turning point in history. National economies have been disrupted by the war. Adaptive Features! The future is uncertain everywhere. Economic policies are in on some, a state of flux. Governments abroad, the president explained, wanted to developing nursing, regulate trade, save dollars, and promote reconstruction.
This was understandable; it was also perilous. Essays Unsettled Questions! Freedom flourished where power was dispersed. But regimentation, Truman warned, was on the march, everywhere. If not stopped abroad, it would force the U.S. to curtail freedom at home. In this atmosphere of doubt and hesitation, Truman declared, the decisive factor will be the nursing type of leadership that the United States gives the world. If it did not act decisively, the world capitalist system would flounder, providing yet greater opportunities for essays on some unsettled Communism to grow and for Soviet strength to accrue. If the U.S. did not exert leadership, freedom would be compromised abroad and in third person, a garrison state might develop at home (15). Open markets and free peoples were inextricably interrelated. To win the transnational ideological conflict, U.S. officials had to make the essays unsettled world capitalist system function effectively.
By 1947, they realized the IMF and the World Bank were too new, too inexperienced, and essay person, too poorly funded to accomplish the intended results. The U.S. had to assume the responsibility to provide dollars so that other nations had the means to purchase food and fuel and, eventually, to reduce quotas and curtail exchange restrictions. In June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall outlined a new approach, saying the U.S. would provide the funds necessary to promote the reconstruction of unsettled questions, Europe. The intent of the Marshall Plan was to provide dollars to likeminded governments in Western Europe so they could continue to grow their economies, employ workers, insure political stability, undercut the appeal of communist parties, and avoid being sucked into an economic orbit dominated by t.r. principle the Soviet Union. On Some Questions! U.S. officials wanted European governments to cooperate and pool their resources for the benefit of their collective well-being and for the establishment of romeo essay, a large, integrated market where goods and capital could move freely. In order to do this, the U.S. On Some! would incur the hardcover responsibility to on some, make the capitalist system operate effectively, at least in those parts of the adaptive globe not dominated by essays unsettled the Soviet Union. The U.S. would become the hegemon, or overseer, of the johannes gutenberg global economy: it would make loans, provide credits, reduce tariffs, and insure currency stability (16). The success of the Marshall Plan depended on the resuscitation of the coal mines and industries of questions, western Germany (17). Gutenberg! Most Europeans feared Germany's revival. Nonetheless, U.S. officials hoped that Stalin would not interfere with efforts to merge the three western zones of Germany, institute currency reform, and create the Federal Republic of Germany. Marshall Plan aid, in fact, initially was offered to Soviet Russia and essays, its allies in eastern Europe.
But Stalin would not tolerate the rebuilding of essay, Germany and essays on some unsettled questions, its prospective integration into a western bloc. Nor would he allow eastern European governments to be drawn into an evolving economic federation based on the free flow of information, capital, and trade. Soviet security would be endangered. Stalin's sphere of juliet essay, influence in eastern Europe would be eroded and his capacity to control the future of on some questions, German power would be impaired. In late 1947, Stalin cracked down on eastern Europe, encouraged the essay communist coup in Czechoslovakia, and instigated a new round of purges (18). Germany's economic revival scared the French as much as it alarmed the Russians.
The French feared that Germany would regain power to act autonomously. The French also were afraid that initiatives to revive Germany might provoke a Soviet attack and culminate in another occupation of France. Essays On Some Unsettled Questions! French officials remonstrated against American plans and demanded military aid and security guarantees (19). The French and other wary Europeans had the capacity to shape their future. They exacted strategic commitments from the U.S. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in 1949 as a result of their fears about Germany as well as their anxieties about Soviet Russia. U.S. Adaptive! strategic commitments and U.S. troops were part of essays, a double containment strategy, containing the uncertain trajectory of the Federal Republic of Germany as well as the anticipated hostility of the Soviet Union. Personal Essay In Third! Hegemonic responsibilities meant power balancing, strategic commitments, and military alliances (20).
Just as western Germany needed to be integrated into a western sphere lest it be sucked into a Soviet orbit, so did Japan. U.S. officials worried that their occupation of Japan might fail and that the essays on some Japanese might seek to enhance their own interests by looking to the Soviets or the communist Chinese as future economic partners. In 1948, U.S. Romeo! policymakers turned their attention from reforming Japanese social and political institutions to promoting economic reconstruction. Japan's past economic growth, they knew, depended on links to Manchuria, China, and Korea, areas increasingly slipping into communist hands. Japan needed alternative sources of unsettled, raw materials and outlets for her manufactured goods. Developing Critical Thinking Skills! Studying the functioning of the essays unsettled questions global capitalist economy, America's cold warriors concluded that the industrial core of northeast Asia, Japan, needed to be integrated with its underdeveloped periphery in southeast Asia, much like Western Europe needed to have access to petroleum in johannes gutenberg essay, the Middle East (21). It was the obligation of the hegemon of the world capitalist economy to make sure component units of the system could benefit from the operation of the whole.
But, as hegemon, the U.S. also had to be sensitive to the worries and on some unsettled questions, responsive to the needs of other countries. In Asia, as in Europe, many peoples feared the revival of the power of former Axis nations. Truman promised them that U.S. Thinking! troops would remain in essays unsettled, Japan, even as Japan regained its autonomy, and that the U.S. Hardcover! would insure peace in the Pacific, even if it meant a new round of security guarantees, as it did with the Philippines and with Australia and essays on some questions, New Zealand (22). Yet, much as American officials hoped to integrate Japan with Southeast Asia, revolutionary nationalist movements in the region made that prospect uncertain. During World War II, popular independence movements arose in gutenberg, French Indochina and the Netherlands East Indies. Nationalist leaders like Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam and Sukarno in Indonesia wanted to gain control over their countries' future (23). Essays On Some Unsettled! Decolonization was an embedded feature of the postwar international system, propelled by the defeat of Japan and the weakening of traditional European powers. Decolonization fueled the cold war as it provided opportunities for the expansion of communist influence.
Third World nationalists wanted to develop, industrialize, and modernize their countries. They often found Marxist-Leninist ideology attractive as it blamed their countries' backwardness on romeo juliet thesis capitalist exploitation. At the same time, the Soviet command economy seemed to essays on some unsettled questions, provide a model for rapid modernization. Stalin's successors, therefore, saw endless opportunities for expanding their influence in the Third World; leaders in developing nursing skills, Washington perceived dangers (24). As hegemon of the essays on some unsettled questions free world economy, U.S. officials felt a responsibility to contain revolutionary nationalism and to integrate core and periphery. The Truman administration prodded the Dutch and the French to make concessions to revolutionary nationalists, but often could not shape the outcomes of colonial struggles.
When the French, for example, refused to malthus on the principle of population summary, acknowledge Ho Chi Minh's republic of Vietnam and established a puppet government under Bao Dai in essays questions, 1949, the skills U.S. chose to support the French. Otherwise, Truman and his advisers feared they would alienate their allies in France and permit a key area to gravitate into a communist orbit where it would be amenable to Chinese or Soviet influence. Falling dominos in Southeast Asia would sever the future economic links between this region and Japan, making rehabilitation in the industrial core of northeast Asia all the more difficult (25). In the late 1950s and 1960s Japan's extraordinary economic recovery, sparked by the Korean War and fueled by subsequent exports to North America, defied American assumptions. Yet, by then, American officials had locked the essays unsettled U.S. into a position opposing nationalist movements led by communists, like Ho Chi Minh. U.S. Romeo Juliet Essay Thesis! officials feared that if they allowed a communist triumph in Indochina, America's credibility with other allies and clients would be shattered. Hegemons needed to essays on some questions, retain their credibility. Otherwise, key allies, like Western Germany and Japan, might doubt America's will and reorient themselves in person, the cold war (26). Hegemony and credibility required superior military capabilities. Leaders in Washington and Moscow alike believed that perceptions of their relative power position supported risk-taking on behalf of allies and clients in Asia and Africa.
In the most important U.S. Essays! strategy document of the cold war, NSC 68, Paul Nitze wrote that military power was an indispensable backdrop to containment, which he called a policy of calculated and gradual coercion. To pursue containment in the Third World and erode support for the adversary, the U.S. needed to have superior military force (27). Prior to 1949, the U.S. had a monopoly of atomic weapons. But after the Soviets tested and developed nuclear weapons of adaptive, their own, U.S. On Some Unsettled! officials believed they needed to juliet essay, augment their arsenal of on some questions, strategic weapons. Their aim was not only to deter Soviet aggression in hardcover, the center of Europe, but also to support the ability of the U.S. to intervene in essays on some questions, Third World countries without fear of Soviet countermoves. Nuclear weapons, therefore, produced paradoxical results.
Their enormous power kept the personal essay cold war from essays unsettled questions turning into a hot war between the johannes gutenberg U.S. and the Soviet Union. Essays On Some Questions! Leaders on both sides recognized that such a war would be suicidal. But at the same time nuclear weapons encouraged officials in both Washington and Moscow to engage in risk-taking on the periphery, that is, in in third person, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the Caribbean because each side thought (and hoped) that the adversary would not dare to escalate the essays competition into a nuclear exchange (28). When Ronald Reagan revived the determination of the U.S. to regain military superiority in thesis, the 1980s, he sought to use those military capabilities, not for essays on some questions a preemptive attack against the Soviet Union, but as a backdrop to support U.S. interventions on behalf of anti-communist insurgents from Nicaragua and El Salvador to Afghanistan and Angola. In other words, Reagan viewed superior strategic capabilities as a key to critical thinking skills, containing communism, preserving credibility, and essays, supporting hegemony (29).
For U.S. Malthus! officials, waging the cold war required the U.S. to essays on some questions, win the transnational ideological struggle and to contain Soviet power. To achieve these goals, the U.S. had to be an effective hegemon. This meant that the adaptive features of animals U.S. On Some! had to nurture and lubricate the world economy, build and coopt western Germany and Japan, establish military alliances and preserve allied cohesion, contain revolutionary nationalism, and bind the person industrial core of Europe and Asia with the on some unsettled questions underdeveloped periphery in the Third World. To be effective, Cold Warriors believed that superior military capabilities were an gutenberg, incalculable asset. They focused much less attention and allocated infinitely fewer resources to disseminating their values and essays on some questions, promoting their culture. Yet scholars of the cold war increasingly believe that America's success as a hegemon, its capacity to evoke support for its leadership, also depended on juliet essay thesis the habits and institutions of constitutional governance, the resonance of its liberal and humane values, and the appeal of its free market and mass consumption economy (30). For example, see Harry S Truman, Memoirs, Vol I: 1945, Year of Decisions, reprint (New York: Signet, 1965, 1955); Truman, Memoirs, Vol. II: Years of Trial and Hope, 1946-1952, reprint (New York: Signet, 1965, 1956); Dwight D. Eisenhower, Mandate for essays unsettled Change: The White House Years, 1953-1956 (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1963); Dean G. Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years at the State Department (New York: Norton, 1969); George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 2 vol. paperback ed. (New York: Bantam, 1967-1972). See, for example, Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of essay, Power: The World and essays on some, United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (New York: Harper Row, 1972); for thesis hardcover a discussion of the different historiographical approaches, see my essay, The Cold War Over the Cold War, in Gordon Martel, ed., American Foreign Policy Reconsidered, 1890-1993 (London: Routledge, 1994). John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). For some of the best new scholarship on Stalin, see Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, reprint (New York: Knopf, 2004, 2003); Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949 (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1995); Vojtech Mastny, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); Eduard Maximilian Mark, Revolution by Degrees: Stalin's National Front Strategy for Europe, 1941-1947, Cold War International History Project Working Paper No.
31 (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2001); Geoffrey Roberts, Stalin and the Grand Alliance: Public Discourse, Private Dialogues, and the Direction of Soviet Foreign Policy, 1941-1947, Slovo 13 (2001): 1-15. Robert H. Ferrell, ed., Dear Bess: The Letters from essays Harry to johannes, Bess Truman, 1910-1959 (New York: Norton, 1983), 522; Harriman to Truman, June 8, 1945, Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: The Conference of Berlin: The Potsdam Conference, 1945 (2 vols., Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960), 1: 61. For soft power, see Joseph S. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2004); Nye, The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the on some Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987), 347-72; R. J. Overy, Russia's War (London: Penguin Books, 1997); Allan M. Winkler, Home Front U.S.A.: America During World War II, 2nd ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2000). Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992), 1-141. Igor Lukes, The Czech Road to thesis, Communism, in Norman M. Naimark and L. IA. Essays! Gibianskii, eds., The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997), 29; William I. Romeo! Hitchcock, The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent, 1945 to the Present (New York: Anchor Books, 2004), 1-125. Adam Westoby, Communism Since World War II (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981), 14-5. Memo for the President, by John McCloy, April 26, 1945, box 178, President's Secretary's File, Harry S Truman Presidential Library.
Central Intelligence Agency, Review of the World Situation As It Relates to on some unsettled, the Security of the United States, September 26, 1947, box 203, ibid. Testimony by Dean G. Acheson, March 8, 1945, U.S. Senate, Committee on Banking and Currency, Bretton Woods Agreement Act, 79th Cong., 1 sess. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945), 1: 35. U.S. Adaptive Features Of Animals! Department of Commerce, The United States in the World Economy (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1943); Harley A. Notter, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950), 128; Georg Schild, Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oaks: American Economic and Political Postwar Planning in the Summer of 1944 (New York: St. Martin's, 1995). Harry S Truman, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, 1947 (Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1963), 167-72; see also his Truman Doctrine speech which followed a few days later, 176-80, and his special message to the Congress on the Marshall Plan, 515-29.
Michael J. Hogan, The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947-1952 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987); David W. Ellwood, Rebuilding Europe: Western Europe, America and Postwar Reconstruction (New York: Longmans, 1992); Thomas W. Zeiler, Free Trade, Free World; The Advent of GATT (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999). John Gimbel, The Origins of the Marshall Plan (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976); Carolyn Woods Eisenberg, Drawing the Line: The American Decision to on some questions, Divide Germany, 1944-1949 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). Essay In Third! Geoffrey Roberts, Moscow and the Marshall Plan: Politics, Ideology and the Onset of the essays on some unsettled Cold War, 1947, Europe-Asia Studies 46 (December 1994): 1371-86; V. M. Zubok and Konstantin Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 46-53. William I. Hitchcock, France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and features of animals, the Quest for Leadership in Europe, 1944-1954 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998). Timothy P. Ireland, Creating the Entangling Alliance: The Origins of the essays questions North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981). Person! Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan: The Origins of the Cold War in Asia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985); Howard B. Schonberger, Aftermath of War: Americans and the Remaking of essays on some unsettled, Japan, 1945-1952 (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1989); John W. Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999), 271-3, 525-46.
Leffler, Preponderance of Power, 346-7, 393-4, 428-32, 464-5; Roger Dingman, The Diplomacy of Dependency: The Philippines and Peacemaking with Japan, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27 (September 1986): 307-21; Henry W. Brands, From ANZUS to SEATO: United States Strategic Policy toward Australia and New Zealand, 1952-1954 International History Review 9 (May 1987): 250-70. For the emerging nationalist struggles in Indochina and Indonesia, see William J. Duiker, Sacred War: Nationalism and essay, Revolution in a Divided Vietnam (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995); George McTurnan Kahin, Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1952). Odd Arne Westad, The New International History of the on some Cold War: Three (Possible) Paradigms, Diplomatic History 24 (Fall 2000): 551-65; David C. Engerman, Nils Gilman, Mark H. Haefele, and Michael E. Latham, eds., Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and the Global Cold War (Amherst: University of t.r. malthus an essay principle of population summary, Massachusetts Press, 2003). Mark Atwood Lawrence, Transnational Coalition-Building and on some questions, the Making of the adaptive Cold War in Indochina, 1947-1949, Diplomatic History 26 (Summer 2002): 453-80; Andrew Jon Rotter, The Path to Vietnam: Origins of the American Commitment to Southeast Asia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987). For the importance of credibility, see the pathbreaking article by essays on some unsettled Robert J. McMahon, Credibility and adaptive features, World Power, Diplomatic History 15 (Fall 1991): 455-71. Essays On Some Unsettled Questions! NSC 68, United States Objectives and Programs for National Security, April 14, 1950, in Thomas H. Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis, eds., Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy, 1945-1950 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), 401-2; NSC 114/2, Programs for National Security, October 12, 1951, Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1951: National Security Affairs; Foreign Economic Policy (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979), 1: 187-89.
For Soviet policy, see A. A. Fursenko and Timothy J. Naftali, One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro, and Kennedy, 1958-1964 (New York: Norton, 1997); Aleksandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali, Khrushchev's Cold War (New York: Norton, 2005). Peter Schweizer, Reagan's War: The Epic Story of his Forty Year Struggle and Final Triumph Over Communism (New York: Doubleday, 2002). G. Johannes Gutenberg! John Ikenberry, After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 163-214; Robert O. Unsettled! Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), especially 135-81; Michael Mandelbaum, The Ideas that Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy and Free Markets in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2002); Geir Lundestad, Empire by Integration: The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); Gaddis, We Now Know. Most governments publish primary source documents regarding the history of adaptive features of animals, their foreign policy. These documents are published many decades after the unsettled fact, but we now have many documents for the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. For the evolution of the romeo juliet role of the U.S. in unsettled, the cold war, see U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office); for Britain and the cold war, see Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Documents on British Policy Overseas. Since the johannes end of the on some unsettled questions cold war, the Cold War International History Project has been publishing (and distributing free of charge) primary source documents from the Soviet Union and other formerly communist nations, including the People's Republic of China.
They are indispensable for understanding the global context of the hardcover cold war. See the Cold War International History Project, Bulletin (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center, 1992-2004). The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has published several volumes of documents. See, for example, Woodrow J. Essays On Some Unsettled Questions! Kuhns, ed., Assessing the Soviet Threat: The Early Cold War Years (Springfield, VA: Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1997); Scott A. Koch, ed., Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union, 1950-1959 (Washington, D.C.: History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1993); Ben B. Fischer, At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991 (Reston, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1999). There are several key Web sites for locating primary source materials on the cold war. Thesis! The most important are the Cold War International History Project, the National Security Archive, the Parallel History Project for information on NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and on some questions, the Primary Source Microfilm. Critical! The Federation of American Scientists also has a Web site with valuable documents on unsettled questions many issues, like the nuclear arms race. Many U.S. government agencies also have Web sites containing documents on current and past foreign policy. The presidential libraries have sites containing selected documents, speeches, oral histories, and developing nursing thinking skills, other information.
For short books locating the cold war in a global context, see Robert J. McMahon, The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); David S. Painter, The Cold War: An International History (New York: Routledge, 2002); Geoffrey Roberts, The Soviet Union in World Politics: Coexistence, Revolution and Cold War, 1945-1991; (New York: Routledge, 1999); Geir Lundestad, East, West, North, South: Major Developments in International Relations since 1945, 4th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). Many scholars are now using primary documents from the former Soviet Union and other communist countries to essays on some, study the cold war. In addition to the books and articles listed in note 3, see David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: the Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994); William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (New York: Norton, 2003); Hope M. Harrison, Driving the personal essay in third person Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953-1961 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003). Some of the most fascinating books deal with Chinese foreign policy and the relations between Mao Tse-tung and Stalin. See, for example, S. N. Goncharov, John Wilson Lewis, and Litai Xue, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993); Jian Chen, Mao's China and the Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001). For key books on the effort to reconstruct the world economy after World War II, see Richard N. Unsettled Questions! Gardner, Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy in Current Perspective: The Origins and the Prospects of Our International Economic Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980); Herman Van der Wee, Prosperity and romeo juliet, Upheaval: The World Economy, 1945-1980 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986); Alfred E. Eckes and unsettled questions, Thomas W. Juliet Essay Thesis! Zeiler, Globalization and the American Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003). For transnational ideological conflict and the cold war, see Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (New York: Harper Row, 1972); Walt W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, 3rd. ed. On Some Unsettled! (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Francois Furet, The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in essay person, the Twentieth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Odd Arne Westad, Cold War and Revolution: Soviet-American Rivalry and the Origins of the Chinese Civil War, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993); Michael E. Latham, Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and Nation-Building in the Kennedy Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000); David C. Essays On Some Unsettled! Engerman, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of personal essay in third person, Russian Development (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003); John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
There are some wonderful studies on decolonization, revolutionary nationalism, and the cold war. See, for essays unsettled questions example, Robert J. McMahon, Colonialism and Cold War: The United States and the Struggle for thesis hardcover Indonesian Independence, 1945-49 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981); Frances Gouda and on some questions, Thijs Brocades Zaalberg, American Visions of the Netherlands East Indies/Indonesia: US Foreign Policy and Indonesian Nationalism, 1920-1949 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2002); Matthew James Connelly, A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria's Fight for Independence and the Origins of the thesis Post-Cold War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002); Piero Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002). The Vietnam War is often examined in this context; see, for example, William J. Duiker, U.S. Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994); George C. Herring, America's Longest War: The United States and essays on some, Vietnam, 1950-1975, 4th ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002). For power and the cold war, see Mark Trachtenberg, A Constructed Peace: The Making of the European Settlement, 1945-1963 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999); William Curti Wohlforth, The Elusive Balance: Power and essay, Perceptions During the on some unsettled questions Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993); Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992).
Raymond L. Garthoff has written two lengthy and illuminating books that link power and ideology. See Garthoff, Detente and developing, Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations From Nixon to essays questions, Reagan (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1985) and The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1994). For discussions of the end of the features cold war that focus on ideas and unsettled questions, transnational movements, see Matthew Evangelista, Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to End the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999); Robert D. English, Russia and the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals, and the End of the Cold War (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); Lawrence S. Wittner, Toward Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003). For discussions of hegemony and soft power, see the citations in notes 5 and 29. Melvyn P. Leffler is the gutenberg essay Edward Stettinius Professor of American History at The University of Virginia. On Some Unsettled! Currently, he is a Jennings Randolph Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace and holds the Henry Kissinger Chair at the Library of Congress.
His book, A Preponderance of adaptive features, Power: National Security, the essays unsettled Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford University Press, 1993), won the Bancroft, Ferrell, and t.r. malthus an essay on the of population, Hoover prizes. He is now writing a book about why the Cold War lasted as long as it did and why it ended when it did.
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