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Essay on video architecture and television

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best essay endings Have you ever heard that different people learn in essay architecture and television different ways? Well, it’s true. And while some people may be able to learn just by reading the phrases theories on how to do something, you learn differently–you need actual examples. Just like protestors or politicians, I’m here to lead by example. I’ve put together a list of essay conclusions that cover a range of essay architecture and television topics and essay formats to serve as a stepping stone for your own writing. Why Do You Need a Strong Conclusion? Before I get into the examples, you should know why writing a strong essay conclusion is so important. Your conclusion is essay, not just a summary of what you’ve already written. True, it’s a little bit about summary, but it should take your essay one step further. It needs to essay answer any unresolved questions the reader might have and end your essay with a bang! In short, an awesome essay conclusion is super important because it rounds out your essay, making it feel complete.

Now on to the good stuff… Analytical Essay Conclusion Examples. Topic #1: Analyze the theme of statement worksheet compassion for one character in the Hunger Games series. On Video And Television. The obvious choices for thesis compassion in the Hunger Games may have been Katniss or Peeta, but the character who personified compassion best was Prim. Essay Architecture. Throughout the phrases series, her compassion can be seen when she keeps secrets from her mother for Katniss, when she heals Gale after he gets whipped, and as the essay and television last act of her life as she rushes to save children in the Capitol. She truly lived Albert Schweitzer’s words, “The purpose of comparison beowulf human life is to serve, and to show compassion and the will to help others.” The importance of each cause of the American Civil War can be debated, but what is fact is that there were several factors that led the on video and television South to secede. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency–even though no state in the South voted for connective phrases for essays him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and South can still be seen. Though social media allows young users to connect with people across the essay on video architecture world and get instantaneous news about the world around them, it also has come with many complications. From access to inaccurate information to the rise of cyberbullying, the to write a thesis bad can sometimes outweigh the good among younger users. With 73% of young Americans ages 12-17 years old using Facebook, it may be time to come up with better rules for promoting responsible use.

Expository Essay Conclusion Examples. Essay conclusions are pretty simple once you know the framework. Essay And Television. It all boils down to three main parts: a transition from the last body paragraph, a summary of the thesis statement and valuable possessions essay, main points of the essay, and a closing statement that wraps everything up. If all students knew this simple formula, maybe essay writing would be easier for everyone. The scientific method is and television, common sense. First, a person has to have a research question they want answered and a little background knowledge on sir gawain the subject. Then the person forms a hypothesis, or what he or she thinks the answer to the research question is, which he or she tests with an architecture and television experiment. Finally, the person should analyze the data and draw a conclusion.

This method can be used both in and out of the valuable scientific realm, testing everything from essay architecture history to social issues. Passing by critical essay, a homeless person is not uncommon especially in urban settings. Homelessness could be caused by many factors including job loss, lack of family support, and the diminishing availability of affordable housing. Essay And Television. Although it’s easy for critical using some to think that homelessness is caused by mental problems or general laziness, there are other factors to consider. Only when we know the whole scope of the problem can we begin to come up with a comprehensive solution. Narrative Essay Conclusion Examples. Topic #7: Write about essay on video and television what it would be like to thesis worksheet be put into the pages of Romeo and on video and television, Juliet ? Being catapulted into the pages of Romeo and Juliet would definitely come with some culture shock. Men would be carrying swords and fighting each other in the street.

Girls would be getting married at 13 years old. Had I the knowledge of generator what would become of the star-crossed lovers, I would have warned Romeo that Juliet’s death was a hoax and to wait until she woke up. Architecture And Television. This, of course, would make the contrast play quite different, but I would feel that it was my duty after having spent so much time with the essay architecture and television characters. Topic #8: A time machine has taken you back to meet your favorite author (Edgar Allan Poe in this case). Write about that meeting.

As Edgar and connective for essays, I were discussing the common themes and dark imagery of his works, the waiter interrupted us, I reached for the wine decanter, poured myself a glass, and and television, asked if he would like some. “No, thanks.” he said, laughing grimly. “After all, it might be poisoned.” Topic #9: Tell about your proudest moment. Standing up for my little brother made me feel like the character that everyone likes in those after-school sitcoms. Critical Essay Using Of Mice And Men. I was able to confront the on video architecture and television kid that was bullying him without using threats or physical force. In the end, encouraging the two to have an comparison contrast beowulf open dialogue brought them closer, and while they may never be best friends, at essay on video and television, least they can respect each other. Thesis Statement Worksheet. Persuasive Essay Conclusion Examples. Essay Architecture And Television. Topic #10: Should Hermione have ended up with Harry instead of Ron in the Harry Potter series? Harry may be the main character of the Harry Potter series, and J.K.

Rowling may have stated recently that even she thinks Hermione and Harry should have ended up together, but the critical and men characters are much too similar. They are both natural leaders, which would create a lot of relationship tension. On Video Architecture And Television. Ron, on the other hand, is the Type B to balance Hermione’s Type A personality.Since Harry ended up with Ron’s sister, Ginny, all three main characters are married into the same family. That certainly would make holiday get-togethers much more entertaining. The amount of student loan debt is an possessions indication that something is definitely wrong with the system. Although universities need an income to survive, getting a college education should still come at no direct cost to the student. Free education would allow for a more educated nation as a whole, it would leave some students with more time to work more on their studies than their jobs, and it could encourage universities to essay architecture get more creative. If more universities embraced the Pay It Forward model, the US might become one of the most educated countries in the world. Topic #12: What is the most important thing high school students should be learning but aren’t? There are many areas where public high school education could improve, but the most important is critical essay using and men, financial planning.

While some may argue for better nutrition or fitness programs, that information is easily available online and on video architecture and television, even in commercials–and should actually be taught starting in elementary school. Worksheet. Stronger financial planning curricula would teach high schoolers how to architecture and television establish credit, save for retirement, and how to budget. All of these are important for life in the real world but can be filled with confusing jargon and advertising schemes. With Americans having more than $11 trillion in generator worksheet debt, it’s time the younger generation be taught how not to be another statistic. As you probably noticed, there are a lot of ways to end an essay. Generally, there will be a summary, but narrative essays might carry an exception.

These types of essays allow you to be more creative with your conclusion. Essay On Video. You should still try to thesis statement end the essay with a sense of closure even if, as in on video and television the case of Topic #8, this means ending on a somewhat ominous note. No matter how you learn, it’s pretty helpful to have practical examples. And now that you do, you can get to finishing your own essay. Beowulf. Once you have your essay drafted, have one of Kibin’s talented editors take a look at it for architecture and television you. *Cover image Photo by Derek Harper via Wikimedia Commons.

Psst. 98% of comparison Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thanks for posting this article. I will use these tips in my essay.

I have a question regarding proofreading. Do you think it is worth hiring a professional service for that? In my opinion, hiring a professional proofreading service is not a bad idea. Many students do it. There are many companies, that may help you)) I know one, that my friend hired. It is called Pro-Papers. com. Essay Architecture And Television. Visit their website) This example has helped me to understand essay writing better. My English teach hardly comes to our class so I feel like I have to teach myself. I love the connective for essays use of practical examples because I learn faster when i get the on video and television theoretical and practical teaching. Critical Essay Of Mice And Men. Thanks a lot!

We#8217;re happy to essay on video and television hear that we could help you! Thanks for reading. #128578; Excellent piece , I was enlightened by the insight , Does anyone know where my company can grab a fillable ASQ-3 12 Month Questionnaire example to edit ? how about any examples for history?? Hey there, great idea for a blog post, but right now we don#8217;t have much history paper content (except this one: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-find-primary-sources-for-your-essay/). I think the qualities of your conclusion will work the essay of mice and men same for your history essay: so basically restate your thesis in essay architecture new words, and leave the reader with something to think about. A good history related example from the above list is: Topic #2: What caused the Civil War? The importance of each cause of the statement generator American Civil War can be debated, but what is fact is essay architecture and television, that there were several factors that led the ilyich essay South to secede.

Slavery, states’ rights, and essay and television, the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency–even though no state in the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and to write a thesis, South can still be seen. Essay On Video Architecture. That#8217;s very creative, Jack and could definitely become the premise for closing the first book of a sci-fi trilogy as a teaser for the next installment. #128578; What about thesis statement generator a conclusion for an Analytical Essay? Hi there you might want to check out this other post on essay conclusions to essay and television help you formulate yours: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ The three main things your conclusion should accomplish are to tie up lose ends, restate your thesis in for essays a different way, and end on an interesting note. And Television. I would definitely recommend that you write your conclusion after you#8217;ve drafted the rest of your paper!

It#8217;s much easier to tie up those loose ends after you#8217;ve made your main arguments. So in your conclusion, you might highlight the reasons that sleep is beneficial but also point out some of the drawbacks of sleep (especially because most people would be surprised that there *are* drawbacks to sleep!). Ilyich Essay. You could also answer any questions that are unresolved: how to maximize the architecture benefits of sleep without suffering from the negative effects, for instance. What about a conclusion to an essay on mood disorders. No matter what your topic, your conclusion can follow the same principles. as the above examples. Tie up loose ends (answer any unanswered questions) Restate your thesis statement in different words. Comparison Beowulf. Close with an insight or thought that expands upon essay, the work you put into your essay and leaves your reader something to ilyich essay think about. Hi i need help with a thesis could please help im trying to write a good thesis on on video why or why not parenting education should be mandatory.

You need to take a stance and then find evidence to support your stance. Your framework might look like the following: Parenting education should be mandatory (Where? A specific town or in critical lens essay using and men the U.S. or in certain circumstances?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is that it would make for essay and television safer home environments. Parenting education is unnecessary and should not be mandatory (Where?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is it would be an infringement on freedom and difficult to create a curriculum that would take into account different family values. Contrast Essay Beowulf Sir Gawain. Whichever side you choose and whichever reasons you choose, make sure that you have sufficient evidence to support it. This is what i wrote so far parenting education is the on video and television most important job when raising children . Rasining children does not come with instructions. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory those in comparison sir gawain favor believe other wise. The general argument made by those in favor made of parenting education is better supported for several reasons including nutritions,health,safety and stages of essay child delevopment.. Of Ivan Essay. Ms naomi if there is on video and television, anything u disagree with please let me know. I think you are off to a good start.

I would just revise as follows: Raising children does not come with an instruction manual, and connective phrases for essays, parents would be more successful with parenting education. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory because it is an infringement on the parents#8217; freedoms, those in favor believe otherwise. Proponents argue that parenting education should be mandatory for essay on video and television several reasons including it will improve nutrition, health, and safety in the home, and critical essay using and men, it will teach parents about the stages of child development. Once again, great job! I think this is coming together very nicely. Thank you sooo much for essay on video and television ur support i really do apperciate it now i just have to find the comparison contrast beowulf right way to reword it on my own wish me luck ?? THANKYOU. Feel free to use what I sent you, the only idea of my own that I added was the part about #8220;infringement on parents#8217; freedoms#8221; #8212; you could replace this with a more relevant objection. The rest of it was your words just polished up and organized! Ok thanks again ?? Hi any good website that u would recommend to upgrade my vocabulary use. Also, read! The best way to get a great vocab is to read a lot of books.

I#8217;m writing a persuasive essay but i don#8217;t know a good way to close it. Any advice? The general practice for writing a good conclusion is to essay restate your thesis in a different way, tie up any loose ends, and leave your reader thinking. You could do this last part by thesis worksheet, bringing up a question about the future of your topic or challenge your audience to act (this is an essay architecture especially good approach in a persuasive essay.) I think that you could focus on these crops#8217; role in the betterment of humanity and how they might contribute solutions to problems that will arise/worsen in the future. Since genetic engineering has the comparison contrast beowulf sir gawain potential to impact the future, I would focus on one or two of the issues that genetic engineering has the best shot at helping #8212; perhaps ending on an optimistic note #128578; Thanks for reading! I disagree that your conclusion should say something new. Essay On Video And Television. If you are bringing in new information, you might as well write another essay.

Conclusions are for reiteration and of ivan ilyich, summarization ONLY. You#8217;re right that you shouldn#8217;t necessarily introduce new information, but there#8217;s nothing wrong with leaving the essay on video architecture reader with fresh insight on the topic or something that expands one#8217;s understanding of your subject. The idea is to give the of mice and men reader something to chew on. I need help with writing why Quito, Ecuador would be the essay architecture perfect city to host the Olympics. What should I look for to make the audience agree with what I#8217;m trying to of ivan essay say. You just need to sit down and brainstorm some of the most compelling reasons to host the Olympics there (weather, surroundings, availability of space for an Olympic park, cost#8230;). I#8217;d try to come up with a list of 15 or so items and then from on video and television there, choose three or four that are the most convincing reasons and that you can support with evidence to make your paper the most persuasive. Of Ivan Ilyich. Is there any way to on video cleverly loop your conclusion back to your introduction? Typically your conclusion doesn#8217;t have to do a whole lot more than restate your thesis in a new way, tie up loose ends, and maybe leave your reader with something to thesis generator worksheet think about. Haven#8217;t read the poem (so you don#8217;t want to essay architecture use my idea verbatim because it probably doesn#8217;t make sense), but an example of worksheet restating and adding something to think about would look something like : In the end, despite the speaker#8217;s anxieties, the devil does not have more power over the speaker than God does, but God doesn#8217;t have power either.

In truth, he is the one in control of his own life. While it#8217;s tempting to ascribe one#8217;s fate to external forces as a way to avoid responsibility for one#8217;s actions and decisions, at the end of the essay day, the power always comes from within. i need an conclusion that is fun/funny for newtons 3 laws, please help and possessions, send a response ASAP! Without Newton#8217;s 3 laws and his discovery of gravity, science would be WEIGHTLESS in our lives. am writing an essay on obedience i need help on architecture and television the ending of this essay..can i get help rn #128577; Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and main points in new words. 2. Tie up any loose ends. Thesis Statement Generator. 3. Leave your reader with something to think about. Congrats! You#8217;re at architecture and television, the finish line #128578; Hi i need help for a thesis my report today 9am in architecture the morning on #8220;Ways to end a composition#8221; could u help me please..

Hi I need help. I#8217;m writing a paragraphs for #8220;why should senior high school students enroll in our school#8221; And it#8217;s persuasive paragraph. Thesis Statement. I need an conclusion please thanks!! In short, you conclusion should paint a clear and compelling picture for why your school is the essay architecture right choice for seniors. Use this chance to ilyich essay tie up loose ends and make the choice seem obvious.

Generally, your conclusion will restate your thesis, tie up any loose ends, and give your reader something to and television think about. You can learn more about each of these elements in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ I#8217;m comparing between single called organisms and cells from multicellular organisms. Connective Phrases For Essays. I would like to know how to essay on video architecture and television conclude my concluding paragraph. I can think of a few possible ways that you could finish your essay. If the overall tone of your essay is sad, you could conclude on a hopeful note, where you look ahead to when the boy#8217;s father comes home: what will they do? How does the valuable boy feel about it? How old will the boy be #8212; the father? Maybe something like: #8220;While [the boy] understood that his father would be gone for on video [some amount of time], he looked forward to the day his father walked through the doorway#8230;#8221; If you want to close on valuable essay a more somber note, you could also close with a comment about war#8217;s effect on families if that fits with your overall thesis and essay on video, main idea: #8220;The effects of war are not only essay, fought by soldiers, but by the families they leave back home#8230;#8221; I hope this gives you some ideas #128578; Happy writing! am I the only one who get stuck in the conclusion? I#8217;m writing a 5 paragraph essay about bucket list and essay architecture, I#8217;ve finished 4 paragraphs but it#8217;s really hard to conclude it..

You#8217;re definitely not the only one who gets stuck there; that#8217;s why we wrote this post #128578; I#8217;m not sure if you#8217;re writing about for essays *your* bucket list or the movie The Bucket List. If it#8217;s your own list, then the examples under the #8220;narrative#8221; and #8220;expository#8221; sections will be the essay and television best ones to use for inspiration. If you#8217;re writing about the movie, you#8217;ll want a more analytical conclusion. You can summarize your topic briefly if that helps you start your conclusion, but just remember to broaden it and make a larger final statement about lens essay of mice and men your topic, too (why it#8217;s significant/important, for instance). I#8217;m writing an argumentative essay about drugs and alcohol. I have no clue in how to on video end it. Help? I have the same advice for contrast essay beowulf you as I#8217;ve given others.

Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and main points in new words. 2. Tie up any loose ends. 3. Leave your reader with something to think about. hi im doing a paper on essay on video the effects of ww2 can u please help #128578; Also, I#8217;d recommend starting with making a simple list of effects that you can find via your research. Then pick three that stand out and are somewhat related to each other (i.e., economic effects, socio-political effects, human rights effects#8230;). This is contrast, such a giant topic that you#8217;re really going to consciously narrow it down to something manageable. help me, my topic is about discrimination. Essay Architecture. I#8217;m writing an essay on thesis worksheet the dutch colony of new netherland and on video and television, I don#8217;t know how to critical lens essay of mice and men write the conclusion paragraph. Can you help?? It#8217;s hard to say how to approach your conclusion without knowing a little more about what exactly you said about chocolate in on video architecture your essay (mmm, chocolate). Just remember to use a *little* bit of summary (restating your thesis statement is a great start!) and comparison contrast essay beowulf, then end on on video a note that leaves your reader thinking. Here#8217;s some more great advice: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ please pray for me.

Essays are tough sometimes and I really need an A or B in this essay due Wednesday. Hey, you#8217;ve got this. Good luck!! this is really dope and helpful. So glad you found it helpful, Bob. Thanks for reading!

I AM WRITING A COURSE WORK ABOUT CONVERSION IN ENGLISH AND I NEED HELP ON INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION PLESSEEE((((( Hey everyone)I am writing about #8220;Which of the following Cold War president-Truman Eisenhower or Kennedy was able to contain the spread of Communism?#8221;#8230;Can someone help me with this please?i will be thankful)))) i need help with conclusion:( A conclusion for that essay might talk about the spread of phrases for essays communism (or lack thereof) after the term of the president you chose to write about #8212; for instance, you might mention modern-day communist nations and what a president today could learn from President Truman, Eisenhower or Kennedy. I#8217;m doing an on video architecture and television essay on valuable essay the relationship between Lady Macbeth and Macbeth and essay on video architecture, how it develops I#8217;ve got the main paragraphs and introduction but I#8217;m not sure how to finish the conclusion by relating to the essay question. #8220;Choose a play which explores an important relationship, for connective for essays example husband and on video and television, wife, leader and follower, parent and child, or any other relationship. Describe this relationship and of ivan, then, by essay architecture, referring to appropriate techniques, explain how the relationship develops.#8221; I think you could end the essay by discussing the larger significance of their relationship within the play and (if you want to go the hypothetical route) mention how the play would be different had their relationship been different. You could also re-emphasize a turning point in the development of their relationship that was key to the outcome of the play. I#8217;m doing an essay about tuition-free college. And I chose to essay using against it. I#8217;m stuck with the essay conclusion. I don#8217;t know how to end this or recommend a better solution for this. Connective For Essays. Can someone help me? Thank you in advance! It sounds like you might be getting hung up on the #8220;recommend a better solution#8221; idea, which isn#8217;t a requirement #8212; it#8217;s just one way to end an essay.

Instead, you might end by noting the sense of satisfaction one feels when knowing that they paid for their education (perhaps tying this to your own experience, if you are currently paying tuition) or another benefit of tuition #8212; this is a good opportunity to mention something beneficial that perhaps wasn#8217;t #8220;meaty#8221; enough to essay on video architecture and television be one of the main points of statement generator your argument.

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Dan Graham -Essay on Video, Architecture and Television

mary resume Dr. Architecture. Mary Lou Jepsen. Not just moonshots - moon landings. Not just Moonshots - Moon Landings. Mary Lou creates bold visions of the future, takes them through RD and delivers them to scale. She is comparison contrast beowulf acclaimed for her work at Google [x], Facebook, Oculus, and essay on video, One Laptop per Child in ilyich consumer electronics, computers, TV, VR, wearables, software and web services. Essay On Video. Her breadth spans further into phrases for essays design, internet, automotive and medical devices. Founder - Openwater - San Francisco, CA 2016- present. Goal: Replace the functionality of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) with a consumer electronics wearable using novel opto-electronics to achieve comparable resolution to MRI.

Implications are broad for detection and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, internal bleeding, mental disease, neurodegenerative disease, and beyond - for communication via thought. Executive Director of Engineering - Facebook and Oculus - Menlo Park, CA. Mary Lou is both an architect and an executive at essay architecture, Facebook / Oculus leading various efforts including a continued transformation of the for essays virtual reality experience. She has announced her departure from Facebook in August 2016 to architecture, spend more time at Openwater. Board Director - Lear Corporation - Southfield Michigan 2016 - present. Helping steer this $20B Fortune 500 (#174) company listed on the NYSE well through the transformation in to write abstract transporation underway now. Head of essay on video architecture and television Display Division, Google [x] Mountain View, CA - Mary Lou advised display and connective, hardware efforts throughout Google, and reported to Google co-founder Sergey Brin. While there she also founded and directed two “Moonshot” programs in and television Google [x]. She was responsible for invention and architecture, RD (SW and lens using of mice and men, HW engineering) and also business strategy, product management, operations, supply chain, manufacturing, go-to-market and strategic partnerships. CEO and Founder, Pixel Qi Corp Taipei, Taiwan (and San Bruno, CA) - Mary Lou founded Pixel Qi, the world’s only fabless display developer, as a spin-off of One Laptop per Child to architecture, extend and commercialize the breakthrough screen and power management architecture she invented and developed for the $100 laptop. She built a business to phrases, develop new screen architectures ready for mass production with less than a year of development time (display innovation typically takes a decade or more to on video and television, reach fruition).

Pixel Qi technology shipped several million units with 10x lower power consumption and sunlight readability while preserving color, video and image quality. As CEO, she oversaw business strategy, product management, RD (SW and HW engineering), operations, raising funds, supply chain, manufacturing, go-to-market and strategic partnerships. CTO and Co-founder, One Laptop per Child Cambridge, Mass - Jepsen launched this non-profit organization with Nicholas Negroponte, and thesis worksheet, was its only employee for its first year. Essay Architecture And Television. Jepsen invented the fundamental laptop architecture and a new screen and convinced some of world’s largest manufacturers to phrases, produce it. She oversaw sequential development from prototypes to scale-manufacture of the innovative underlying components, software, content, IP, firmware, and the entire system; managing over architecture, 1000 people. Millions of statement generator units shipped to nearly every country transforming opportunities for and television children in the developing world. Over $1B of revenue went through OLPC and critical lens using of mice, this catalyzed $30B of revenue for its for-profit partners. Professor, Massachusetts Institute of essay Technology, The Media Lab Cambridge, Mass - Jepsen joined the of ivan faculty of the MIT Media Lab where she initially co-founded One Laptop per Child. She drove work in on video architecture a variety of areas including consumer electronics, software systems, display architecture, and essay beowulf sir gawain, user interfaces particularly for pre-literate children. Chief Technology Officer, Intel Corporation, Display Division Santa Clara, CA - Responsible for essay architecture overall architecture and design of to write a thesis abstract Intel's next generation HDTV products - including optics, liquid crystals, testing, characterization, performance improvement, design and integration of electronics, ASICs, and and television, manufacturing. Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer, MicroDisplay Corporation Richmond, CA - Created microdisplay technology for abstract virtual reality, augmented reality, wearables, and and television, flat screen HDTVs.

Shipped breakthrough product in all these areas working primarily with Asian manufacturers and brand names throughout the globe. Served as overall system architect, led design and integration of electronics, ASICs, optics, liquid crystals, optical engine, TV makers, head-mounted displays, cellphone makers, all for optimized manufacturability in product. Senior Member of ilyich essay Technical Staff, Philips Consumer Electronics Research NY - Part of early Lumileds effort contributing to breakthroughs in architecture efficiency for LED devices now included in critical essay using of mice and men billions of devices. Developed Philips single-panel and triple-panel (500+ frame per second) liquid crystal on on video and television silicon devices and of ivan ilyich, front- and rear- projection systems. ?Education and Scientific Research and Media Arts. Ph.D.

Optical Physics, Brown University 1996. Liquid crystal displays that work without polarized light, with liquid crystal filled holographic diffractive structures. Side Project: Started Moon-TV - to on video architecture and television, project video on essay sir gawain the Moon by redirecting sunlight incident on Earth to the Moon using large solar farms filled with big moving mirrors. Sc.M. Media Technology, MIT Media Lab 1989. World's first fully computer generated holographic video system. Sc.B. Electrical Engineering (with Honors), A.B. Studio Art (req.) Brown University 1987. My focus was on Holography which combined my strong interests in essay on video architecture and television math, engineering and statement generator, art. Senior Fellow, Kunsthochschule for Median Koln Cologne, Germany - Big Art: made a big computer generated hologram that filled a city block and essay architecture and television, could be only seen 10 minutes a day for 55 days a year if it wasn't overcast.

Computer Science Professor, Royal Melbourne Inst of a thesis abstract Technology Australia - Huge computer generated holograms - that filled beach coves, and small ones that were used on essay on video architecture and television the Australian paper (plastic) currency. Also lots of critical lens of mice and men straight 3D computer graphics on flat screens with really good optical modeling (at the time) Optical Computing - San Diego Fellow, University of on video California, San Diego , CA - Diffractive/Refractive solutions for valuable free space optical interconnects for on video architecture optical computing, neural nets, massively parallel computing, etc. • CNN top 10 thinker 2013. • TIME 100: named One of the 100 most influential people in contrast sir gawain world by Time Magazine 2008.

• Named to top 50 female computer scientists of on video architecture all-time - the contrast essay Anita Borg Institute 2012. • Honorary Doctorate - Brown University 2014. • NBA (National Basketball Association)/Cisco Inspiring the Future Award - 2015. • World Technology Award : for individual contributions to hardware - 2010. • Edwin Land Medal - Optical Society of architecture America 2011.

• Optical Society of America - Fellow 2012. • Laptop Magazine: 19th most influential person in mobile computing 2010. • IEEE ACE Award Grand Prize for best emerging technology (awarded to Pixel Qi) 2010. • Popular Science “Best of What’s New Award” - 2010 (sunlight readable screens w/ color video) • Popular Science “Best of What’s New Award” - 2006 (for $100 Laptop) • Popular Science “Best of What’s New Award” - 1990 (for Holographic Video System) • Display of the valuable essay Year Award - Society for essay on video and television Information Display (SID) 2010. • Anita Borg “Woman of Vision” Award for valuable possessions Innovation - 2011. • Best of Computex Award 2009. • Brown Alumni Excellence in Engineering Medal - Brown University - 2011. • WITI Hall of Fame Inductee (Women in Technology International) 2008. • INDEX Design Award - ˆ100,000 for OLPC XO laptop 2007. • Mobile Innovation Award - Laptop Magazine 2007. • Horace Mann Medal - Brown University -2008.

• Design of the essay on video Year - London Design Museum's 2008. • One of to write a thesis abstract “100 Top Ideas of the on video architecture and television Year” - New York Times 2006. • IF Product Design Award - 2006. Boards and Public Service/Other. Board of Directors Experience: Lear Corporation (a.

$20B Fortune 500 company in the automotive space) Pixel Qi Corporation (chairman of board) One Laptop per Child Non Profit Association (observer) (2005-8) Brown University Engineering Board (reports to president) 2012-present. MEDCO (Express Scripts) Innovation Board. MicroDisplay Corporation (observer) Task Force / Advisory Experience: National Academies of Engineering, Science and Medicine joint committee on women 2015. American Chamber of Commerce in Taiwan - co-chair of technology committee. Google Science Fair: Final Level - Judging for top winners of lens using and men this award - Brazilian Presidential Task Force on Computers for Education – 2005-6. Chinese Academy of essay and television Science working group on computers and education 2005.

ITU Telecom World working group on digital divide in essay education 2006. US State and Defense Departments Science Board contributor 2007. Internet Archive “Books In Browsers” technology advisory board 2010-2. EPEAT Technology Advisory Board on green devices 2008. Grace Hopper – Women in and television Computer Science Exec Committee 2008. Anita Borg Institute awards committee chair 2008-present. Magazine Publishers of America Task Force contributor on future devices screens 2008-9. Japanese Government, Industry and Academic Committee on e-publishing outlook 2007. Taiwan Ministry of Economic Affairs - Digital Divide Division launch 2007. UN World Summit on Information Society – Education and computing panel 2005.

Taiwan National Labs (ITRI) “creativity in engineering” task force - 2006. Uruguay Minister of Education Digital Education Task Force contributor – 2006-8. Peru’s One Laptop Per Child Executive Committee contributor 2006-8. Dr. Jepsen is inventor of over statement, 200 published or issued patents as listed below. US Patent No.

9,730,649, Optical imaging in a diffuse medium. US Patent No. 9,690,535, Optical configurations in a tileable display apparatus. US Patent No. 9,626,145, Tileable display with pixel-tape. US Patent No. On Video Architecture. 9,607,582, Dynamic update of display pixels. US Patent No. Contrast Essay Beowulf Sir Gawain. 9,594,277, Multi-domain pixel array. US Patent No.

9,558,720, Variable resolution seamless tileable display. US Patent No. 9,557,954, Display panel using direct emission pixel arrays. US Patent No. 9,529,563, Masking mechanical separations between tiled display panels. US Patent No. Essay Architecture And Television. 9,500,906, Optical configurations in a tileable display apparatus. US Patent No.

9,424,809, Patterned projection with multi-panel display. US Patent No. A Thesis Abstract. 9,412,336, Dynamic backlight control for spatially independent display regions. US Patent No. 9,411,552, Pixel layer in multi-panel display. US Patent No. 9,401,128, Dynamic update of essay on video display pixels. US Patent No. 9,368,070, Variable resolution seamless tileable display. US Patent No.

9,349,160, Method, apparatus and system for valuable possessions enhancing a display of video data. US Patent No. 9,336,729, Optical configurations in essay on video architecture and television a tileable display apparatus. US Patent No. 9,310,634, Aesthetic layer for to write a thesis display panels. US Patent No. On Video. 9,250,508, Rear projection screen with pin-hole concentrator array. US Patent No. 9,223,536, Method, apparatus and system to determine display misalignment.

US Patent No. For Essays. 9,176,370, High contrast rear projection screen. US Patent No. Architecture. 9,123,266, Seamless tileable display with peripheral magnification. US Patent No. 9,013,790, High contrast rear projection screen for use with a diverging illumination source. US Patent No. 8,830,426, Color shift reduction in transflective liquid crystal displays.

US Patent No. 8,698,716, Low power consumption transflective liquid crystal displays. US Patent No. 8,692,963, Patterned in-cell retarder for for essays transflective vertically aligned liquid crystal display and essay architecture, method of fabrication. US Patent No. 8,462,144, Triple mode liquid crystal display. US Patent No. Valuable. 8,384,861, Diffractive liquid crystal display. US Patent No. 8,314,907, Transflective display sub-pixel structures with transmissive area having different sizes and reflective area having equal sizes.

US Patent No. Essay On Video And Television. 8,264,646, Transflective display with white tuning. US Patent No. 8,264,645, Transflective display. US Patent No. To Write A Thesis. 7,746,431, Dual mode display. US Patent No. D609,703, Laptop computer. US Patent No.

6,801,285, Thin cell gap microdisplays with optimum optical properties. US Patent No. Essay And Television. 6,307,607, Reflective liquid crystal display with integrated compensation for skew angle rotation and birefringence effects. US Patent No. 6,172,792, Method and apparatus for contrast sir gawain forming optical gratings. US Patent Publication No.

Configurations for tileable display apparatus with multiple pixel arrays. US Patent Publication No. Architecture And Television. Enhanced Spatial Resolution using a Segmented Electrode Array. US Patent Publication No. Wide Angle Beam Steering in Sunglasses for phrases for essays Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality. US Patent Publication No. Essay On Video And Television. Time-Domain Adjustment of of ivan ilyich essay Phase Retardation in a Liquid Crystal Grating for on video architecture a Color Display. US Patent Publication No. Liquid Crystal Half-Wave Plate Lens.

US Patent Publication No. Essay. Methods and essay architecture and television, Devices for possessions essay Eye Tracking Based on on video architecture and television Depth Sensing. US Patent Publication No. Essay Using. Compensation of Chromatic Dispersion in essay and television a Tunable Beam Steering Device for essay Improved Display. US Patent Publication No. And Television. Devices and statement generator, Methods for Removing Zeroth Order Leakage in on video Beam Steering Devices. US Patent Publication No.

Ocular Projection Based on Pupil Position. US Patent Publication No. Display with a Tunable Mask for comparison essay beowulf sir gawain Augmented Reality. US Patent Publication No. Enhanced Visual Perception Through Distance-Based Ocular Projection. US Patent Publication No. On Video. Optical System for Retinal Projection from comparison contrast beowulf, Near-Ocular Display. US Patent Publication No. Essay On Video And Television. Tile Array for Near-Ocular Display. US Patent Publication No. Optical Configurations in to write A Tileable Display Apparatus.

US Patent Publication No. Essay Architecture And Television. Display with an Embedded Eye Tracker. US Patent Publication No. Using And Men. Display with a Tunable Pinhole Array for Augmented Reality. US Patent Publication No. Enhanced Pixel Resolution through Non-Uniform Ocular Projection.

US Patent Publication No. Near-Ocular Display Based on Hologram Projection. US Patent Publication No. Dynamic Update of Display Pixels. US Patent Publication No. On Video Architecture And Television. A1, Screen configuration for display system. US Patent Publication No. For Essays. A1, Multi-aperture illumination layer for essay tileable display. US Patent Publication No. A1, Seamless tileable display with peripheral magnification.

US Patent Publication No. Comparison Beowulf Sir Gawain. A1, Dynamic backlight control for spatially independent display regions. US Patent Publication No. Architecture And Television. A1, Variable resolution seamless tileable display. US Patent Publication No. A1, Optical configurations in critical lens essay and men a tileable display apparatus. US Patent Publication No. Essay Architecture And Television. A1, Configurations for tileable display apparatus with multiple pixel arrays.

US Patent Publication No. A1, Tileable display apparatus. US Patent Publication No. A1, Bezel pixel layer in multi-panel display. US Patent Publication No. A1, Mixed Transmissive – Reflective - Transflective Liquid Crystal Display.

US Patent Publication No. A1, Patterned In-Cell Retarder for Transflective Vertically Aligned Liquid Crystal Display and valuable essay, Method of Fabrication. US Patent Publication No. Essay On Video Architecture And Television. A1, Multi-mode liquid crystal display with auxiliary non-display components. US Patent Publication No. A1, Color Shift Reduction in Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays.

US Patent Publication No. A1, Transflective LCD with Arcuate Pixel Portions. US Patent Publication No. A1, Low Power Consumption Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays. US Patent Publication No. A1, Transflective Display Sub-Pixel Structures. US Patent Publication No. A1, Backlight recirculation in essay transflective liquid crystal displays.

US Patent Publication No. A1, Switching Operating Modes of essay on video Liquid Crystal Displays. US Patent Publication No. A1, Diffractive liquid crystal display. US Patent Publication No. A1, Transflective display with white tuning. US Patent Publication No. A1, Triple mode liquid crystal display.

US Patent Publication No. Abstract. A1, Transflective display. US Patent Publication No. A1, Dual mode display. US Patent Publication No. A1, Self-refreshing display controller for a display device in essay on video architecture and television a computational unit. US Patent Publication No.

A1,Thin cell gap microdisplays with optimum optical properties. China, CN , 2016/3/8, Aesthetic layer for display panels. World Patent No. WO/2016/105811, issued Jun 23, 2016. Essay Using. Display panel using direct emission pixel arrays. China, CN , 2016/6/15, Seamless tileable display with peripheral magnification. World Patent No.

WO/2016/081101, issued May 26, 2016, Rear projection screen with pin-hole concentrator array. European Patent EP , 25/5/2016, Tileable display apparatus. European Patent EP , 25/5/2016, Optical configurations in a tileable display apparatus. European Patent EP , 25/5/2016, Configurations for essay architecture tileable display apparatus with multiple pixel arrays. World Patent No.

WO , issued Jan 22, 2015. Optical configurations in statement a tileable display apparatus. Taiwan No. , 2016/07/16, Masking mechanical separations between tiled display panels. Taiwan, , 2016/07/16, Screen configuration for essay and television display system. Taiwan, /03/16, High contrast rear projection screen for statement generator worksheet use with a diverging illumination source.

World Patent, WO (A1), , Screen configuration for display system. World Patent, WO (A1), , Masking Mechanical Separations between Tiled Display Panels. Taiwan, , 2015/2/16, Optical Configurations in on video architecture A Tileable Display Apparatus. Taiwan, I520116, 2016/2/1, Optical Configurations in A Tileable Display Apparatus. US Patent Publication No.

A1, March 31, 2016. Masking mechanical separations between tiled display panels. Europe EP , 2016/5/25, Optical Configurations in critical and men A Tileable Display Apparatus. China, CN , 2016/3/9, Optical Configurations in A Tileable Display Apparatus. World Patent No.

WO , issued July 2, 2015. Architecture. Aesthetic layer for display panels. Taiwan, , 2015/7/1, Aesthetic layer for display panels. World Patent No. WO , issued May 26, 2016. Rear projection screen with pin-hole concentrator array. World, 2015/084480, 2015/11/6, Multi-Aperture Illumination Layer for Tileable Display. Taiwan, , 2015/7/16, Dynamic Backlight Control for statement worksheet Spatially Independent Display Regions.

Taiwan, , 2015/7/1, Aesthetic Layer for Display Panels. United States, , 2015/6/26, Aesthetic Layer for Display Panels. Korea, KR (A), 2016/08/31, Aesthetic Layer for Display Panels. China, CN (A), , Aesthetic Layer for Display Panels. Taiwan, , 2015/6/16, Multi-Aperture Illumination Layer for Tileable Display. Taiwan, , 2015/6/16, Seamless Tileable Display with Peripheral Magnification. Taiwan, , 2015/6/16, Variable Resolution Seamless Tileable Display. Taiwan, I520116, 2016/02/01, Optical configurations in essay a tileable display apparatus. Taiwan, I529678, 2016/04/11, Seamless tileable display with peripheral magnification. United States, , 2015/6/4, Multi-Aperture Illumination Layer for Tileable Display.

World, 2015/076939, 2015/5/28, Seamless Tileable Display with Peripheral Magnification. United States, , 2015/5/21, Seamless Tileable Display with Peripheral Magnification. United States, , 2015/4/21, High Contrast Rear Projection Screen for connective phrases for essays Use with A Diverging Illumination Source. World, 2015/053926, 2015/4/16, Dynamic Backlight Control for essay architecture Spatially Independent Display Regions. World, 2015/053927, 2015/4/16, Variable Resolution Seamless Tileable Display. United States, , 2015/4/9, Variable Resolution Seamless Tileable Display. United States, , 2015/4/9, Dynamic Backlight Control for connective for essays Spatially Independent Display Regions. Taiwan, , 2015/4/1, Configurations for essay architecture Tileable Display Apparatus with Multiple Pixel Arrays. Taiwan, , 2015/2/16, Optical Configurations in A Tileable Display Apparatus. Taiwan, , 2015/2/16, Tileable Display Apparatus. World, 2015/099859, 2015/2/7, Aesthetic Layer for possessions essay Display Panels.

Taiwan, , 2015/2/1, Bezel Pixel Layer in essay Multi-Panel Display. United States, , 2015/1/22, Bezel Pixel Layer in to write a thesis Multi-Panel Display. United States, , 2015/1/22, Tileable Display Apparatus. United States, , 2015/1/22, Configurations for Tileable Display Apparatus with Multiple Pixel Arrays. United States, , 2015/1/22, Optical Configurations in A Tileable Display Apparatus. World, WO/2015/009382, 2015/1/22, Optical Configurations in A Tileable Display Apparatus. World, 2015/009374, 2015/1/22, Configurations for essay on video and television Tileable Display Apparatus with Multiple Pixel Arrays. World, 2015/009371, 2015/1/22, Bezel Pixel Layer in Multi-Panel Display.

World, 2015/009381, 2015/1/22, Tileable Display Apparatus. Taiwan, , 2014/10/21, Aesthetic Layer for Display Panels. Taiwan, , 2014/10/21, Seamless Tileable Display with Peripheral Magnification. Taiwan, , 2014/10/21, Multi-Aperture Illumination Layer for Tileable Display. Taiwan, , 2014/10/6, Dynamic Backlight Control for for essays Spatially Independent Display Regions. Taiwan, , 2014/10/6, Variable Resolution Seamless Tileable Display. Taiwan, , 2014/7/1, Configurations for Tileable Display Apparatus with Multiple Pixel Arrays. Taiwan, , 2014/7/1, Optical Configurations in essay on video architecture and television A Tileable Display Apparatus. Taiwan, , 2014/7/1, Tileable Display Apparatus.

Taiwan, , 2014/7/1, Bezel Pixel Layer in Multi-Panel Display. Korea, , 2013/9/24, ??????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ? ???. United States, , 2013/7/25, Mixed Transmissive-Reflective-Transflective Liquid Crystal Display. Korea, , 2013/7/25, ?? ?? ?? ?????. China, , 2013/7/24, ?????????????.

Korea, , 2013/7/22, ?? ??? ?? ????? ?????. Korea, , 2013/7/22, ?? ?? ?????. Taiwan, , 2012/11/1, Multi-Mode Liquid Crystal Display with Auxiliary Non-Display Components. United States, , 2012/8/30, Patterned In-Cell Retarder for valuable essay Transflective Vertically Aligned Liquid Crystal Display and Method of Fabrication. United States, , 2012/5/24, Multi-Mode Liquid Crystal Display with Auxiliary Non-Display Components. World, 2012/068342, 2012/5/24, Multi-Mode Liquid Crystal Display with Auxiliary Non-Display Components. United States, , 2012/5/17, Color Shift Reduction in on video Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays. China, , 2012/4/28, Backlight Recirculation in Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays. China, (CN A), 2012/4/18, ??????????????. China, (CN A), 2012/4/11, ????????????.

United States, , 2012/2/16, Transflective LCD with Arcuate Pixel Portions. World, 2012/021767, 2012/2/16, Transflective LCD with Arcuate Pixel Portions. Japan, , 2011/12/15, Power Consumption Reducing Method of Display Subsystem, System for phrases for essays The Same, And Second Display Controller. United States, , 2011/11/24, Low Power Consumption Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays. World, 2011/146055, 2011/11/24, Low Power Consumption Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays. Taiwan, , 2011/11/17, Multi-Mode Liquid Crystal Display with Auxiliary Non-Display Components . Great Britain, , 2011/11/16, Switching Operating Modes of essay and television Liquid Crystal Displays. Korea, , 2011/9/30, ?? ????? ?? ??? ???. Taiwan, , 2011/8/12, Transflective LCD with arcuate pixel portions.

China, , 2011/7/13, ???????. World, 2011/016875, 2011/2/10, Transflective Display Sub-Pixel Structures. US, , Transflective Display Sub-Pixel Structures with Transmissive Area Having Different Sizes and Reflective Area Having Equal Sizes. China, , 2010/11/24, ??????. World, 2010/104529, 2010/9/16, Backlight Recirculation in Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays. World, 2010/101592, 2010/9/10, Switching Operating Modes of Liquid Crystal Displays. United States, , 2010/9/9, Switching Operating Modes of Liquid Crystal Displays. United States, , 2010/9/9, Backlight Recirculation in Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays. Taiwan, , 2010/6/28, Low Power Consumption Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays.

Taiwan, I414852, 2010/2/25, Transflective Display Sub-Pixel Structures. United States, D609703, 2010/2/9, Laptop Computer. United States, , 2010/2/4, Diffractive Liquid Crystal Display. World, 2010/014624, 2010/2/4, Diffractive Liquid Crystal Display. World, 2010/014601, 2010/2/4, Transflective Display with White Tuning. World, 2010/014598, 2010/2/4, Triple Mode Liquid Crystal Display. United States, , 2010/1/28, Triple Mode Liquid Crystal Display. United States, , 2010/1/28, Transflective Display with White Tuning.

United States, , 2010/1/21, Transflective Display. World, 2010/009286, 2010/1/21, Transflective Display. Korea, , 2009/12/11, ?? ?? ?????. Taiwan, , 2009/12/4, Switching Operating Modes of Liquid Crystal Displays. Taiwan, I437324, 2009/9/15, Backlight Recirculation in Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays. Korea, , 2009/8/19, ??????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ? ???. Taiwan, I401496, 2009/7/28, Transflective Display with White Tuning. Taiwan, I404038, 2009/7/28, Triple Mode Liquid Crystal Display. Taiwan, I401501, 2009/7/28, Diffractive Liquid Crystal Display.

Taiwan, , 2009/7/15, Transflective Display. Korea, , 2009/3/20, ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ????. Japan, , 2008/6/5, Dual Mode Display. World, 2008/063171, 2008/5/29, Dual Mode Display. United States, , 2008/5/22, Dual Mode Display. United States, , 2007/12/13, Self-Refreshing Display Controller for A Display Device in A Computational Unit . Japan, , Power Consumption Reducing Method of a thesis Display Subsystem, System for The Same and Second Display Controller. World, 2007/112021, 2007/10/4, Self-Refreshing Display Controller for architecture A Display Device in A Computational Unit.

Taiwan, I437433, 2007/3/23, Self-Refreshing Display Controller for critical lens and men Display Devices in A Computational Unit. Taiwan, I354159, 2007/3/2, Dual Mode Display. United States, , 2004/10/4, Thin Cell Gap Microdisplays with Optimum Optical Properties. Korea, , 2003/10/25, ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????). United States, , 2003/3/20, Thin Cell Gap Microdisplays with Optimum Optical Properties. United States, , 2001/10/23, Reflective Liquid Crystal Display with Integrated Compensation for Skew Angle Rotation and Birefringence Effects.

United States, , 2001/1/9, Method and on video architecture and television, Apparatus for Forming Optical Gratings. Papers (Dr. Jepsen mostly publishes in valuable possessions essay the form of essay architecture patents rather than papers but here are a few key papers) Mary Lou Jepsen, “A technology rollercoaster: Liquid crystal on valuable silicon”, Nature Photonics 04/2007; 1(5).: . Mary Lou Jepsen, “Smoke, Mirrors, and Manufacturable Displays”, IEEE Computer - COMPUTER, vol. 38, no. Essay On Video. 8, pp.

63-67, . Joel S. A Thesis. Kollin, Stephen A. Benton, Mary Lou Jepsen, “Real-Time Display of 3-D Computed Holograms by essay on video Scanning the Image of an Acousto-Optic Modulator”, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 10/1989; DOI: 10.1117/ . Hendrik J. Gerritsen, Mary Lou Jepsen, Catherine C. Feria, “Transmission diffraction gratings composed of one material with anomalous dispersion in contrast beowulf the visible region”, Applied Optics 07/1988; 27(13).: 2781-5. DOI: 10.1364/AO. Essay On Video And Television. . Hendrik J. Gerritsen, Mary Lou Jepsen, “Holographic recordings of nematic liquid crystal displays”, Applied Optics 09/1987; 26(17).:3717-20. DOI: 10.1364/AO. Connective Phrases For Essays. . Mary Lou Jepsen, “Invited Paper: Why Analog Silicon May Be Best for LCOS Digital TV”, 2005 SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 39.1, 36(1), p. . Hendrik J. Gerritsen, Mary Lou Jepsen, “Rectangular Surface-Relief Transmission Gratings with a Very Large First-Order Diffraction Efficiency ( 95%). for Unpolarized Light”, Applied Optics 10/1998; 37(25).:5823-9. DOI:10.1364/AO. . Mary Lou Jepsen, Hendrik J. On Video Architecture And Television. Gerritsen, “Liquid-crystal-filled gratings with high diffraction efficiency”, Optics Letters 07/1996; 21(14).: 1081-3. A Thesis. DOI: 10.1364 / OL. Essay Architecture. , (1996). Pierre St. Abstract. Hilaire, Stephen A. Benton, Mark E. Lucente, Mary Lou Jepsen, Joel Kollin, Hiroshi Yoshikawa, John S. Underkoffler, “Electronic Display System for essay on video architecture and television Computational Holography”, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for of ivan ilyich Optical Engineering 05/1996; DOI: 10.1117/ . Stephen A. Benton, Mark Lucente, Mary Lou Jepsen, Joel Kollin, Hiroshi Yoshikawa, John Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography”, Conference: Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases (1990). Tom Meyer, Sally Rosenthal, Stephen R. Johnson, Mary Lou Jepsen, Douglas Davis, “Art and technology: very large scale integration”.

Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH 1994; 01/ . Mary Lou Jepsen, Paula H. Dawson, “Optical transfer of essay on video master hologram with 20-meter depth”, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for of ivan essay Optical Engineering 03/1993; DOI: 10.1117/ . Mary Lou Jepsen, Paula H. Dawson, “Lunar-illuminated outdoor hologram”, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for on video architecture and television Optical Engineering 05/1992; DOI: 10.1117/ . Ruibo Lu, Mary Lou Jepsen, Carlin Vieri, and John Ryan, “Multi-mode LCD with Wide View Angle and High Reflectance for Sunlight Readability”, 2011 SID Symposium Digest of essay Technical Papers 42(1), 6.4, p. On Video Architecture And Television. . Mary Lou Jepsen, “Keynote Address: Challenges of bringing new technologies to market”, 2009 SID Annual Display Week Business Conference (2009). Mary Lou Jepsen, “CAD for essay and men displays!”, 2008 International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD'08), November . Mary Lou Jepsen, “The Business of Displays - Display Engineering Leads the essay and television Way for $100 laptop Design”, 2007 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 23.1, p. Thesis Statement. 6 (2007). Mary Lou Jepsen, “Crossing the on video architecture and television Digital Divide: The Latest Efforts from essay using of mice, One Laptop per Child”, Proceedings of the 2007 USENIX Annual Technical Conference, June 17-22, 2007, Santa Clara, CA, USA (2007). Mary Lou Jepsen, “Lumen throughput in front and on video and television, rear projection systems: color fidelity impact”, Conference: Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting - PHO, vol. Connective. 2, pp. 816-817 vol.2, . Mar y Lou Jepsen, “Rear Projection TV: Single Panel LCOS Lumen Throughput”, 2003 SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 10.3; 34(1), p. And Television. . Mary Lou Jepsen, M. J. Ammer, M. Bolotski, J. J. Drolet, A. Statement Generator Worksheet. Gupta, Y. On Video Architecture And Television. Lai, D. Huffman, H. Beowulf Sir Gawain. Shi, and C. On Video Architecture. Vieri, “High resolution LCOS microdisplay for single-, double- or triple-panel projection system”, Displays 06/2002; 23(3), p. . Mary Lou Jepsen, “0.9” SXGA Liquid Crystal on Silicon Panel with 450 Hz Field Rate”, 2001 SID Microdisplay, P. . Michael Bolotski, Mary Lou Jepsen, “MicroDisplay subsystem of a wireless handheld computer”, Proceedings of connective phrases SPIE - The International Society for architecture Optical Engineering 06/2000; DOI:10.1117/ . Mary Lou Jepsen, Hendrik J. Gerritsen, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal-filled diffraction gratings”, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 04/ . Joel S. Statement Generator. Kollin, Stephen A. Benton, Mary Lou Jepsen, “Real-Time Display of and television 3-D Computed Holograms by Scanning the Image of an Acousto-Optic Modulator”, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for of ivan ilyich Optical Engineering 10/1989; DOI: 10.1117/ . RE CENT KEYNOTES and architecture, TALKS. Aug 15 - Singularity University Global Summit. May 23 - VMware keynote for RADIO (3000 RD engineers)

May 4 - Computer History Museum - Mary Lou Jepsen in valuable possessions conversation with John Hollar. May 3 - Milken Institute Global Conference - With Ed Boyden, Bryan Johnson and Neal Kassel. Apr 20 - Fireside Chat at and television, /dev/color. Apr 19 - Xconomy Forum: Human Impact of Innovation. Apr 2 - OSA Biophotonics Congress: Optics in the Life Sciences. Mar 14 - SxSW featured talk “Telepathy meets Medical Imaging” with Sunny Bates- Austin TX. Mar 11 - Kara Swisher and thesis, Lauren Goode interview Mary Lou on on video architecture “Too Embarrassed to a thesis abstract, Ask” Feb 7-8 - Stanford Univ. Neuro-digital Health Conference - Stanford, CA.

Jan 13 - Detroit Auto Show - Detroit, MI. Dec 8 - Harvard/MGH - Cambridge, MA. Nov 18 - Washington University - OSA Invited Fellow Lecture- Saint Louis, MO. Nov 1-2 - Fortune Magazine Brainstorm - Health - San Diego. Oct 13-14 - NYU Medical Imaging Invitational - Imaging Systems of on video Tomorrow - NYC. Oct 6 - TedxSanFrancisco talk online - San Francisco, CA. Oct 5 - Pepsi Academy of Sciences Awards - New York. Sept 27 - Samsung CEO Summit - San Jose, CA. Sept 26-27 - The Mind Brain Summit - Stanford University - Stanford, CA. Sept 23-25 - The Nantucket Project - Nantucket, RI.

TED Talks (mainstage at main annual conference) Solve For X ( the critical essay using of mice start of Google [x] Moonshot group) Computer History Museum. RE/Code - Too Embarrassed to Ask. Peter Gabriel and essay and television, Mary Lou Jepsen in comparison beowulf sir gawain conversation.

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The Responsibility of Intellectuals. TWENTY-YEARS AGO, Dwight Macdonald published a series of articles in Politics on on video, the responsibility of peoples and, specifically, the responsibility of intellectuals. I read them as an a thesis abstract, undergraduate, in on video architecture and television the years just after the war, and had occasion to read them again a few months ago. They seem to me to have lost none of their power or persuasiveness. Macdonald is concerned with the question of war guilt. He asks the question: To what extent were the German or Japanese people responsible for the atrocities committed by their governments? And, quite properly, he turns the question back to us: To what extent are the British or American people responsible for the vicious terror bombings of civilians, perfected as a technique of warfare by the Western democracies and reaching their culmination in Hiroshima and ilyich Nagasaki, surely among the essay architecture most unspeakable crimes in valuable possessions history. Architecture And Television? To an statement generator, undergraduate in 1945-46—to anyone whose political and moral consciousness had been formed by the horrors of the 1930s, by the war in Ethiopia, the Russian purge, the “China Incident,” the Spanish Civil War, the Nazi atrocities, the essay Western reaction to these events and, in part, complicity in comparison beowulf sir gawain them—these questions had particular significance and poignancy. With respect to essay and television, the responsibility of intellectuals, there are still other, equally disturbing questions.

Intellectuals are in a position to to write, expose the lies of governments, to analyze actions according to their causes and motives and often hidden intentions. In the Western world, at least, they have the power that comes from on video, political liberty, from access to information and freedom of expression. For a privileged minority, Western democracy provides the leisure, the facilities, and the training to seek the truth lying hidden behind the phrases for essays veil of distortion and misrepresentation, ideology and class interest, through which the events of current history are presented to us. The responsibilities of intellectuals, then, are much deeper than what Macdonald calls the “responsibility of people,” given the unique privileges that intellectuals enjoy. The issues that Macdonald raised are as pertinent today as they were twenty years ago.

We can hardly avoid asking ourselves to what extent the American people bear responsibility for the savage American assault on essay architecture and television, a largely helpless rural population in Vietnam, still another atrocity in what Asians see as the “Vasco da Gama era” of world history. As for a thesis, those of us who stood by in silence and apathy as this catastrophe slowly took shape over the past dozen years—on what page of history do we find our proper place? Only the most insensible can escape these questions. On Video And Television? I want to return to them, later on, after a few scattered remarks about the responsibility of comparison essay beowulf sir gawain intellectuals and how, in practice, they go about meeting this responsibility in the mid-1960s. IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of intellectuals to on video and television, speak the truth and to expose lies. This, at of ivan essay, least, may seem enough of a truism to architecture and television, pass over without comment. A Thesis Abstract? Not so, however. For the modern intellectual, it is on video, not at all obvious. Thus we have Martin Heidegger writing, in a pro-Hitler declaration of 1933, that “truth is the revelation of that which makes a people certain, clear, and strong in its action and knowledge”; it is only this kind of “truth” that one has a responsibility to speak. Americans tend to be more forthright.

When Arthur Schlesinger was asked by The New York Times in November, 1965, to explain the contradiction between his published account of the Bay of Pigs incident and the story he had given the press at the time of the connective phrases for essays attack, he simply remarked that he had lied; and a few days later, he went on to compliment the Times for also having suppressed information on the planned invasion, in “the national interest,” as this term was defined by the group of and television arrogant and deluded men of whom Schlesinger gives such a flattering portrait in his recent account of the Kennedy Administration. It is of no particular interest that one man is quite happy to lie in behalf of a cause which he knows to be unjust; but it is significant that such events provoke so little response in for essays the intellectual community—for example, no one has said that there is something strange in the offer of a major chair in the humanities to essay on video architecture, a historian who feels it to be his duty to persuade the world that an American-sponsored invasion of a nearby country is essay, nothing of the sort. And what of the on video architecture incredible sequence of lies on the part of our government and its spokesmen concerning such matters as negotiations in Vietnam? The facts are known to all who care to know. The press, foreign and domestic, has presented documentation to refute each falsehood as it appears. But the of ivan essay power of the government’s propaganda apparatus is such that the citizen who does not undertake a research project on the subject can hardly hope to confront government pronouncements with fact. [1] The deceit and distortion surrounding the American invasion of Vietnam is by now so familiar that it has lost its power to shock.

It is therefore useful to recall that although new levels of cynicism are constantly being reached, their clear antecedents were accepted at home with quiet toleration. On Video Architecture And Television? It is a useful exercise to compare Government statements at the time of the invasion of Guatemala in 1954 with Eisenhower’s admission—to be more accurate, his boast—a decade later that American planes were sent “to help the invaders” ( New York Times , October 14, 1965). Nor is it only in moments of crisis that duplicity is critical lens essay, considered perfectly in on video architecture and television order. Connective For Essays? “New Frontiersmen,” for essay and television, example, have scarcely distinguished themselves by a passionate concern for historical accuracy, even when they are not being called upon to a thesis abstract, provide a “propaganda cover” for ongoing actions. On Video Architecture? For example, Arthur Schlesinger ( New York Times , February 6, 1966) describes the bombing of generator North Vietnam and the massive escalation of military commitment in essay architecture and television early 1965 as based on a “perfectly rational argument”: so long as the ilyich Vietcong thought they were going to win the war, they obviously would not be interested in any kind of negotiated settlement. The date is important. Had this statement been made six months earlier, one could attribute it to on video architecture and television, ignorance. But this statement appeared after the UN, North Vietnamese, and Soviet initiatives had been front-page news for critical lens using of mice and men, months. It was already public knowledge that these initiatives had preceeded the escalation of February 1965 and, in fact, continued for several weeks after the bombing began.

Correspondents in Washington tried desperately to find some explanation for the startling deception that had been revealed. Chalmers Roberts, for example, wrote in the Boston Globe on November 19 with unconscious irony: [late February, 1965] hardly seemed to Washington to be a propitious moment for negotiations [since] Mr. And Television? Johnson…had just ordered the first bombing of North Vietnam in an effort to connective, bring Hanoi to a conference table where the bargaining chips on both sides would be more closely matched. Coming at that moment, Schlesinger’s statement is essay architecture and television, less an example of deceit than of contempt—contempt for valuable essay, an audience that can be expected to tolerate such behavior with silence, if not approval. [2] TO TURN TO SOMEONE closer to and television, the actual formation and implementation of policy, consider some of the reflections of valuable possessions essay Walt Rostow, a man who, according to Schlesinger, brought a “spacious historical view” to the conduct of on video and television foreign affairs in the Kennedy administration. Critical Using Of Mice And Men? [3] According to his analysis, the guerrilla warfare in Indo-China in 1946 was launched by Stalin, [4] and Hanoi initiated the guerrilla war against South Vietnam in 1958 ( The View from the Seventh Floor pp. 39 and 152). Similarly, the architecture and television Communist planners probed the ilyich “free world spectrum of defense” in Northern Azerbaijan and Greece (where Stalin “supported substantial guerrilla warfare”— ibid ., pp. Essay On Video? 36 and 148), operating from plans carefully laid in 1945.

And in Central Europe, the Soviet Union was not “prepared to accept a solution which would remove the of ivan ilyich dangerous tensions from Central Europe at the risk of even slowly staged corrosion of Communism in East Germany” ( ibid ., p. 156). It is interesting to compare these observations with studies by scholars actually concerned with historical events. The remark about Stalin’s initiating the first Vietnamese war in 1946 does not even merit refutation. As to Hanoi’s purported initiative of 1958, the situation is more clouded. But even government sources [5] concede that in essay on video and television 1959 Hanoi received the first direct reports of essay of mice what Diem referred to essay, [6] as his own Algerian war and that only after this did they lay their plans to possessions essay, involve themselves in this struggle. In fact, in December, 1958, Hanoi made another of its many attempts—rebuffed once again by Saigon and the United States—to establish diplomatic and commercial relations with the Saigon government on the basis of the status quo. [7] Rostow offers no evidence of Stalin’s support for the Greek guerrillas; in fact, though the historical record is far from on video architecture and television, clear, it seems that Stalin was by of ivan, no means pleased with the adventurism of the Greek guerrillas, who, from his point of view, were upsetting the satisfactory post-war imperialist settlement. [8] Rostow’s remarks about Germany are more interesting still. He does not see fit to mention, for essay on video and television, example, the Russian notes of March-April, 1952, which proposed unification of Germany under internationally supervised elections, with withdrawal of all troops within a year, if there was a guarantee that a reunified Germany would not be permitted to join a Western military alliance. [9] And he has also momentarily forgotten his own characterization of the strategy of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations: “to avoid any serious negotiation with the Soviet Union until the essay using and men West could confront Moscow with German rearmament within an essay on video, organized European framework, as a fait accompli “ [10] —to be sure, in critical lens using and men defiance of the Potsdam agreements. But most interesting of on video and television all is valuable essay, Rostow’s reference to Iran.

The facts are that there was a Russian attempt to impose by force a pro-Soviet government in Northern Azerbaijan that would grant the Soviet Union access to Iranian oil. This was rebuffed by superior Anglo-American force in on video and television 1946, at contrast sir gawain, which point the more powerful imperialism obtained full rights to Iranian oil for essay architecture and television, itself, with the installation of a pro-Western government. Critical Lens Of Mice And Men? We recall what happened when, for a brief period in the early 1950s, the only Iranian government with something of a popular base experimented with the curious idea that Iranian oil should belong to the Iranians. What is architecture and television, interesting, however, is the description of Northern Azerbaijan as part of valuable possessions “the free world spectrum of defense.” It is pointless, by now, to comment on the debasement of the phrase “free world.” But by what law of nature does Iran, with its resources, fall within Western dominion? The bland assumption that it does is most revealing of deep-seated attitudes toward the conduct of foreign affairs. IN ADDITION to this growing lack of concern for truth, we find, in recent published statements, a real or feigned naivete about architecture and television, American actions that reaches startling proportions.

For example, Arthur Schlesinger, according to the Times , February 6, 1966, characterized our Vietnamese policies of 1954 as “part of our general program of international goodwill.” Unless intended as irony, this remark shows either a colossal cynicism, or the inability, on to write a thesis abstract, a scale that defies measurement, to comprehend elementary phenomena of contemporary history. Similarly, what is on video architecture and television, one to make of the testimony of ilyich Thomas Schelling before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, January 27, 1965, in which he discusses two great dangers if all Asia “goes Communist”? [11] First, this would exclude “the United States and what we call Western civilization from a large part of the world that is poor and colored and potentially hostile.” Second, “a country like the United States probably cannot maintain self-confidence if just about the greatest thing it ever attempted, namely to create the basis for decency and prosperity and democratic government in the underdeveloped world, had to be acknowledged as a failure or as an attempt that we wouldn’t try again.” It surpasses belief that a person with even a minimal acquaintance with the record of essay architecture and television American foreign policy could produce such statements. It surpasses belief, that is, unless we look at the matter from a more historical point of essay view, and place such statements in the context of the essay and television hypocritical moralism of the past; for example, of Woodrow Wilson, who was going to for essays, teach the Latin Americans the art of good government, and architecture and television who wrote (1902) that it is “our peculiar duty” to teach colonial peoples “order and self-control…[and]…the drill and habit of law and obedience….” Or of the missionaries of the 1840s, who described the hideous and degrading opium wars as “the result of a great design of Providence to make the wickedness of men subserve his purposes of mercy toward China, in breaking through her wall of exclusion, and bringing the empire into more immediate contact with western and Christian nations.” Or, to approach the to write a thesis present, of A.A. Berle, who, in commenting on the Dominican intervention, has the impertinence to attribute the essay problems of the a thesis abstract Caribbean countries to imperialism— Russian imperialism. [12] AS A FINAL EXAMPLE of this failure of skepticism, consider the remarks of Henry Kissinger in essay on video architecture his concluding remarks at the Harvard-Oxford television debate on America’s Vietnam policies. He observed, rather sadly, that what disturbs him most is that others question not our judgment, but our motives—a remarkable comment by a man whose professional concern is connective for essays, political analysis, that is, analysis of the actions of governments in terms of motives that are unexpressed in essay on video architecture official propaganda and perhaps only dimly perceived by those whose acts they govern. No one would be disturbed by an analysis of the essay political behavior of the Russians, French, or Tanzanians questioning their motives and interpreting their actions by the long-range interests concealed behind their official rhetoric.

But it is an article of faith that American motives are pure, and not subject to analysis (see note 1 ). Architecture And Television? Although it is nothing new in American intellectual history—or, for that matter, in the general history of imperialist apologia—this innocence becomes increasingly distasteful as the essay power it serves grows more dominant in world affairs, and more capable, therefore, of the unconstrained viciousness that the mass media present to us each day. We are hardly the first power in history to combine material interests, great technological capacity, and an utter disregard for the suffering and misery of the lower orders. The long tradition of naivete and self-righteousness that disfigures our intellectual history, however, must serve as a warning to the third world, if such a warning is needed, as to how our protestations of sincerity and benign intent are to be interpreted. The basic assumptions of the “New Frontiersmen” should be pondered carefully by those who look forward to the involvement of academic intellectuals in essay architecture and television politics. For example, I have referred above to Arthur Schlesinger’s objections to the Bay of Pigs invasion, but the reference was imprecise. True, he felt that it was a “terrible idea,” but “not because the critical lens essay of mice notion of sponsoring an exile attempt to overthrow Castro seemed intolerable in itself.” Such a reaction would be the merest sentimentality, unthinkable to a tough-minded realist. The difficulty, rather, was that it seemed unlikely that the deception could succeed. The operation, in his view, was ill-conceived but not otherwise objectionable. [13] In a similar vein, Schlesinger quotes with approval Kennedy’s “realistic” assessment of the situation resulting from Trujillo’s assassination:

There are three possibilities in descending order of preference: a decent democratic regime, a continuation of the essay and television Trujillo regime or a Castro regime. We ought to aim at the first, but we really can’t renounce the second until we are sure that we can avoid the third [p. Valuable Possessions? 769]. The reason why the third possibility is so intolerable is explained a few pages later (p. 774): “Communist success in Latin America would deal a much harder blow to the power and architecture influence of the United States.” Of course, we can never really be sure of avoiding the third possibility; therefore, in practice, we will always settle for the second, as we are now doing in Brazil and Argentina, for example. [14] Or consider Walt Rostow’s views on American policy in Asia. [15] The basis on which we must build this policy is that “we are openly threatened and we feel menaced by Communist China.” To prove that we are menaced is of course unnecessary, and the matter receives no attention; it is enough that we feel menaced. Our policy must be based on our national heritage and our national interests. Our national heritage is briefly outlined in the following terms: “Throughout the nineteenth century, in good conscience Americans could devote themselves to the extension of both their principles and their power on this continent,” making use of “the somewhat elastic concept of the connective phrases for essays Monroe doctrine” and, of course, extending “the American interest to Alaska and the mid-Pacific islands…. Both our insistence on unconditional surrender and the idea of essay on video architecture and television post-war occupation…represented the formulation of American security interests in Europe and comparison contrast sir gawain Asia.” So much for our heritage. As to our interests, the matter is equally simple. Fundamental is our “profound interest that societies abroad develop and and television strengthen those elements in their respective cultures that elevate and protect the ilyich essay dignity of the on video and television individual against the state.” At the same time, we must counter the “ideological threat,” namely “the possibility that the Chinese Communists can prove to a thesis abstract, Asians by progress in China that Communist methods are better and faster than democratic methods.” Nothing is said about those people in Asian cultures to whom our “conception of the proper relation of the on video and television individual to the state” may not be the uniquely important value, people who might, for a thesis abstract, example, be concerned with preserving the “dignity of the individual” against essay and television concentrations of foreign or domestic capital, or against semi-feudal structures (such as Trujillo-type dictatorships) introduced or kept in power by American arms.

All of this is flavored with allusions to “our religious and ethical value systems” and to our “diffuse and complex concepts” which are to the Asian mind “so much more difficult to grasp” than Marxist dogma, and are so “disturbing to generator worksheet, some Asians” because of “their very lack of dogmatism.” Such intellectual contributions as these suggest the need for a correction to De Gaulle’s remark, in his Memoirs , about the American “will to essay on video, power, cloaking itself in idealism.” By now, this will to power is not so much cloaked in idealism as it is drowned in fatuity. And academic intellectuals have made their unique contribution to this sorry picture. LET US, HOWEVER, RETURN to the war in Vietnam and the response that it has aroused among American intellectuals. A striking feature of the lens recent debate on Southeast Asian policy has been the distinction that is architecture and television, commonly drawn between “responsible criticism,” on the one hand, and “sentimental,” or “emotional,” or “hysterical” criticism, on the other. Valuable Possessions? There is essay and television, much to be learned from to write, a careful study of the terms in which this distinction is drawn. The “hysterical critics” are to be identified, apparently, by architecture and television, their irrational refusal to accept one fundamental political axiom, namely that the United States has the right to extend its power and control without limit, insofar as is feasible. Responsible criticism does not challenge this assumption, but argues, rather, that we probably can’t “get away with it” at this particular time and place. A distinction of this sort seems to be what Irving Kristol, for example, has in to write mind in his analysis of the protest over Vietnam policy ( Encounter , August, 1965). On Video Architecture And Television? He contrasts the responsible critics, such as Walter Lippmann, the worksheet Times , and Senator Fulbright, with the “teach-in movement.” “Unlike the university protesters,” he points out, “Mr.

Lippmann engages in on video architecture and television no presumptuous suppositions as to ‘what the Vietnamese people really want’—he obviously doesn’t much care—or in legalistic exegesis as to whether, or to what extent, there is ‘aggression’ or ‘revolution’ in South Vietnam. His is a realpolitik point of thesis statement generator worksheet view; and he will apparently even contemplate the possibility of a nuclear war against China in extreme circumstances.” This is commendable, and contrasts favorably, for Kristol, with the talk of the “unreasonable, ideological types” in the teach-in movement, who often seem to be motivated by such absurdities as “simple, virtuous ‘anti-imperialism,’ “who deliver “harangues on ‘the power structure,’ ” and who even sometimes stoop so low as to read “articles and reports from the foreign press on the American presence in Vietnam.” Furthermore, these nasty types are often psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, or philosophers (just as, incidentally, those most vocal in protest in the Soviet Union are generally physicists, literary intellectuals, and others remote from the exercise of power), rather than people with Washington contacts, who, of essay architecture and television course, realize that “had they a new, good idea about Vietnam, they would get a prompt and respectful hearing” in Washington. I am not interested here in whether Kristol’s characterization of protest and dissent is accurate, but rather in comparison contrast beowulf the assumptions on which it rests. Is the purity of American motives a matter that is beyond discussion, or that is irrelevant to discussion? Should decisions be left to “experts” with Washington contacts—even if we assume that they command the necessary knowledge and principles to essay architecture, make the “best” decision, will they invariably do so?

And, a logically prior question, is “expertise” applicable—that is, is there a body of theory and of relevant information, not in valuable essay the public domain, that can be applied to the analysis of foreign policy or that demonstrates the correctness of present actions in some way that psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, and philosophers are incapable of comprehending? Although Kristol does not examine these questions directly, his attitude presupposes answers, answers which are wrong in all cases. American aggressiveness, however it may be masked in pious rhetoric, is a dominant force in world affairs and must be analyzed in terms of its causes and motives. There is no body of essay on video theory or significant body of relevant information, beyond the comprehension of the layman, which makes policy immune from criticism. Thesis Generator Worksheet? To the extent that “expert knowledge” is applied to world affairs, it is surely appropriate—for a person of any integrity, quite necessary—to question its quality and the goals it serves. On Video? These facts seem too obvious to require extended discussion. A CORRECTIVE to Kristol’s curious belief in contrast essay beowulf the Administration’s openness to new thinking about essay on video architecture, Vietnam is provided by using of mice, McGeorge Bundy in a recent issue of Foreign Affairs (January, 1967). As Bundy correctly observes, “on the main stage…the argument on Viet Nam turns on tactics, not fundamentals,” although, he adds, “there are wild men in the wings.” On stage center are, of course, the President (who in his recent trip to Asia had just “magisterially reaffirmed” our interest “in the essay on video architecture progress of the people across the Pacific”) and his advisers, who deserve “the understanding support of those who want restraint.” It is thesis statement, these men who deserve the architecture and television credit for lens and men, the fact that “the bombing of the North has been the most accurate and the most restrained in modern warfare”—a solicitude which will be appreciated by the inhabitants, or former inhabitants of Nam Dinh and Phu Ly and Vinh.

It is these men, too, who deserve the credit for what was reported by Malcolm Browne as long ago as May, 1965: In the South, huge sectors of the nation have been declared “free bombing zones,” in essay on video which anything that moves is a legitimate target. Tens of thousands of tons of of ivan bombs, rockets, napalm and cannon fire are poured into these vast areas each week. Architecture? If only by the laws of chance, bloodshed is believed to be heavy in these raids. Fortunately for the developing countries, Bundy assures us, “American democracy has no taste for imperialism,” and “taken as a whole, the stock of American experience, understanding, sympathy and simple knowledge is now much the most impressive in the world.” It is true that “four-fifths of all the foreign investing in the world is now done by Americans” and that “the most admired plans and policies…are no better than their demonstrable relation to the American interest”—just as it is true, so we read in the same issue of Foreign Affairs , that the lens essay of mice plans for armed action against Cuba were put into motion a few weeks after Mikoyan visited Havana, “invading what had so long been an almost exclusively American sphere of influence.” Unfortunately, such facts as these are often taken by unsophisticated Asian intellectuals as indicating a “taste for imperialism.” For example, a number of Indians have expressed their “near exasperation” at the fact that “we have done everything we can to attract foreign capital for fertilizer plants, but the American and and television the other Western private companies know we are over generator a barrel, so they demand stringent terms which we just cannot meet” ( Christian Science Monitor , November 26), while “Washington…doggedly insists that deals be made in the private sector with private enterprise” ( ibid ., December 5). [16] But this reaction, no doubt, simply reveals, once again, how the Asian mind fails to comprehend the “diffuse and complex concepts” of Western thought.

IT MAY BE USEFUL to study carefully the “new, good ideas about Vietnam” that are receiving a “prompt and respectful hearing” in Washington these days. The US Government Printing Office is an endless source of insight into the moral and intellectual level of this expert advice. In its publications one can read, for example, the testimony of Professor David N. Essay On Video And Television? Rowe, Director of Graduate Studies in International Relations at Yale University, before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs (see note 11 ). Beowulf? Professor Rowe proposes (p. 266) that the United States buy all surplus Canadian and Australian wheat, so that there will be mass starvation in China. These are his words: Mind you, I am not talking about this as a weapon against the Chinese people. It will be. But that is only incidental. The weapon will be a weapon against on video architecture and television the Government because the internal stability of that country cannot be sustained by an unfriendly Government in the face of general starvation. Professor Rowe will have none of the sentimental moralism that might lead one to critical lens using of mice and men, compare this suggestion with, say, the Ostpolitik of Hitler’s Germany. [17] Nor does he fear the essay architecture impact of such policies on thesis worksheet, other Asian nations, for example, Japan. Architecture? He assures us, from his “very long acquaintance with Japanese questions,” that “the Japanese above all are people who respect power and determination.” Hence “they will not be so much alarmed by American policy in Vietnam that takes off from a position of power and intends to seek a solution based upon the imposition of our power upon local people that we are in thesis generator worksheet opposition to.” What would disturb the Japanese is “a policy of indecision, a policy of refusal to essay architecture, face up to the problems [in China and worksheet Vietnam] and to meet our responsibilities there in architecture a positive way,” such as the way just cited.

A conviction that we were “unwilling to use the power that they know we have” might “alarm the Japanese people very intensely and shake the degree of their friendly relations with us.” In fact, a full use of American power would be particularly reassuring to the Japanese, because they have had a demonstration “of the tremendous power in action of the United States…because they have felt our power directly.” This is surely a prime example of the healthy, “ realpolitik point of connective phrases view” that Irving Kristol so much admires. But, one may ask, why restrict ourselves to such indirect means as mass starvation? Why not bombing? No doubt this message is architecture and television, implicit in the remarks to the same committee of the Reverend R.J. de Jaegher, Regent of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Seton Hall University, who explains that like all people who have lived under Communism, the North Vietnamese “would be perfectly happy to critical lens, be bombed to be free” (p. 345). Of course, there must be those who support the Communists. But this is really a matter of small concern, as the Hon Walter Robertson, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs from 1953-59, points out in his testimony before the and television same committee. Essay? He assures us that “The Peiping regime…represents something less than 3 per essay cent of the population” (p. Beowulf Sir Gawain? 402). Consider, then, how fortunate the Chinese Communist leaders are, compared to the leaders of the Vietcong, who, according to Arthur Goldberg ( New York Times , February 6, 1966), represent about “one-half of one percent of the population of South Vietnam,” that is, about one-half the number of on video new Southern recruits for thesis statement, the Vietcong during 1965, if we can credit Pentagon statistics. [18] In the essay on video architecture and television face of such experts as these, the scientists and philosophers of whom Kristol speaks would clearly do well to continue to comparison contrast essay, draw their circles in essay on video the sand.

HAVING SETTLED THE ISSUE of the political irrelevance of the protest movement, Kristol turns to the question of what motivates it—more generally, what has made students and junior faculty “go left,” as he sees it, amid general prosperity and under liberal, Welfare State administrations. This, he notes, “is a riddle to thesis statement generator worksheet, which no sociologist has as yet come up with an answer.” Since these young people are well-off, have good futures, etc., their protest must be irrational. It must be the result of boredom, of too much security, or something of this sort. Other possibilities come to mind. It may be, for architecture and television, example, that as honest men the thesis students and junior faculty are attempting to find out the essay on video truth for themselves rather than ceding the responsibility to “experts” or to government; and it may be that they react with indignation to what they discover. These possibilities Kristol does not reject.

They are simply unthinkable, unworthy of consideration. More accurately, these possibilities are inexpressible; the categories in which they are formulated (honesty, indignation) simply do not exist for the tough-minded social scientist. IN THIS IMPLICIT DISPARAGEMENT of traditional intellectual values, Kristol reflects attitudes that are fairly widespread in academic circles. I do not doubt that these attitudes are in part a consequence of the desperate attempt of the social and behavioral sciences to imitate the surface features of sciences that really have significant intellectual content. But they have other sources as well. Anyone can be a moral individual, concerned with human rights and problems; but only a college professor, a trained expert, can solve technical problems by “sophisticated” methods. Ergo, it is only problems of the latter sort that are important or real. Responsible, non-ideological experts will give advice on tactical questions; irresponsible, “ideological types” will “harangue” about principle and trouble themselves over moral issues and human rights, or over the traditional problems of man and using of mice society, concerning which “social and behavioral science” has nothing to offer beyond trivalities. Obviously, these emotional, ideological types are irrational, since, being well-off and on video and television having power in their grasp, they shouldn’t worry about such matters.

At times this pseudo-scientific posing reaches levels that are almost pathological. Consider the phenomenon of Herman Kahn, for example. Kahn has been both denounced as immoral and lauded for his courage. By people who should know better, his On Thermonuclear War has been described “without qualification…[as]…one of the great works of contrast essay our time” (Stuart Hughes). The fact of the matter is essay and television, that this is surely one of the emptiest works of our time, as can be seen by applying to beowulf, it the intellectual standards of any existing discipline, by tracing some of its “well-documented conclusions” to the “objective studies” from essay on video, which they derive, and by following the line of argument, where detectable. Kahn proposes no theories, no explanations, no factual assumptions that can be tested against their consequences, as do the sciences he is ilyich essay, attempting to mimic.

He simply suggests a terminology and essay and television provides a facade of ilyich rationality. When particular policy conclusions are drawn, they are supported only by ex cathedra remarks for essay architecture, which no support is even suggested (e.g., “The civil defense line probably should be drawn somewhere below $5 billion annually” to keep from provoking the Russians—why not $50 billion, or $5.00?). What is more, Kahn is quite aware of this vacuity; in his more judicious moments he claims only ilyich, that “there is no reason to believe that relatively sophisticated models are more likely to on video, be misleading than the simpler models and analogies frequently used as an aid to judgment.” For those whose humor tends towards the essay macabre, it is easy to play the game of “strategic thinking” a la Kahn, and to prove what one wishes. For example, one of Kahn’s basic assumptions is that. an all-out surprise attack in which all resources are devoted to essay on video architecture, counter-value targets would be so irrational that, barring an incredible lack of sophistication or actual insanity among Soviet decision makers, such an attack is a thesis abstract, highly unlikely. A simple argument proves the opposite. Premise 1: American decision-makers think along the lines outlined by Herman Kahn. Essay On Video And Television? Premise 2 : Kahn thinks it would be better for valuable essay, everyone to be red than for everyone to be dead. Premise 3 : if the Americans were to respond to an all-out countervalue attack, then everyone would be dead. Conclusion : the Americans will not respond to an all-out countervalue attack, and therefore it should be launched without delay. Essay Architecture And Television? Of course, one can carry the argument a step further.

Fact : the Russians have not carried out an all-out countervalue attack. It follows that they are not rational. If they are not rational, there is no point in “strategic thinking.” Therefore,…. Of course this is all nonsense, but nonsense that differs from Kahn’s only in the respect that the statement argument is of slightly greater complexity than anything to be discovered in his work. What is remarkable is that serious people actually pay attention to these absurdities, no doubt because of the facade of tough-mindedness and pseudo-science. IT IS A CURIOUS and depressing fact that the “anti-war movement” falls prey all too often to similar confusions. In the fall of 1965, for example, there was an International Conference on Alternative Perspectives on Vietnam, which circulated a pamphlet to potential participants stating its assumptions. The plan was to on video architecture, set up study groups in which three “types of intellectual tradition” will be represented: (1) area specialists; (2) “social theory, with special emphasis on theories of the critical lens essay using and men international system, of social change and development, of on video and television conflict and conflict resolution, or of revolution”; (3) “the analysis of public policy in connective terms of essay and television basic human values, rooted in possessions essay various theological, philosophical and essay architecture and television humanist traditions.” The second intellectual tradition will provide “general propositions, derived from lens essay using, social theory and tested against historical, comparative, or experimental data”; the third “will provide the framework out of which fundamental value questions can be raised and in terms of which the moral implications of societal actions can be analyzed.” The hope was that “by approaching the on video questions [of Vietnam policy] from the moral perspectives of all great religions and philosophical systems, we may find solutions that are more consistent with fundamental human values than current American policy in Vietnam has turned out to be.” In short, the experts on values (i.e., spokesmen for the great religions and philosophical systems) will provide fundamental insights on moral perspectives, and the experts on social theory will provide general empirically validated propositions and “general models of conflict.” From this interplay, new policies will emerge, presumably from application of the canons of scientific method.

The only debatable issue, it seems to me, is whether it is more ridiculous to turn to lens essay and men, experts in social theory for general well-confirmed propositions, or to the specialists in the great religions and philosophical systems for architecture and television, insights into fundamental human values. There is valuable possessions essay, much more that can be said about this topic, but, without continuing, I would simply like to emphasize that, as is no doubt obvious, the cult of the experts is both self-serving, for on video, those who propound it, and fraudulent. Obviously, one must learn from social and behavioral science whatever one can; obviously, these fields should be pursued as seriously as possible. But it will be quite unfortunate, and valuable possessions highly dangerous, if they are not accepted and judged on their merits and according to on video architecture, their actual, not pretended, accomplishments. In particular, if there is a body of theory, well-tested and verified, that applies to the conduct of foreign affairs or the resolution of domestic or international conflict, its existence has been kept a well-guarded secret. In the case of Vietnam, if those who feel themselves to be experts have access to principles or information that would justify what the American government is doing in that unfortunate country, they have been singularly ineffective in ilyich making this fact known. To anyone who has any familiarity with the essay on video architecture social and behavioral sciences (or the “policy sciences”), the claim that there are certain considerations and principles too deep for the outsider to comprehend is simply an absurdity, unworthy of comment. WHEN WE CONSIDER the responsibility of intellectuals, our basic concern must be their role in the creation and analysis of ideology. And, in fact, Kristol’s contrast between the unreasonable ideological types and the responsible experts is formulated in terms that immediately bring to mind Daniel Bell’s interesting and influential “The End of Ideology,” an essay which is valuable, as important for essay on video, what it leaves unsaid as for connective phrases, its actual content. [19] Bell presents and on video architecture discusses the Marxist analysis of ideology as a mask for class interest, quoting Marx’s well-known description of the belief of the lens using of mice bourgeoisie “that the special conditions of its emancipation are the general conditions through which alone modern society can be saved and the class struggle avoided.” He then argues that the age of ideology is ended, supplanted, at least in the West, by a general agreement that each issue must be settled in its own terms, within the framework of a Welfare State in which, presumably, experts in the conduct of public affairs will have a prominent role.

Bell is essay architecture and television, quite careful, however, to characterize the contrast sir gawain precise sense of “ideology” in which “ideologies are exhausted.” He is essay architecture, referring to ideology only as “the conversion of of ivan ilyich ideas into social levers,” to ideology as “a set of beliefs, infused with passion,…[which] …seeks to transform the whole of a way of life.” The crucial words are “transform” and “convert into social levers.” Intellectuals in essay and television the West, he argues, have lost interest in converting ideas into social levers for of ivan ilyich, the radical transformation of society. Now that we have achieved the pluralistic society of the Welfare State, they see no further need for a radical transformation of society; we may tinker with our way of life here and there, but it would be wrong to try to modify it in any significant way. With this consensus of intellectuals, ideology is dead. There are several striking facts about Bell’s essay. First, he does not point out the essay on video and television extent to which this consensus of the comparison contrast beowulf sir gawain intellectuals is self-serving. On Video Architecture? He does not relate his observation that, by thesis worksheet, and large, intellectuals have lost interest in “transforming the whole of a way of life” to on video architecture, the fact that they play an increasingly prominent role in to write a thesis abstract running the Welfare State; he does not relate their general satisfaction with the essay on video architecture and television Welfare State to the fact that, as he observes elsewhere, “America has become an essay sir gawain, affluent society, offering place…and prestige…to the onetime radicals.” Secondly, he offers no serious argument to on video, show that intellectuals are somehow “right” or “objectively justified” in reaching the ilyich essay consensus to on video architecture, which he alludes, with its rejection of the notion that society should be transformed. Beowulf? Indeed, although Bell is fairly sharp about the empty rhetoric of the “new left,” he seems to have a quite utopian faith that technical experts will be able to essay on video, cope with the few problems that still remain; for to write a thesis, example, the fact that labor is treated as a commodity, and the problems of “alienation.” It seems fairly obvious that the classical problems are very much with us; one might plausibly argue that they have even been enhanced in severity and scale. For example, the classical paradox of poverty in essay on video architecture the midst of plenty is now an ever-increasing problem on an international scale. Whereas one might conceive, at least in principle, of a solution within national boundaries, a sensible idea of transforming international society to cope with vast and perhaps increasing human misery is hardly likely to develop within the framework of the intellectual consensus that Bell describes.

THUS IT WOULD SEEM NATURAL to describe the consensus of Bell’s intellectuals in somewhat different terms from his. Using the terminology of the first part of his essay, we might say that the Welfare State technician finds justification for his special and prominent social status in his “science,” specifically, in the claim that social science can support a technology of phrases for essays social tinkering on a domestic or international scale. Architecture And Television? He then takes a further step, ascribing in a thesis a familiar way a universal validity to what is in fact a class interest: he argues that the essay special conditions on which his claim to power and authority are based are, in fact, the only general conditions by which modern society can be saved; that social tinkering within a Welfare State framework must replace the connective for essays commitment to the “total ideologies” of the past, ideologies which were concerned with a transformation of society. Having found his position of power, having achieved security and affluence, he has no further need for ideologies that look to radical change. The scholar-expert replaces the “free-floating intellectual” who “felt that the wrong values were being honored, and rejected the society,” and on video architecture and television who has now lost his political role (now, that is, that the right values are being honored). Conceivably, it is correct that the technical experts who will (or hope to) manage the “industrial society” will be able to cope with the classical problems without a radical transformation of society. It is conceivably true that the bourgeoisie was right in regarding the special conditions of its emancipation as the only general conditions by a thesis abstract, which modern society would be saved. In either case, an argument is in order, and on video skepticism is justified when none appears. Within the same framework of general utopianism, Bell goes on to pose the thesis statement worksheet issue between Welfare State scholar-experts and third-world ideologists in a rather curious way. Essay On Video Architecture? He points out, quite correctly, that there is no issue of Communism, the content of that doctrine having been “long forgotten by friends and connective phrases foes alike.” Rather, he says,

the question is an older one: whether new societies can grow by essay, building democratic institutions and allowing people to make choices—and sacrifices—voluntarily, or whether the comparison essay new elites, heady with power, will impose totalitarian means to transform their societies. THE QUESTION is an interesting one. It is essay on video architecture and television, odd, however, to statement generator, see it referred to as “an older one.” Surely he cannot be suggesting that the on video architecture and television West chose the critical lens essay using and men democratic way—for example, that in England during the industrial revolution, the farmers voluntarily made the choice of leaving the land, giving up cottage industry, becoming an industrial proletariat, and voluntarily decided, within the essay framework of the existing democratic institutions, to make the sacrifices that are graphically described in valuable possessions essay the classic literature on nineteenth-century industrial society. One may debate the question whether authoritarian control is necessary to on video architecture, permit capital accumulation in the underdeveloped world, but the Western model of possessions development is hardly one that we can point to with any pride. On Video Architecture? It is perhaps not surprising to generator worksheet, find Walt Rostow referring to essay architecture, “the more humane processes [of industrialization] that Western values would suggest” ( An American Policy in Asia ). Those who have a serious concern for the problems that face backward countries, and for the role that advanced industrial societies might, in principle, play in connective for essays development and modernization, must use somewhat more care in interpreting the significance of the Western experience. Returning to the quite appropriate question, whether “new societies can grow by building democratic institutions” or only by totalitarian means, I think that honesty requires us to recognize that this question must be directed more to American intellectuals than to third-world ideologists. The backward countries have incredible, perhaps insurmountable problems, and few available options; the United States has a wide range of options, and has the economic and technological resources, though, evidently, neither the intellectual nor moral resources, to confront at least some of these problems. It is easy for architecture and television, an American intellectual to critical and men, deliver homilies on essay, the virtues of freedom and liberty, but if he is really concerned about, say, Chinese totalitarianism or the burdens imposed on the Chinese peasantry in forced industrialization, then he should face a task that is infinitely more important and challenging—the task of essay creating, in the United States, the intellectual and moral climate, as well as the on video architecture social and economic conditions, that would permit this country to participate in modernization and development in a way commensurate with its material wealth and thesis worksheet technical capacity. Large capital gifts to essay, Cuba and China might not succeed in alleviating the authoritarianism and terror that tend to valuable essay, accompany early stages of capital accumulation, but they are far more likely to have this effect than lectures on democratic values. It is possible that even without “capitalist encirclement” in its various manifestations, the truly democratic elements in revolutionary movements—in some instances, soviets and collectives—might be undermined by an “elite” of bureaucrats and technical intelligentsia.

But it is almost certain that capitalist encirclement itself, which all revolutionary movements now have to face, will guarantee this result. The lesson, for those who are concerned to strengthen the democratic, spontaneous, and popular elements in developing societies, is quite clear. Lectures on the two-party system, or even on essay on video architecture and television, the really substantial democratic values that have been in part realized in Western society, are a monstrous irrelevance, given the effort required to raise the level of culture in Western society to statement generator worksheet, the point where it can provide a “social lever” for both economic development and the development of true democratic institutions in the third world—and, for that matter, at essay and television, home. A GOOD CASE CAN BE MADE for the conclusion that there is generator worksheet, indeed something of a consensus among intellectuals who have already achieved power and affluence, or who sense that they can achieve them by essay on video and television, “accepting society” as it is and promoting the values that are “being honored” in this society. It is also true that this consensus is most noticeable among the scholar-experts who are replacing the to write free-floating intellectuals of the past. In the university, these scholar-experts construct a “value-free technology” for the solution of technical problems that arise in essay architecture and television contemporary society, [20] taking a “responsible stance” towards these problems, in the sense noted earlier. This consensus among the responsible scholar-experts is the domestic analogue to that proposed, internationally, by those who justify the application of American power in of mice and men Asia, whatever the on video architecture and television human cost, on connective phrases, the grounds that it is necessary to contain the essay on video architecture and television “expansion of of mice and men China” (an “expansion” which is, to architecture, be sure, hypothetical for the time being) [21] —that is, to translate from State Department Newspeak, on the grounds that it is essential to reverse the Asian nationalist revolutions or, at least, to ilyich, prevent them from essay on video architecture and television, spreading. The analogy becomes clear when we look carefully at the ways in which this proposal is formulated. Comparison Contrast Essay Beowulf Sir Gawain? With his usual lucidity, Churchill outlined the general position in a remark to essay architecture and television, his colleague of the to write abstract moment, Joseph Stalin, at Teheran in 1943: The government of the world must be entrusted to satisfied nations, who wished nothing more for on video architecture and television, themselves than what they had. If the world-government were in the hands of to write abstract hungry nations there would always be danger.

But none of us had any reason to seek for anything more…. Our power placed us above the essay architecture and television rest. We were like the possessions essay rich men dwelling at peace within their habitations. For a translation of essay and television Churchill’s biblical rhetoric into the jargon of contemporary social science, one may turn to the testimony of Charles Wolf, Senior Economist of the Rand Corporation, at the Congressional Committee Hearings cited earlier: I am dubious that China’s fears of encirclement are going to be abated, eased, relaxed in the long-term future. But I would hope that what we do in Southeast Asia would help to develop within the Chinese body politic more of a realism and willingness to live with this fear than to indulge it by support for connective phrases, liberation movements, which admittedly depend on a great deal more than external support…the operational question for American foreign policy is on video architecture, not whether that fear can be eliminated or substantially alleviated, but whether China can be faced with a structure of phrases for essays incentives, of penalties and rewards, of inducements that will make it willing to live with this fear.

The point is further clarified by Thomas Schelling: “There is growing experience, which the Chinese can profit from, that although the United States may be interested in encircling them, may be interested in defending nearby areas from essay architecture, them, it is, nevertheless, prepared to behave peaceably if they are.” In short, we are prepared to live peaceably in our—to be sure, rather extensive—habitations. And, quite naturally, we are offended by the undignified noises from the servants’ quarters. If, let us say, a peasant-based revolutionary movement tries to achieve independence from foreign powers and the domestic structures they support, or if the Chinese irrationally refuse to respond properly to the schedule of reinforcement that we have prepared for to write abstract, them—if they object to being encircled by the benign and peace-loving “rich men” who control the territories on their borders as a natural right—then, evidently, we must respond to this belligerence with appropriate force. IT IS THIS MENTALITY that explains the frankness with which the United States Government and its academic apologists defend the American refusal to and television, permit a political settlement in Vietnam at a local level, a settlement based on the actual distribution of political forces. Even government experts freely admit that the NLF is the only “truly mass-based political party in South Vietnam” [22] ; that the NLF had “made a conscious and massive effort to extend political participation, even if it was manipulated, on the local level so as to involve the people in a self-contained, self-supporting revolution” (p. 374); and that this effort had been so successful that no political groups, “with the possible exception of the Buddhists, thought themselves equal in size and power to risk entering into a coalition, fearing that if they did the whale would swallow the minnow” (p. Phrases For Essays? 362). Moreover, they concede that until the introduction of overwhelming American force, the NLF had insisted that the struggle “should be fought out at the political level and that the use of essay on video and television massed military might was in itself illegitimate….

The battleground was to be the minds and critical essay of mice and men loyalties of the rural Vietnamese, the weapons were to essay architecture and television, be ideas” (pp. 91-92; cf. also pp. Of Ivan Essay? 93, 99-108, 155f.); and, correspondingly, that until mid-1964, aid from Hanoi “was largely confined to two areas—doctrinal know-how and leadership personnel” (p. 321). Captured NLF documents contrast the enemy’s “military superiority” with their own “political superiority” (p. 106), thus fully confirming the analysis of American military spokesmen who define our problem as how, “with considerable armed force but little political power, [to] contain an adversary who has enormous political force but only modest military power.” [23] Similarly, the most striking outcome of both the Honolulu conference in February and the Manila conference in October was the frank admission by high officials of the essay Saigon government that “they could not survive a ‘peaceful settlement’ that left the Vietcong political structure in place even if the Vietcong guerilla units were disbanded,” that “they are not able to compete politically with the Vietnamese Communists” (Charles Mohr, New York Times , February 11, 1966, italics mine). Comparison Contrast Essay Sir Gawain? Thus, Mohr continues, the Vietnamese demand a “pacification program” which will have as “its core…the destruction of the clandestine Vietcong political structure and the creation of an iron-like system of government political control over the population.” And from essay on video architecture, Manila, the same correspondent, on October 23, quotes a high South Vietnamese official as saying that: Frankly, we are not strong enough now to of ivan ilyich, compete with the Communists on a purely political basis. They are organized and disciplined. The non-Communist nationalists are not—we do not have any large, well-organized political parties and we do not yet have unity.

We cannot leave the essay Vietcong in existence. Officials in Washington understand the situation very well. Thus Secretary Rusk has pointed out that “if the Vietcong come to valuable, the conference table as full partners they will, in a sense, have been victorious in the very aims that South Vietnam and the United States are pledged to prevent” (January 28, 1966). Max Frankel reported from Washington in the Times on February 18, 1966, that. Compromise has had no appeal here because the essay and television Administration concluded long ago that the non-Communist forces of essay South Vietnam could not long survive in a Saigon coalition with Communists. It is for that reason—and not because of an excessively rigid sense of protocol—that Washington has steadfastly refused to essay on video architecture and television, deal with the Vietcong or recognize them as an connective phrases for essays, independent political force.

In short, we will—magnanimously—permit Vietcong representatives to attend negotiations only if they will agree to essay on video, identify themselves as agents of a foreign power and thus forfeit the to write a thesis abstract right to participate in a coalition government, a right which they have now been demanding for a half-dozen years. We well know that in any representative coalition, our chosen delegates could not last a day without the architecture and television support of American arms. A Thesis? Therefore, we must increase American force and essay on video and television resist meaningful negotiations, until the day when a client government can exert both military and generator worksheet political control over its own population—a day which may never dawn, for on video and television, as William Bundy has pointed out, we could never be sure of the security of a Southeast Asia “from which the Western presence was effectively withdrawn.” Thus if we were to connective phrases for essays, “negotiate in on video the direction of solutions that are put under the label of neutralization,” this would amount to capitulation to the Communists. Valuable? [24] According to essay architecture and television, this reasoning, then, South Vietnam must remain, permanently, an American military base. All of using of mice this is, of course, reasonable, so long as we accept the fundamental political axiom that the United States, with its traditional concern for the rights of the weak and downtrodden, and with its unique insight into the proper mode of development for backward countries, must have the courage and the persistence to impose its will by force until such time as other nations are prepared to accept these truths—or simply, to abandon hope. IF IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of the intellectual to insist upon the truth, it is also his duty to see events in their historical perspective. Thus one must applaud the insistence of the Secretary of State on the importance of historical analogies, the Munich analogy, for example. As Munich showed, a powerful and aggressive nation with a fanatic belief in its manifest destiny will regard each victory, each extension of its power and authority, as a prelude to the next step.

The matter was very well put by Adlai Stevenson, when he spoke of “the old, old route whereby expansive powers push at more and architecture and television more doors, believing they will open until, at the ultimate door, resistance is unavoidable and major war breaks out.” Herein lies the danger of appeasement, as the Chinese tirelessly point out to the Soviet Union—which, they claim, is playing Chamberlain to our Hitler in Vietnam. To Write Abstract? Of course, the aggressiveness of liberal imperialism is not that of Nazi Germany, though the essay on video architecture and television distinction may seem academic to critical lens using of mice, a Vietnamese peasant who is being gassed or incinerated. We do not want to occupy Asia; we merely wish, to return to Mr. Wolf, “to help the Asian countries progress toward economic modernization, as relatively ‘open’ and stable societies, to which our access, as a country and as individual citizens, is free and architecture comfortable.” The formulation is appropriate. Recent history shows that it makes little difference to us what form of government a country has so long as it remains an essay beowulf sir gawain, “open society,” in our peculiar sense of this term—that is, a society that remains open to American economic penetration or political control.

If it is necessary to approach genocide in Vietnam to achieve this objective, than this is the on video architecture price we must pay in defense of connective phrases freedom and essay on video the rights of man. In pursuing the aim of helping other countries to progress toward open societies, with no thought of territorial aggrandizement, we are breaking no new ground. In the Congressional Hearings that I cited earlier, Hans Morgenthau aptly describes our traditional policy towards China as one which favors “what you might call freedom of competition with regard to the exploitation of China” ( op. cit ., p. 128). Thesis Generator Worksheet? In fact, few imperialist powers have had explicit territorial ambitions. Thus in 1784, the British Parliament announced: “To pursue schemes of conquest and extension of dominion in India are measures repugnant to the wish, honor, and policy of essay this nation.” Shortly after this, the conquest of of ivan essay India was in full swing. A century later, Britain announced its intentions in essay on video architecture Egypt under the slogan “intervention, reform, withdrawal.” It is obvious which parts of this promise were fulfilled within the possessions essay next half-century. In 1936, on the eve of hostilities in essay on video North China, the Japanese stated their Basic Principles of National Policy. These included the use of moderate and peaceful means to extend her strength, to promote social and economic development, to eradicate the menace of Communism, to correct the aggressive policies of the beowulf great powers, and to on video and television, secure her position as the stabilizing power in East Asia. Even in 1937, the Japanese government had “no territorial designs upon China.” In short, we follow a well-trodden path. It is useful to remember, incidentally, that the US was apparently quite willing, as late as 1939, to negotiate a commercial treaty with Japan and arrive at a modus vivendi if Japan would “change her attitude and a thesis abstract practice towards our rights and interests in China,” as Secretary Hull put it.

The bombing of Chungking and the rape of Nanking were unpleasant, it is true, but what was really important was our rights and interests in China, as the responsible, unhysterical men of the day saw quite clearly. It was the closing of the open door by Japan that led inevitably to the Pacific war, just as it is the closing of the open door by “Communist” China itself that may very well lead to the next, and no doubt last, Pacific war. QUITE OFTEN, THE STATEMENTS of essay on video architecture sincere and for essays devoted technical experts give surprising insight into the intellectual attitudes that lie in the background of the latest savagery. Consider, for example, the following comment by the economist Richard Lindholm, in 1959, expressing his frustration over the failure of essay on video and television economic development in connective for essays “free Vietnam”: …the use of essay architecture and television American aid is determined by to write, how the architecture and television Vietnamese use their incomes and their savings. The fact that a large portion of the for essays Vietnamese imports financed with American aid are either consumer goods or raw materials used rather directly to meet consumer demands is an indication that the Vietnamese people desire these goods. for they have shown their desire by their willingness to use their piasters to purchase them. [25] In short, the Vietnamese people desire Buicks and air-conditioners, rather than sugar refining equipment or road-building machinery, as they have shown by architecture, their behavior in a free market. And however much we may deplore their free choice, we must allow the people to have their way. Of course, there are also those two-legged beasts of burden that one stumbles on in the countryside, but as any graduate student of political science can explain, they are not part of phrases a responsible modernizing elite, and essay on video architecture and television therefore have only a superficial biological resemblance to the human race.

In no small measure, it is attitudes like this that lie behind the connective butchery in Vietnam, and we had better face up to them with candor, or we will find our government leading us towards a “final solution” in essay architecture and television Vietnam, and in the many Vietnams that inevitably lie ahead. Let me finally return to Dwight Macdonald and the responsibility of intellectuals. Macdonald quotes an interview with a death-camp paymaster who burst into tears when told that the Russians would hang him. “Why should they? What have I done?” he asked. Macdonald concludes: “Only those who are willing to resist authority themselves when it conflicts too intolerably with their personal moral code, only of ivan, they have the on video architecture and television right to condemn the death-camp paymaster.” The question, “What have I done?” is one that we may well ask ourselves, as we read each day of fresh atrocities in Vietnam—as we create, or mouth, or tolerate the deceptions that will be used to justify the next defense of freedom.

[1] Such a research project has now been undertaken and critical lens essay of mice and men published as a “Citizens’ White Paper”: F. Schurmann, P. D. Scott, R. Zelnik, The Politics of Escalation in Vietnam , Fawcett World Library, and Beacon Press, 1966. Essay On Video And Television? For further evidence of American rejection of UN initiatives for thesis worksheet, diplomatic settlement, just prior to the major escalation of February, 1965, see Mario Rossi, “The US Rebuff to U Thant,” NYR , November 17, 1966. There is essay architecture and television, further documentary evidence of NLF attempts to establish a coalition government and to neutralize the area, all rejected by the United States and its Saigon ally, in Douglas Pike, Viet Cong , M.I.T. Press, 1966. In reading material of this latter sort one must be especially careful to distinguish between the evidence presented and thesis worksheet the “conclusions” that are asserted, for reasons noted briefly below (see note 22 ). It is interesting to see the first, somewhat oblique, published reactions to The Politics of Escalation , by essay on video architecture, those who defend our right to conquer South Vietnam and institute a government of our choice. For example, Robert Scalapino ( New York Times Magazine , December 11, 1966) argues that the thesis of the book implies that our leaders are “diabolical.” Since no right-thinking person can believe this, the thesis is of ivan ilyich, refuted. To assume otherwise would betray “irresponsibility,” in essay architecture a unique sense of this term—a sense that gives an ironic twist to connective phrases for essays, the title of this essay.

He goes on to point out the alleged central weakness in the argument of the book, namely, the failure to perceive that a serious attempt on our part to pursue the possibilities for a diplomatic settlement would have been interpreted by our adversaries as a sign of architecture weakness. [2] At other times, Schlesinger does indeed display admirable scholarly caution. For example, in his Introduction to The Politics of Escalation he admits that there may have been “flickers of interest in negotiations” on phrases, the part of Hanoi. As to the Administration’s lies about negotiations and its repeated actions undercutting tentative initiatives towards negotiations, he comments only that the authors may have underestimated military necessity and architecture that future historians may prove them wrong. This caution and detachment must be compared with Schlesinger’s attitude toward renewed study of the origins of the cold war: in a letter to the New York Review of Books , October 20, 1966, he remarks that it is time to “blow the whistle” on statement, revisionist attempts to show that the cold war may have been the essay on video architecture and television consequence of something more than mere Communist belligerence. Essay And Men? We are to essay on video and television, believe, then, that the relatively straight-forward matter of the origins of the cold war is settled beyond discussion, whereas the possessions much more complex issue of why the United States shies away from a negotiated settlement in Vietnam must be left to future historians to ponder. It is useful to bear in mind that the United States Government itself is on architecture, occasion much less diffident in explaining why it refuses to of ivan ilyich essay, contemplate a meaningful negotiated settlement. As is freely admitted, this solution would leave it without power to control the situation.

See, for example note 26 . [3] Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days; John F. Kennedy in the White House , 1965, p. 421. [4] The View from the essay on video architecture Seventh Floor , Harper and Row, 1964, p. 149. See also his United States in the World Arena , Harper and Row, 1960, p. 244: “Stalin, exploiting the disruption and weakness of the postwar world, pressed out from the expanded base he had won during the thesis second World War in an effort to gain the balance of power in Eurasia…turning to the East, to back Mao and to architecture and television, enflame the North Korean and Indochinese Communists…” [5] For example, the article by cia analyst George Carver placed in Foreign Affairs , April, 1966. See also note 22 . [6] Cf. Jean Lacouture, Vietnam between Two Truces , Random House, 1966, p. 21. Diem’s analysis of the situation was shared by Western observers at the time.

See, for phrases, example, the comments of William Henderson, Far Eastern specialist and executive, Council on Foreign Relations, in R. W. Lindholm, ed., Vietnam: The First Five Years , Michigan State, 1959. He notes “the growing alienation of the intelligentsia,” “the renewal of on video and television armed dissidence in the South,” the fact that “security has noticeably deteriorated in the last two years,” all as a result of Diem’s “grim dictatorship,” and predicts “a steady worsening of the political climate in free Vietnam, culminating in lens unforeseen disasters.” [7] See Bernard Fall, “Vietnam in the Balance,” Foreign Affairs , October, 1966. [8] Stalin was neither pleased by the Titoist tendencies inside the on video and television Greek Communist party, nor by comparison essay sir gawain, the possibility that a Balkan federation might develop under Titoist leadership. It is, nevertheless, conceivable that Stalin supported the Greek guerrillas at some stage of the rebellion, in essay on video spite of the essay difficulty of obtaining firm documentary evidence.

Needless to say, no elaborate study is necessary to document the British or American role in this civil conflict, from late 1944. See D. G. Kousoulas, The Price of Freedom , Syracuse, 1953; Revolution and Defeat , Oxford, 1965, for serious study of architecture and television these events from a strongly anti-Communist point of view. [9] For a detailed account, see James Warburg, Germany: Key to statement, Peace , Harvard, 1953, p. 189f. Warburg concludes that apparently “the Kremlin was now prepared to accept the creation of an All-German democracy in the Western sense of that word,” whereas the Western powers, in their response, “frankly admitted their plan ‘to secure the participation of Germany in architecture and television a purely defensive European community’ ” (i.e., nato). [10] United States and the World Arena , pp. 344-45.

Incidentally, those who quite rightly deplore the brutal suppression of the East German and Hungarian revolutions would do well to remember that these scandalous events might have been avoided had the United States been willing to consider proposals for neutralization of Central Europe. Some of George Kennan’s recent statements provide interesting commentary on this matter, for example, his comments on the falsity. from the outset, of the assumption that the USSR intended to attack or intimidate by valuable essay, force the essay architecture and television Western half of the continent and that it was deterred by American force, and his remarks on critical using and men, the sterility and general absurdity of the demand for unilateral Soviet withdrawal from Eastern Germany together with “the inclusion of a united Germany as as a major component in a Western defense system based primarily on nuclear weaponry” ( Pacem in Terris , E. Reed, ed., Pocket Books, 1965). It is worth noting that historical fantasy of the on video sort illustrated in Rostow’s remarks has become a regular State Department specially. Thus we have Thomas Mann justifying our Dominican intervention as a response to actions of the “Sino-Soviet military bloc.” Or, to a thesis abstract, take a more considered statement, we have William Bundy’s analysis of stages of architecture and television development of Communist ideology in his Pomona College address, February 12, 1966, in which he characterizes the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s as “in a highly militant and aggressive phase.” What is frightening about phrases, fantasy, as distinct from outright falsification, is the possibility that it may be sincere and may actually serve as the on video architecture and television basis for formation of policy. [11] United States Policy Toward Asia , Hearings before the subcommittee on the Far East and the Pacific of the for essays Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of essay on video architecture Representatives, US Government Printing Office, 1966. [12] New York Times Book Review , November 20, 1966. Such comments call to mind the remarkable spectacle of President Kennedy counseling Cheddi Jagan on the dangers of entering into a trading relationship “which brought a country into a condition of economic dependence.” The reference, of course, is to the dangers in commercial relations with the Soviet Union. See Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. 776. [14] Though this too is imprecise. One must recall the real character of the Trujillo regime to appreciate the full cynicism of Kennedy’s “realistic” analysis.

[15] W. W. Rostow and R. W. Hatch, An American Policy in Asia , Technology Press and John Wiley, 1955. [16] American private enterprise, of course, has its own ideas as to contrast essay, how India’s problems are to be met. On Video Architecture? The Monitor reports the insistence of American entrepeneurs “on importing all equipment and machinery when India has a tested capacity to meet some of their requirements. They have insisted on importing liquid ammonia, a basic raw material, rather than using indigenous naptha which is abundantly available. They have laid down restrictions about essay, pricing, distribution, profits, and management control.” A major post-war scandal is essay on video and television, developing in India, as the ilyich essay United States, cynically capitalizing on India’s current torture, applies its economic power to essay on video and television, implement what The New York Times calls India’s “drift from socialism towards pragmatism” (April 28, 1965).

[17] Although, to maintain perspective, we should recall that in his wildest moments, Alfred Rosenberg spoke of the elimination of thirty million Slavs, not the imposition of mass starvation on a quarter of the human race. Incidentally, the analogy drawn here is highly “irresponsible,” in the technical sense of this neologism discussed earlier. That is, it is based on the assumption that statements and actions of Americans are subject to the same standards and open to the same interpretations as those of anyone else. [18] The New York Times , February 6, 1966. Connective Phrases For Essays? Goldberg continues, the United States is not certain that all of these are voluntary adherents. This is not the first such demonstration of on video architecture Communist duplicity. Ilyich? Another example was seen in essay and television the year 1962, when according to contrast essay beowulf sir gawain, US Government sources 15,000 guerrillas suffered 30,000 casualties. See Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. 982. [19] Reprinted in a collection of essays, The End of Ideology: on essay architecture and television, the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties , Free Press, 1960.

I have no intention here of entering into the full range of issues that have been raised in possessions essay the discussion of “end of ideology” for architecture and television, the past dozen years. It is of ivan ilyich, difficult to see how a rational person could quarrel with many of the essay and television theses that have been put forth, e.g., that at a certain historical moment the “politics of civility” is appropriate and, perhaps, efficacious; that one who advocates action (or inaction) has a responsibility to assess its social cost; that dogmatic fanaticism and “secular religions” should be combated (or if possible, ignored); that technical solutions to problems should be implemented, where possible; that “ le dogmatisme ideologique devait disparaitre pour que les idees reprissent vie ” (Aron), and so on. Since this is sometimes taken to be an expression of an “anti-Marxist” position, it is worth keeping in mind that such sentiments as these have no bearing on non-Bolshevik Marxism, as represented, for example, by comparison contrast beowulf, such figures as Luxemburg, Pannekoek, Korsch, Arthur Rosenberg, and others. [20] The extent to which this “technology” is value-free is hardly very important, given the on video and television clear commitments of those who apply it. The problems with which research is concerned are those posed by the Pentagon or the great corporations, not, say, by the revolutionaries of Northeast Brazil or by SNCC. Nor am I aware of possessions a research project devoted to the problem of how poorly armed guerrillas might more effectively resist a brutal and devastating military technology—surely the kind of and television problem that would have interested the free-floating intellectual who is now hopelessly out of ilyich essay date. [21] In view of the unremitting propaganda barrage on “Chinese expansion,” perhaps a word of comment is in order. Typical of American propaganda on this subject is Adlai Stevenson’s assessment, shortly before his death (cf. The New York Times Magazine , March 13, 1966): “So far, the new Communist ‘dynasty’ has been very aggressive. Tibet was swallowed, India attacked, the Malays had to fight 12 years to resist a ‘national liberation’ they could receive from the British by a more peaceful route.

Today, the apparatus of infiltration and aggression is architecture, already at work in North Thailand.” As to Malaya, Stevenson is lens using and men, probably confusing ethnic Chinese with the government of China. Those concerned with the actual events would agree with Harry Miller (in Communist Menace in Malaya , Praeger, 1954) that “Communist China continues to show little interest in the Malayan affair beyond its usual fulminations via Peking Radio…” There are various harsh things that one might say about Chinese behavior in what the Sino-Indian Treaty of 1954 refers to as “the Tibet region of China,” but it is no more proof of essay and television a tendency towards expansionism than is the behavior of the Indian Government with regard to the Naga and Mizo tribesmen. As to North Thailand, “the apparatus of ilyich essay infiltration” may well be at work, though there is little reason to suppose it to essay architecture, be Chinese—and it is surely not unrelated to the American use of Thailand as a base of essay of mice its attack on essay on video architecture and television, Vietnam. Abstract? This reference is the essay on video architecture and television sheerest hypocrisy. The “attack on India” grew out of a border dispute that began several years after the Chinese had completed a road from Tibet to Sinkiang in connective an area so remote from essay architecture and television, Indian control that the lens essay using Indians learned about this operation only on video and television, from the phrases for essays Chinese Press. According to American Air Force maps, the disputed area is in Chinese territory. Cf. Alastair Lamb, China Quarterly , July-September, 1965.

To this distinguished authority, “it seems unlikely that the Chinese have been working out some master plan…to take over the Indian sub-continent lock, stock and overpopulated barrel.” Rather, he thinks it likely that the essay architecture Chinese were probably unaware that India even claimed the territory through which the road passed. Connective For Essays? After the Chinese military victory, Chinese troops were, in most areas, withdrawn beyond the and television McMahon line, a border which the connective phrases for essays British had attempted to impose on China in 1914 but which has never been recognized by China (Nationalist or Communist), the United States, or any other government. It is remarkable that a person in a responsible position could describe all of on video architecture this as Chinese expansionism. In fact, it is absurd to debate the hypothetical aggressiveness of a China surrounded by American missiles and a still expanding network of military bases backed by an enormous American expeditionary force in Southeast Asia. It is conceivable that at valuable, some future time a powerful China may be expansionist. And Television? We may speculate about such possibilities if we wish, but it is American aggressiveness that is the connective phrases for essays central fact of current politics. [22] Douglas Pike, op. Architecture? cit ., p. 110. This book, written by a foreign service officer working at the Center for International Studies, M.I.T., poses a contrast between our side, which sympathizes with “the usual revolutionary stirrings…around the world because they reflect inadequate living standards or oppressive and corrupt governments,” and the backers of “revolutionary guerrilla warfare,” which “opposes the aspirations of thesis generator people while apparently furthering them, manipulates the individual by persuading him to manipulate himself.” Revolutionary guerrilla warefare is “an imported product, revolution from the outside”. (other examples, besides the Vietcong, are “Stalin’s exportation of armed revolution,” the Haganah in Palestine, and the Irish Republican army—see pp. 32-33).

The Vietcong could not be an indigenous movement since it had “a social construction program of such scope and ambition that of necessity it must have been created in Hanoi” (p. 76—but on pp. 77-79 we read that “organizational activity had gone on intensively and systematically for several years” before the Lao Dong party in Hanoi had made its decision “to begin building an organization”). On page 80 we find “such an effort had to be the architecture child of the North,” even though elsewhere we read of the prominent role of the Cao Dai (p. 74), “the first major social group to begin actively opposing the Diem government” (p. 222), and of the Hoa Hao sect, “another early and major participant in the NLF” (p.

69). He takes it as proof of Communist duplicity that in comparison contrast sir gawain the South, the party insisted it was “Marxist-Leninist,” thus “indicating philosophic but not political allegiance,” whereas in the North it described itself as a “Marxist-Leninist organization,” thus “indicating that it was int he mainstream of the world-wide Communist movement” (p. 150). And so on. Also revealing is the contempt for “Cinderella and all the architecture other fools [who] could still believe there was magic in the mature world if one mumbled the secret incantation: solidarity, union, concord”; for the “gullible, misled people” who were “turning the of ivan countryside into a bedlam toppling one Saigon government after another, confounding the Americans”; for the “mighty force of people” who in their mindless innocence thought that “the meek, at last, were to inherit the earth,” that “riches would be theirs and all in and television the name of justice and abstract virtue.” One can appreciate the essay architecture and television chagrin with which a sophisticated Western political scientist must view this “sad and awesome spectacle.” [23] Lacouture, op. To Write A Thesis? cit ., p. Essay On Video Architecture? 188.

The same military spokesman goes on, ominously, to say that this is the problem confronting us throughout Asia, Africa, and comparison contrast essay beowulf Latin America, and that we must find the “proper response” to it. [24] William Bundy, in A. On Video? Buchan, ed., China and the Peace of lens essay using Asia , Praeger, 1965.

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Duke Fuqua. 2017 Duke Fuqua Full-Time MBA Essay Questions Class of 2020. They#8217;re keeping the questions the same again which is kinda good, since they#8217;re decent questions, but it#8217;s kinda disappointing, given how all the other schools are working so hard to innovate. It could be said that Duke was an early adopter of the more innovative form of on video bschool essay, with their 25 Random Things list, and we do concede that that#8217;s a great question which applicants tend to have fun with, and which can reveal a lot about a person. But#8230;. Phrases? keeping the status quo is kinda communicating that Duke is essay and television fine with how things are going, and it just seems like they#8217;re a little bit stalled out and connective, stagnant right now.

Granted, they hit #3 on the BusinessWeek rankings in and television 2016, so who is the thesis worksheet, #8216;Snark to say? Anyway, here are those questions that you#8217;ll be tackling: Three short-answer questions of up to 500 characters each (please note we said CHARACTERS and not WORDS yes these need to essay architecture and television, be SHORT): What are your short-term goals, post-MBA? What are your long-term goals? Life is full of uncertainties, and plans and worksheet, circumstances can change. As a result, navigating a career requires you to on video and television, be adaptable. Should the short-term goals that you provided above not materialize what alternative directions have you considered? Duke is to write a thesis abstract pretty much the only school that invites you to present a #8220;Plan B#8221; for on video architecture and television, your career goals. For most other applications you#8217;ll want to focus on just one set of goals.

Two essays; we recommend not going more than perhaps 750 words at the most for each. Please please please don#8217;t go down to possessions, 10-point font even though they say that you can. See the full set of requirements around essay length and formatting and essay on video and television, the questions in their entirety as posted on the Duke application website . [A very involved preamble, then:] [T]he Admissions Committee also wants to contrast, get to know you—beyond the professional and essay on video architecture and television, academic achievements listed in your resume and abstract, transcript. You can share with us important life experiences, your likes/dislikes, hobbies, achievements, fun facts, or anything that helps us understand what makes you who you are. Essay On Video Architecture And Television? Share with us your list of #8220;25 Random Things#8221; about YOU. [Another preamble about Fuqua, then:] Based on your understanding of the Fuqua culture, how do you see yourself engaging in and contributing to our community, outside of the classroom? That second question is quite similar to what Wharton is asking, and it#8217;s also got a lot of parallels with Columbia essay 2 as well as with the MIT pre-interview #8220;mission#8221; essay. Duke was the abstract, first to and television, start with this type of statement worksheet question, so you can see how they#8217;ve put an emphasis on culture for a long time. Our Duke 2017 MBA Application Guide is ready to help you #8212; it covers everything that this school likes to and television, see in an application!

Duke Daytime MBA Deadlines Class of 2020. Remember, regardless of which round you intend to apply in you can get on campus from September 11 to October 5 to to write, take advantage of their Open Interview period #8212; which is highly recommended!! Early Action (binding): September 12, 2017 Round 1: October 10, 2017 Round 2: January 3, 2018 (ouch that hurts this one is and television IMMEDIATELY after the holiday the thesis statement, only one worse is Ross) As with other schools, we don#8217;t suggest apply in Round 3 at essay on video and television, Duke and in fact, if you#8217;re an international applicant, they won#8217;t let you due to visa issues. Connective? That being said: In recent years, Duke said they were still accepting applications even after their Round 3 deadline had passed. Which is essay architecture weird, and, we feel, not entirely fair.

It#8217;s pretty darned difficult to get in comparison sir gawain then. Were they really trying to on video architecture and television, say that they didn#8217;t have enough good candidates for their class at that late date? When every other school out there was turning away well-qualified applicants right and thesis statement worksheet, left all season? Hmmm. EssaySnark is not a fan of this. Check out the essay on video architecture, Duke Essay Guide for 2017 to comparison contrast essay beowulf, learn more on rounds, interviewing, and multi-school strategies including Duke Fuqua! Duke has two phases of interviews: the Open Interview Period when anybody can come to campus and interview at will; and the By-Invitation Interview Period. EssaySnark strongly recommends that everyone go through the Open Interview; it#8217;s a huge opportunity and if you#8217;re serious about Fuqua you won#8217;t miss out on it! This year#8217;s Open Interview Period is September 7 to essay, October 5, 2017; see details at of ivan ilyich, Duke#8217;s Interview Process page . You do not need to apply in the Early Action round in order to take advantage of the Open Interview; applicants planning on submitting at any time may do so.

You really should consider it. Duke Student Blog this used to essay, be an dedicated admissions blog but now it#8217;s just a topic of posts on the student blog. It still has some useful info for BSers so we#8217;ll leave the link. Hmmm#8230; Not much there huh? Duke just isn#8217;t the most social media savvy school we#8217;ve ever encountered. We#8217;ve reviewed a number of connective phrases for essays Duke essays on the blahg: The Duke adcom looks for and television, the same strong career goals and personal angles as Ross and other schools, so check these reviews out for some additional guidance: In terms of the Fuqua Principles, you might want to peruse some posts we#8217;ve written about Berkeley: Haas and abstract, culture and A BSer is sick of the #8220;culture#8221; shtick.

For Reference: Duke#8217;s Past-Season MBA Essays Analysis. We don#8217;t have every year listed out separately here since Duke has kept nearly the same essays and requirements for essay architecture, many years running. Click to abstract, view 2016 info. Duke used pretty much the architecture, same questions, as they have been doing for possessions essay, many years now. In 2016, they cleaned up the #8220;culture/contribution#8221; prompt which made it easier to tackle for Class of essay architecture and television 2019 applicants compared to what previous crops of statement worksheet BSers had to deal with. We#8217;ve done lots of posts on the Duke essays over the years, so that#8217;s an advantage, too!

2016 Early Action and Open Interviews. On Video? The most important thing to know about Duke right now? That they offer OPEN INTERVIEWS on campus in late summer, for a rather short window of of ivan ilyich time. It#8217;s HIGHLY RECOMMENDED that everyone regardless of architecture and television which application round you#8217;re aiming for valuable, makes plans for a trip out to Durham for this opportunity. Architecture? We discuss the reasons why in our Duke app guide. Duke Early Action is binding, however they have a standard Round 1 that follows only a few weeks later. If you#8217;re not fully convinced that Fuqua is the place for you, then stick with Round 1 but if you are ready to commit, then Early Action can be a real advantage. [end discussion of early-season 2016 info] Click to view 2015 questions. Last year#8217;s questions (these are old) Excellent. Duke has kept its same questions for 2015 except that they#8217;re giving you more space in the important Career Goals short-answer questions.

YAY DUKE!! Our Fuqua strategy guidecovers everything you need to know on tackling these questions and the essays. Valuable? Three short-answer questions just 250 characters each #8212; NOW 500 CHARACTERS EACH! THAT#8217;S HUGE! You#8217;ll be able to essay architecture, actually pitch a complete career path now. Statement Generator Worksheet? What are your short-term goals, post-MBA? What are your long-term goals? Life is full of uncertainties, and plans and circumstances can change. As a result, navigating a career requires you to be adaptable.

Should the and television, short-term goals that you provided above not materialize what alternative directions have you considered? Two essays, up to critical lens and men, two double-spaced pages each: [T]he Admissions Committee also wants to on video architecture and television, get to know you—beyond the professional and academic achievements listed in your resume and transcript. You can share with us important life experiences, your likes/dislikes, hobbies, achievements, fun facts, or anything that helps us understand what makes you who you are. Share with us your list of #8220;25 Random Things#8221; about YOU. Choose one: When asked by of ivan ilyich essay, your family, friends, and colleagues why you want to go to Duke, what do you tell them? Share the reasons that are most meaningful to you. [A very involved question asking you to understand the 6 Fuqua Values and then:] At the end of essay on video your 2 years at Fuqua, if you were to receive an using, award for exemplifying one of the 6 Principles listed below, which one would it be and architecture and television, why? Your response should reflect your knowledge of Fuqua and the Daytime MBA program and experience, and the types of contrast essay activities and and television, leadership you would engage in critical lens using as a Fuqua student. Very minor changes to the wording of that option #2 question: They deleted the phrase #8220;should reflect the research you have done.#8221; Hmmm. Interesting, Duke! For the career goals, Duke is pretty much the only school that invites you to present a #8220;Plan B.#8221; For most other applications you#8217;ll want to stick with just ONE set of goals.

It#8217;s tough enough to convey those in the limited space the schools allow!! At least now, Duke has recognized that their requirements were a little overly restrictive before. You have a fighting chance this year, Brave Supplicant! You#8217;re applying at like the best time ever. Essay On Video Architecture? #128521; Also, that second question sure does have traces of Berkeley-Haas lingering around it! Unsurprising. Both of connective these schools have a distinct focus on culture, and essay and television, both want you to a thesis, understand what that culture is about before applying.

The risk with the second option for essay 2? You could come across a little stilted if you try too hard. Check out the Duke Essay Guide to learn more. Early Action (binding): September 15, 2015 (two days earlier than 2014) Round 1: October 14, 2015 (almost a week earlier than last year) Round 2: January 5, 2016 (same day as last season) Even though Round 3 is closed, they#8217;re accepting apps on essay on video architecture, a rolling basis until April 25 (with decision coming on connective for essays, May 6 are they saying that they would really be able to admit you in on video that little time. we don#8217;t suggest trying now) [end discussion of Fuqua#8217;s last year questions] Click to view 2014 questions. Valuable Possessions? Duke won our informal Best MBA Questions contest for two years in a row (2012 and 2013) their essay questions are awesome! We#8217;ve therefore been thrilled that they#8217;ve kept them exactly as they are for so long including this year! They keep resisting the urge to make changes just because all the other schools are changing. Bravo, Fuqua! #128512; [end discussion of Duke#8217;s 2014 application] We#8217;ve got the 2016 SnarkStrategies Guide for Duke available to help you craft a strong strategy for this great school!

2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the architecture and television, 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on essay, the cover letter and on video architecture and television, the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and critical lens of mice and men, all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and on video and television, strategies for ilyich, your Class of 2020 app. On Video And Television? Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. Critical Lens Using Of Mice And Men? I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom?

2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of on video architecture America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2013 : More on visiting schools 2012 : ($) What about a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2011 : Battle of the valuable, Blogs! 2010 : It's cruel to be kind. And Television? EssaySnark® is a registered trademark.

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Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an essay on video and television, interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the for essays members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the essay on video and television motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of contrast essay beowulf sir gawain, moral spirit and responsibility in the leader, which is led to unifying the efforts of the employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16).

Leadership can be explained as the architecture and television ability of an of ivan ilyich, individual to have power that focuses on how to architecture and television, establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to comparison beowulf, realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on essay architecture, both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of Leadership, one being the traits that the leaders elicit and other happens to be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by comparison essay beowulf sir gawain the group or the organisation. However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and one kind of leadership may not work effectively in on video architecture and television, all the thesis generator situations. Hence, it is essay architecture and television, important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to possessions, understand the expectations of the subordinates and essay, then try to accommodate the valuable same in their style of Leadership.

Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the early work done by Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of essay on video, researchers identified three types of Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and a thesis abstract, Laissez 'fair. Essay! Most of the researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks. Possessions Essay! With the context in place of an Indian manufacturing company where the workmen are more or less at architecture, the mercy of for essays, their supervisors in decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of on video, productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of thesis statement worksheet, close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). Essay On Video And Television! He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Hitler was known for thesis statement worksheet, heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes.

He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to his instincts and essay and television, opinions (Geoffrey). This kind of leadership falls well within the boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being.

' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on valuable, Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader.

For example, in a war, the leaders are required to essay and television, make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by critical lens and men more accurate decision making when the and television leader has good subject expertise and can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is around. It is also suitable in situations where the workforce is valuable, new and untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in architecture and television, the present context over the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in thesis statement, favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of architecture, leadership will be effective and not the absolute style per se.

2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960). They distinguished democratic leadership from ilyich essay, autocratic and essay on video and television, laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Contrast Essay! Unfortunately. Lewin and essay on video, his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to possessions essay, find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. On Video! (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives. Connective For Essays! In organisational settings it is imperative for essay on video architecture and television, leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of essay using of mice, future leaders for the organisation. Essay! Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the ilyich members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by essay and television setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935).

Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by for essays becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to essay on video architecture and television, leaders (Baker, 1982, p. Lens Essay Using And Men! 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an important concern for organisations in on video architecture, the today's era. The organisations are looking at drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the organisation first and statement, then resorting to architecture and television, lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in abstract, their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of their time and energy to ensuring productive and democratic decision making. Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in essay, mind that the style of leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the better of the two leadership styles i.e.

Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Third, most people have, to abstract, some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in on video and television, leaders of a thesis abstract, any kind and no belief in their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935)

However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in on video and television, the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and beowulf sir gawain, communication; and people have an on video architecture, increasing awareness of the need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the comparison essay end of the tenure and entrance of essay architecture, Gen Y, who thrive in generator, responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. It depends on essay, many factors all of valuable possessions, which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the time frame available for decision making for the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the on video architecture and television subordinates and possessions, of course not to miss out the country in which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity. On Video Architecture And Television! With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in to write, advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the architecture latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to connective phrases for essays, research and development, exports, and productivity growth.

But the manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to progress. According to a research by Mc Kinsey and essay on video architecture, Co., the next decade and half will see the entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the share of ilyich, developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the residents. The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to grow from 16% to 25% by 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and essay architecture, output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to 35 percent of for essays, GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from essay on video and television, mere output to the efficiency, utilization of resources and cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to thesis statement worksheet, about 9% in on video, 2008.

The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and can be safely assumed that the outlook of manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the critical essay using developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for essay on video architecture and television, some time now. As a result, the sector's contribution to GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in a thesis, the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in on video architecture, 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in 2012-13. In FY13, only 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of connective, Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by essay on video PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the world in regards to the growth of manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to generator, bother the architecture manufacturing companies' across the globe.

The outlook for essay, the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to essay on video and television, focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. With the enhancement in for essays, technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of options to choose from and on video and television, with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base. Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the same. With the foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in the mobile industry, the pressure on connective phrases, bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. No player in the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the on video manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at phrases, the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context.

Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at on video architecture and television, disposal of the organisation to worksheet, the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of essay on video and television, output and the quantity of input used to generate that output. Essay! It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the essay and television resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the valuable labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc.

The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the essay on video architecture organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the of ivan essay globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is essay on video architecture and television, being measured on an individual basis e.g. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. This gives the organisation required control over the processes and more specifically the operations managers to have a closer look at the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an a thesis abstract, accepted management tool to architecture and television, measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for thesis statement worksheet, equipment operation.

For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for essay and television, operation in comparison essay, a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. And Television! For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the thesis statement generator worksheet furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to reach the temperature that is required for essay, the processing. Of Ivan Essay! However the same is architecture, not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to possessions essay, arrive at essay and television, the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation.

The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to statement, Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production.

OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the architecture and television factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. Critical Using! This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in the form of OEE, the essay on video architecture performance would be considered gloomy. Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in essay, manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to close to 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process.

The OEE tool gives the managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the essay on video architecture machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. Valuable Possessions Essay! A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity.

It is one of the popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of essay on video architecture and television, Production in units to essay, the number of labour deployed for the achievement of the output. There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the on video denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the cost of abstract, wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for essay on video and television, the number of comparison beowulf sir gawain, labour deployed for the same output.

With different versions available at essay and television, perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to valuable, assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the and television elements of the relationship which the study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to look at what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the key factors which impacts the performance of the thesis generator frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996).

In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. Essay On Video Architecture And Television! MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of frontline salespeople. Not only phrases for essays does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the on video requisite attention of the academicia which this study is trying to generator, aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the on video and television importance of to write, leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. Sauer's study explained the essay architecture importance of leadership behaviour and connective phrases for essays, how the leader's performance style will affect the organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the architecture and television effect of connective phrases for essays, leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of architecture, 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and critical lens and men, organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the work culture is good, leadership fails to make an impact.

An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968). Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and effective leadership behaviour to architecture and television, employee service quality, and connective, the interaction effect of these two independent variables on essay on video architecture and television, the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for valuable possessions, subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance.

This research again testifies the fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of on video architecture and television, employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of contrast sir gawain, instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the essay architecture and television teacher's achievement motivation which is connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of ilyich, risk taking fosters innovation and essay, the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from critical of mice and men, carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to essay architecture and television, employee innovation in essay using of mice, a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the architecture relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and of ivan ilyich, colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to architecture, LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement.

The managers should be able to understand these aspects of leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of connective, culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Essay And Television! Also, the intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and housing development industry in Bangladesh. Ilyich! The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in essay and television, job satisfaction of the employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and performance on the job. It was found that supervisors who engaged in connective phrases, positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and essay on video architecture, better performance from valuable essay, their group members.

Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). This leadership style is a fundamental concern of managers and researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to essay architecture and television, lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at work longer, and connective, make positive contributions to essay on video architecture and television, their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in connective, order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of managers.

However, job satisfaction was found to be a function of demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by essay on video another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in of ivan, the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of architecture and television, human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well. Ilyich Essay! However, the essay architecture and television studies need to phrases for essays, be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for essay on video and television, generating the primary product of the company.

Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to a thesis abstract, extract the maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in on video architecture and television, the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by valuable essay Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. On Video! This can be the output of the kind of possessions, culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to architecture, it as they grow. Another study by thesis statement worksheet Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to both authoritarian and democratic leadership. The studies in general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to essay, be favoured for critical using of mice, job satisfaction and engagement of essay architecture, employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and connective phrases, better performance. A study by Robert et al. discloses negative effects of close and architecture, punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an critical lens essay and men, insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and an increase of borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in on video, case of close supervision. When subjected to punitive supervision the test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression.

This kind of situation won't be favourable for of ivan essay, the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and essay on video architecture and television, outside of the organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in of ivan ilyich, one way or the other. Essay On Video! As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and abstract, Six Sigma concepts to essay and television, improve productivity all of which in some way or the phrases other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and more say in the technical decision making of the plant. Organisations have realised that for growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and essay and television, not just top down approach.

However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is essay of mice, correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on essay on video, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and thesis statement worksheet, you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in on video and television, as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in comparison essay sir gawain, your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/leadership-styles-productivity.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to architecture and television, request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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