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C2-fractures: part II. Writing. A morphometrical analysis of computerized atlantoaxial motion, anatomical alignment and related clinical outcomes. Knowledge on essay 6th graders the outcome of C2-fractures is founded on writing heterogenous samples with cross-sectional outcome assessment focusing on union rates, complications and math problem solving, technical concerns related to surgical treatment. Reproducible clinical and functional outcome assessments are scant. Validated generic and disease specific outcome measures were rarely applied.
Therefore, the aim of the current study is to investigate the radiographic, functional and writing, clinical outcome of a patient sample with C2-fractures. Out of a consecutive series of 121 patients with C2 fractures, 44 met strict inclusion criteria and 35 patients with C2-fractures treated either nonsurgically or surgically with motion-preserving techniques were surveyed. Outcome analysis included validated measures (SF-36, NPDI, CSOQ), and essay, a functional CT-scanning protocol for the evaluation of essay writing on electricity C1#x02013;2 rotation and alignment. Mean follow-up was 64#x000a0;months and mean age of patients was 52#x000a0;years. Classification of C2-fractures at injury was performed using a detailed morphological description: 24 patients had odontoid fractures type II or III, 18 patients had fracture patterns involving the vertebral body and how much is a essay, 11 included a dislocated or a burst lateral mass fracture.
Thirty-one percent of patients were treated with a halo, 34% with a Philadelphia collar and 34% had anterior odontoid screw fixation. Writing On Electricity. At follow-up mean atlantoaxial rotation in left and spondylolysis without, right head position was 20.2#x000b0; and 20.6#x000b0;, respectively. Writing In Urdu. According to math solving the classification system of posttreatment C2-alignment established by essay on electricity in urdu, our group in part I of the C2-fracture study project, mean malunion score was 2.8 points. In 49% of patients the mind essay, fractures healed in anatomical shape or with mild malalignment. Essay In Urdu. In 51% fractures healed with moderate or severe malalignment. Self-rated outcome was excellent or good in 65% of patients and moderate or poor in 900 word essay 35%. The raw data of varying nuances allow for comparison in future benchmark studies and metaanalysis. Detailed investigation of in urdu C2-fracture morphology, posttreatment C2-alignment and atlantoaxial rotation allowed a unique outcome analysis that focused on the identification of risk factors for poor outcome and the interdependencies of outcome variables that should be addressed in studies on C2-fractures. We recognized that reduced rotation of C1#x02013;2 per se was not a concern for the patients. Is A 900 Word. However, patients with worse clinical outcomes had reduced total neck rotation and rotation C1#x02013;2.
In turn, C2-fractures, especially fractures affecting the essay writing on electricity in urdu, lateral mass that healed with atlantoaxial deformity and malunion, had higher incidence of atlantoaxial degeneration and osteoarthritis. Patients with increased severity of C2-malunion and new onset atlantoaxial arthritis had worse clinical outcomes and significantly reduced rotation C1#x02013;2. The current study offers detailed insight into the radiographical, functional and clinical outcome of without listhesis C2-fractures. It significantly adds to the understanding of C2-fractures. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00586-009-0901-4) contains supplementary material, which is essay writing in urdu, available to authorized users. The ideal treatment of odontoid and listhesis, other C2-fractures remains controversial. The lack of a comprehensive treatment-oriented classification of on electricity in urdu C2-fractures, that guides when to operate and when to select conservative treatment, reflects the fact that there exists no ideal solution for the clinical problem, yet . In contrast, there is math solving, a large body of literature concerning techniques, indications and on electricity in urdu, union rates in C2-fractures , but data regarding the most important outcome measure, the functional and clinical outcome, are scant [24, 68]. Currently, in addition to nonsurgical treatment including semirigid collars or the Halo-thoracic-vest (HTV), contemporary surgical techniques for the treatment of C2-fractures include anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) [2, 62], posterior and anterior transarticular screw fixation C1#x02013;2 , C1-lateral mass and C2-Isthmus/lamina fixation  and plated anterior discectomy and fusion for health essay the unstable Hangman#x02019;s fracture (Hmfx) [46, 83]. These techniques are standardized and, if used for the appropriate fracture subtype, can show favourable results. For the treatment of isolated odontoid type II fractures in the young patient AOSF is increasingly favoured while accepted standards for the remaining multitude of distinct C2-fracture patterns are lacking.
The question remains which treatment method is appropriate for writing which fracture pattern to yield superior functional outcome? In addition to the interest in outcomes concerning pain and well-being, the treatment of C2-fractures is also to be discussed with regard to the impact on the resulting posttreatment function and atlantoaxial motion. Spondylolysis Without Listhesis. Any C2-fracture affects at least theoretically the ability of the C1#x02013;2 complex to essay writing on electricity take the major part in total neck rotation. Using functional CT-scans in essay 6th graders 14 patients, Jeanneret  showed that the range of motion (ROM) for the rotation C1#x02013;2 (Rot C1#x02013;2 ) was significantly reduced even after anatomical reduction of odontoid fractures with AOSF. Hence, discussions concerning the motion-preserving merits of any technique should be done carefully. Essay Writing In Urdu. Therefore, the authors intended to add objective outcome data in the C2-fracture research evaluating clinical and functional long-term results after non-surgical or surgical treatment of C2-fractures on a homogenous sample of health neurologically intact patients. Writing On Electricity. For a detailed insight into functional outcome, validated generic and disease specific outcome measures and the use of functional CT-scanning for essay the assessment of the ROT C1#x02013;2 were indicated. In this context, the malunion rates were also assessed.
Additionally, the authors applied the essay writing on electricity in urdu, previously established classification of posttreatment C2-alignment . The scoring system enables correlative analysis of posttreatment C2-alignment, ROT C1#x02013;2 and clinical outcome measures. This study was undertaken to: (1) assess the interdependencies between posttreatment C2-alignment and the range of ROT C1#x02013;2 , (2) assess the impact of spondylolysis listhesis fracture pattern, C2-alignment and essay writing, ROT C1#x02013;2 on the clinical outcome in terms of validated measures, (3) identify risk factors for poor outcome. With the use of objective outcome measures applied on a homogenous group of patients with C2-fractures, the current study is health essay, unique in writing on electricity in urdu the cervical spine trauma literature. We reviewed all charts of patients treated for cervical spine injuries at the authors#x02019; institution between 1997 and body essay, 2007. Patients#x02019; demographics including injury type description were recorded. A detailed case review indicated 121 patients treated for acute injuries of the writing on electricity in urdu, C2-vertebra. Effects Child Essay. For the purpose of reconstructing a strongly homogenous sample patients had to fullfill the following criteria: (a) C2-fracture with or without stable atlas fracture treated surgically or nonsurgically, (b) age between 18 and 80#x000a0;years at on electricity in urdu injury, (c) full set of injury cervical spine antero-posterior (ap) or transoral and lateral radiographs, (d) interval between injury and treatment #x02264;10#x000a0;days, (d) understanding of author#x02019;s language, (e) minimum 6-months follow-up, (f) absence of spinal cord injury (ASIA A-D).
Cases were excluded if they met the without, following criteria: (a) significant shoulder-girdle injury neccessitating surgery, (b) peripheral nerve injuries, (c) prohibitive medical comorbidity and endstage diseases, (d) drug or alcohol withdrawl, (e) a subaxial cervical spine injury, (f) polytrauma, (g) congenital cervical deformity, (h) injuries from neoplastic disease, infections or lesions associated with AS or DISH, (i) psychiatric illness necessitating medical treatment, (j) documented osteoporosis, (k) postoperative tracheostoma, (l) grade II or III skull#x02013;brain trauma, (m) prior medical treatment for degenerative cervical disease or trauma, (n) worker#x02019;s compensation claims, (o) fusion of C1#x02013;2. Essay Writing On Electricity. Patients were assessed by written interview prior to follow-up and results were blinded to the authors during clinical survey. Outcome measure included the is a 900 word, 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) version 2, the essay on electricity in urdu, long-term cervical spine outcome questionnaire (CSOQ)  and the neck pain disability index (NPDI) . The questionnaires have been validated for issues related to spm cervical disorders [4, 23, 75] and the methods for scoring as well as the writing on electricity in urdu, interpretation of results were illustrated in detail in previous articles [23, 38, 44, 50, 75, 77]. The subjective perception of global outcome was rated by the patients as excellent, good, moderate or poor. The participants#x02019; satisfaction was also expressed according to distinct answers ticked within the CSOQ (No. 40#x02013;42). The incidence of dysphagia was evaluated with the grading system of Bazaz .
None, mild, moderate or severe was graded by distinct combinations of difficulties with liquid and solid nutrition. Any medical or surgical complication documented between the index treatment and spm, follow-up related to the procedure was recorded. Plain injury ap and lateral radiographs were available in all cases. Injury CT-scans were available in 32 patients (86%). On Electricity. At follow-up, all patients were subjected to how much is a functional CT-scanning including a CT-scan in neutral position with 0-degree gantry angle. The cervical spine CT-scans were performed on essay writing in urdu a 4-row helical CT scanner (Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens) using a 14#x02013;18#x000a0;cm field of interest (FOI) with 4#x000a0;#x000d7;#x000a0;1#x000a0;mm collimation and overlapping axial slice thickness of 1#x000a0;mm. Sagittal and coronal reconstructions were performed using standard spine algorithms and divorce essay, files were stored digitally (PACS Magic View VC 42, Siemens). Digital CT measurements (0.1#x000a0;mm increments) were performed on writing on electricity in urdu the reconstructed CT-scans in a commercially available software program (Escape Medical Viewer V3). Essay. Radiographs and CT-scans were reviewed for fracture classification. Essay Writing In Urdu. Global radiographical assessment of math problem solving fracture types was performed with differentiation into main categories, such as odontoid or Hmfx, using a descriptive taxonomy (see Table#x000a0;1 in Electronic supplementary material).
For the purpose of future data pooling as well as due to the lack of a single comprehensive classification including all kinds of C2-fracture patterns  detailed stratification of C2- and concommittant C1-injuries was done using a numerical system as templated in Electronic supplementary material Table#x000a0;2. Through combinations, the numerical classification addresses all kinds of C2 and C1#x02013;2 fracture patterns. Essay Writing On Electricity In Urdu. It allows for nominal statistical analysis and correlative assessment of both radiological and problem checklist, clinical outcome. It differentiates straight forward anatomical structures that are affected in writing on electricity C2-fractures (it is purely anatomical). It does not rely on fracture mechanism or morphometric measurements of math solving displacement, but embodies the on electricity in urdu, hierarchy of damage within the C2-vertebra and in particular articulating surfaces. Interpretation of the health essay spm, inherent stability of the various fractures is not different to accepted definitions  e.g., qualifiers of essay on electricity in urdu instability like discoligamentous injury C2#x02013;3, axial osseo-ligamentous distraction of effects child essay C2, rupture of writing in urdu transverse ligament of C1, burst fracture of C2 or displaced odontoid fracture. Assessment of how much 900 word lateral atlantoaxial joint degeneration. On injury-ap radiographs or CT-scans degenerative changes at the lateral C1#x02013;2 joints were assessed.
Grading of degeneration of the lateral atlantoaxial joints (AAJ) was performed in two types of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis (AAOA) as previously elaborated . Type A, none or mild degeneration; Type B, advanced degeneration/arthritic joint. Essay Writing. At follow-up, lateral atlantoaxial joint degeneration was assessed using above mentioned grading on coronal CT-scans. In addition, the left and right atlantoaxial joint hights (lAAJH and rAAJH) were measured on injury CT-scans, if available, and on all follow-up CT-scans at the center of the lateral C1#x02013;2 joints as described . For the purpose of comparative studies, AAJ degeneration was assessed using the classification of Lakshmanan  too. Assessment of fusion and essay, posttreatment C2-alignment. At final follow-up, reconstructed sagittal and coronal CT-scans in neutral head position were assessed for osseus union by three of the authors. Essay Writing In Urdu. Fusion was present if bridging trabeculae were confirmed at without least on writing in urdu one of the cortices in both the sagittal and lateral plane by all observers. With the without listhesis, same CT-reconstructions, assessment of C2-alignment was performed using the classification for posttraumatic C2-alignment (CPA-C2) .
With the CPA-C2 the morphometrical measurements showed substantial interobserver agreement. Distinct cut-off values of the 95% upper and lower limits of a physiological standard were assigned end-point anchors of 1 or 2 pts delineating non-physiological dimensions. The final grading of the in urdu, C2-aligment into essay normal, mild, moderate and severe malalignment based on the summed points . Functional computerized tomography. Apart clinical examination by the author all patients were subjected to functional computerized tomography. The assessment of ROT C1#x02013;2 was performed using functional CT-scans in supine position. Essay Writing On Electricity In Urdu. A reduced radiation exposure with low energy beam was selected with settings of 120#x000a0;kv and 80#x000a0;mA sufficient to essay 6th graders delineate bony landmarks, joint configurations and fusion. Because subaxial flexion or extension influences the rotational capacity at the C1#x02013;2 joints and total neck rotation, meticulous care was given to level the writing, patients#x02019; cervical spine in neutral sagittal alignment.
The subject#x02019;s body was kept in the same supine position for spondylolysis without all head rotation sequences. First, a CT-scan scout-view was obtained with neutral vertical head orientation. The field of interest (FOI) was centered between the clivus and essay, the C3 vertebra distally. After the neutral CT-scan the patients were asked to rotate their neck to the right, as far as possible. CT-scans were completed following adjustments of the FOI for axial slice reconstructions in the plane of the approximately 20#x000b0; inclined atlas vertebra. Finally, the without listhesis, procedure was repeated for on electricity in urdu the assessment of left-sided rotation. With the functional CT-scans, axial, sagittal and coronal slices were reconstructed and stored digitally.
To investigate the ROT C1#x02013;2 , adjacent motion at the C0#x02013;C1 joints (ROT C0#x02013;1 ), total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and essay, subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) computer measurements on the axial slices were as follows (Fig.#x000a0; 1 ): in writing on electricity each head position the health spm, occipital midline indicated maximum head rotation (ROT C0 ) delineating the ability of the total cervical spine to rotate to either side. The landmarks for the occipital midline included the beak of the hard palate, the midline of the clivus and occpital protuberance. Next, the mid-sagittal line of C1, that is a line connecting the anterior atlas tubercle with the middle of the essay writing in urdu, posterior atlas arch, was drawn. Its perpendicularity to a line connecting the center of the two transverse foramina was essential. Math Solving Checklist. The mid-sagittal line of essay writing on electricity in urdu C1 was calculated to the vertical axis delineating maximum atlas rotation to either side (ROT C1 ). Similarly, rotation of health essay C2 was assessed drawing a mid-sagittal line of C2, that is a line perpendicular to essay the posterior cortical wall of the C2-vertebral body at its most caudad level. Spondylolysis. If the writing on electricity, C2-vertebral body was affected by math solving, fracture trace up to the mid-sagittal plane, then the mid-sagittal axis of C2 was the line joining the slight midline anterior prominence on the C2-body and the cleft of the bifid spine or the perpendicular of the intertransversarium line.
The mid-sagittal line of C2 was calculated to writing in urdu the vertical axis delineating maximum rotation of C2 to either side and divorce, maximum rotation of the subaxial cervical spine (ROT C2 ). Finally, left and right ROT C1#x02013;2 were calculated and expressed as the separation angle between C1 and C2, i.e., subtracting the C2 angle by the C1 angle. Similarly, the atlantooccipital rotation (ROT C0#x02013;1 ) was calculated subtracting the C1 by the C0 angulation. In addition, angulation C1#x02013;2 was calculated as percentage rotation C1#x02013;2 of the total neck rotation, expressed as %ROT C1#x02013;2 . ROT C0 resembles total neck rotation to either side and essay in urdu, the results were controlled for age and gender and also expressed as percentage restricted total neck rotation (%restricted neck rotation) compared to solving data of normals published by on electricity, Castro . Spondylolysis Without. With functional CT-scanning, the essay on electricity, left and right ROT C1#x02013;2 were classified into four types: Type 1 (no restriction), #x02265;30#x000b0;; Type 2 (mild), 20 to #x0003c;30#x000b0;; Type 3 (substantial), 10 to #x0003c;20#x000b0;; Type 4 (severe), 0 to #x0003c;10#x000b0;. The worst type of restriction of ROT C1#x02013;2 (left or right) was used for statistical analysis. We determined a cut-off rendering physiological and pathological ROT C1#x02013;2 as any measure #x0003c;30#x000b0;, that is a deviation of approximately #x000b1;2SD from normalcy. For the health spm, purpose of assessing changes of the instantenous center of rotation (ICR) of the C1#x02013;2 joints the authors applied a technique similar to White and writing, Panjabi  on each subject (For technique and results see Electronic supplementary material).
Statistical analysis included parametric methods (independent and dependent two-sided Student t tests, Pearson#x02019;s correlation coefficient) and nonparametric tests (Kruskal#x02013;Wallis ANOVA, Mann#x02013;Whitney U test, Spearman#x02019;s correlations coefficient). Analyses of cross-tabulation tables were done using Pearson Chi-square test and Fisher#x02019;s Exact test. A P value less than 5% indicated statistical significance. All analyses were done using Statistica 6.1 (StatSoft, Tulsa, OK). Problem Solving. Statistical analysis was performed by one of the authors (WH). The author (HK) performed the classification of the posttreatment C2-alignment as described  on essay all CT-scans. As there are currently no data on the reliability of divorce child essay measurements using CT-scans, the author performed the in urdu, assessment of the C2-alignment with all indicated measurements on plain radiographs and on CT-scans in essay six patients having a healed C2-fracture. Reliability was expressed using the essay writing on electricity, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). 6th Graders. Interpretation of ICC was done as described . Fourty-four (36.4%) of essay in urdu 121 patients identified met all eligibility criteria.
Five patients (including 3 unstable Hmfx treated with plated ACDF) were lost to follow-up. Of another 4 patients that were successfully tracked, 1 denied taking part in the study because of no sequelae after nondisplaced odontoid type III fracture treated nonsurgically. One 61-years-old patient had a displaced odontoid type III fracture with burst left lateral mass that went to severe malunion. She joined the follow-up but could not be included into mind essay the study because of mental retardation. She displayed restricted axial rotation in essay on electricity in urdu flexed position (10#x000b0;#x02013;0#x000b0;#x02013;5#x000b0;), complained of pain during head rotation, had a cock-robin head posture and essay 6th graders, suffered from left-sided suboccipital neuralgia. Another patient with 8-years follow-up answered to the questionnaires having moderate self-rated outcome after AOSF for dislocated odontoid type III fracture (SF-36 PCS: 31.6, MCS 31.1, NDPI: 32%) but could not take part in further survey because of advanced cardiac disease. One 19-years-old with 2-years follow-up after combined odontoid type II and C1 posterior arch fracture treated with double AOSF was working abroad, doing well as assessed by telephone questioning, but could not be surveyed. Finally, 35 patients could participate resembling a follow-up rate of 80%. Mean age at injury was 46.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;21.7#x000a0;years (range 17#x02013;78#x000a0;years) and essay writing on electricity in urdu, 52#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;20.7#x000a0;years (range 18#x02013;80#x000a0;years) at 900 word essay follow-up. There were 12 female and 23 male patients.
Follow-up was 65.4#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;7#x000a0;months on average (range 7#x02013;142#x000a0;months) and mean hospital stay was 12.2#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;9.8#x000a0;days (range 1#x02013;40#x000a0;days). Eleven patients (31.4%) were smokers. Except for mild skull traumas, 12 patients (34.3%) had co-morbidities and concommittant peripheral skeletal injuries (Table#x000a0;3 in writing on electricity Electronic supplementary material). At follow-up, no patient complained about disability derived from shoulder-girdle injuries or peripheral injuries. Essay. Main injury mechanism was a motor-vehicle or bicycle accident in 15 patients (42.9%), a skiing casual in 4 (11.4%) and a fall from essay on electricity in urdu height in 15 (42.9%). One suffered a direct blow (2.9%). Eighteen patients (51.4%) had initial treatment in a referral hospital and were transferred for definitive treatment. Except for three patients that had plain radiographs, we had injury radiographs and health essay, CT-scans available.
Twenty-three patients (65.7%) were subjected to essay in urdu nonsurgical treatment: 11 patients (31.4%) had HTV treatment and 12 (34.3%) had a Philadelphia collar. Essay 6th Graders. Twelve patients (34.3%) had anterior surgical treatment using AOSF and 1 patient had secondary anterior buttress-plating at on electricity C2 for 900 word redislocation of writing on electricity in urdu her odontoid type III fracture. Mean time to essay spm index surgery was 2.5#x000a0;days (range 0#x02013;10#x000a0;days). Patients#x02019; characteristics are summarized in Table#x000a0;1 in Electronic supplementary material. Twenty-three patients (65.7%) had 2-part-fractures, 11 (31.4%) had 3-part-fractures and 1 (2.9%) had a 4-part-fracture. There were 24 fractures (68.6%) involving the odontoid that could be classified into essay in urdu 12 (50%) type II fractures (including IIa) and 12 (50%) type III fractures according to the Anderson classification. Eighteen patients (51.4%) had a fracture pattern involving the vertebral body. Child Essay. Seven patients (20%), out of a total of 8 with an atypical Hmfx, had a vertebral body fracture separating the posterior axis wall [45, 46]. In 11 patients (31.4%) the fracture pattern included a dislocated or a burst lateral mass fracture of C2. At all, 19 patients (54.3%) had an intraarticular fracture pattern resembling an involvement of the lateral mass and its articular surface inside or outside the weight-bearing zone, displaced or non-displaced. Out of 35 patients, 7 (20%) had a concomittant C1 fracture.
C1 fractures included 1 lateral mass fracture with articular surface involvement and two stable extraarticular Jefferson burst fractures. Follow-up CT-scans showed that 31 fractures (88.6%) of C2 (and all fractures of C1) went on to union, in 4 cases (11.4%) a nonunion developed. Nonunion was mobile in 2 (50%) patients, showing a tight fibrous-stable nonunion in writing in urdu the remaining 2 (50%). Essay. Stability was established on flexion-extension films at follow-up. Statistical investigation showed that union was not related to follow-up length, age, gender, type of fracture or any other variable.
At injury 7 patients had a left-sided AAJ configuration of Type B and 5 of these had also a right-sided Type B. At time of essay on electricity injury only two patients showed preexisting advanced atlantodental and lateral atlantoaxial degenerative process. At follow-up nine patients had left-sided and ten had right-sided Type B AAJ changes. Seven patients (20%) had a new onset AAOA of Type B. According to the classification of Lakshamanan  AAOA was a mean of 1.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;3) left and 1.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;3) right at follow-up. Essay 6th Graders. Injury AAJH was assessable in 16 patients (45.7%). LAAJH was a mean of 2.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7#x000a0;mm (range 1.6#x02013;4#x000a0;mm) and rAAJH was 3.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.8#x000a0;mm (range 1.6#x02013;4.5#x000a0;mm). At follow-up lAAJH was a mean of writing on electricity 2.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.8#x000a0;mm (range 1#x02013;4.4#x000a0;mm) and essay, rAAJH was 3.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7#x000a0;mm (range 1.5#x02013;4.3#x000a0;mm).
Unlike in normals  left- and writing on electricity, right-sided AAJH at follow-up did not correlate with patients#x02019; age ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;1.0). Spondylolysis Without Listhesis. There was a significant difference regarding the incidence of left- and right-sided AAOA of Type A and of Type B between time of writing on electricity injury and follow-up ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0001 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0008, two-tailed test). LAAJH and rAAJH were significantly reduced ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0007, P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001) in patients that had AAOA of Type B (left #x000d8;2.0#x000a0;mm, right #x000d8;2.2#x000a0;mm) compared to patients that had AAOA of Type A (left #x000d8;3.1#x000a0;mm, right #x000d8;3.4#x000a0;mm). 6th Graders. The results of the functional CT-scans are illustrated in Table#x000a0; 1 and compared to data derived from essay writing normals. An illustrative case is given in Fig.#x000a0; 2 . The interdependencies of the cervical rotation angles are ranked in Table#x000a0; 2 . Patients displayed an increased total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) in the presence of 6th graders increased subaxial rotational capacity (ROT C2 ). As expected, total neck rotation was further increased if the C1#x02013;2 joints (ROT C1#x02013;2 ) could substantially contribute to overall neck rotation. Likewise, with increasing ROT C1#x02013;2, the %ROT C1#x02013;2 of essay on electricity total neck rotation increased significantly too.
On the effects child essay, contrary, ROT C1#x02013;2 did not correlate with subaxial rotation (%ROT C1#x02013;2 had strong inverse correlation with the subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) because of the definition of %ROT C1#x02013;2 ). In case of decreased atlantoaxial rotation the subaxial spine tended towards compensational rotation not reaching significance: In patients with no subaxial degenerative changes we observed a trend of the subaxial spine to compensate for a lack of writing ROT C1#x02013;2 but a reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 could not be fully compensated by how much, subaxial or atlantooccipital rotational efforts. Essay Writing In Urdu. Our analysis showed a significant difference between left and right ROT C0 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), ROT C1 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002) and ROT C2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007) with the math problem checklist, higher rotational ability to the right for all measurements. But the differences were small (3#x000b0;#x02013;4#x000b0;) and there was no significant difference between left and writing, right %ROT C1#x02013;2 or between left- and right-sided ROT C1#x02013;2 . A unilaterally restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 was not compensated for child by a substantially increased contralateral rotation. In contrast, reduced ROM for atlantoaxial rotation to the left or right was accompanied by a significantly reduced ROM for the ipsilateral subaxial rotation. Out of 35 patients 4 (11.4%) were identified having ROT C1#x02013;2 according to Type 1, 6 patients (17.1%) Type 2, 20 patients (57.1%) Type 3 and writing, 5 patients (14.3%) Type 4. Thus, more than 70% had substantial (#x0003c;20#x000b0;) or severe (#x0003c;10#x000b0;) restriction of essay ROT C1#x02013;2 at least to writing in urdu one side. The different types of rotational restriction and the definition of total neck rotation with a cut-off of 30#x000b0; had no impact on the clinical outcome measures. We calculated the how much is a 900 word, rotation against age and encountered a significant inverse correlation (Table#x000a0; 3 ). It was strong for total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) but weak for essay in urdu ROT C1#x02013;2 . Calculated separately for isolated odontoid fractures we observed a total ROT C1#x02013;2 of essay 6th graders 36#x000b0; on average and a mean total neck rotation of 96#x000b0;. The first author performed all measurements. The analysis of intraobserver reliability demonstrated good to essay in urdu excellent agreement between radiographic and CT-based measurements with intraclass coefficients of #x0003e;0.6 for solving all measurements applied.
There were no measurements performed that were classified as #x02018;pathological#x02019; but otherwise were within normalcy on CT-scans, et vice versa. According to the author#x02019;s classification and grading of morphometrical alignment  after treatment of on electricity in urdu C2-fractures, mean malunion score was 2.8#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;2.5#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;11points). According to the classification , in 5 patients (14.3%) the C2-fracture healed in anatomical shape without any malalignment and in 12 (34.3%) with mild malalignment. Twelve fractures (34.3%) healed with moderate and health, 6 (17.1%) with severe malalignment. At all, the C1#x02013;2 complex showed moderate or severe malalignment in 18 fractures (51.4%). Statistical analysis revealed a significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 in in urdu patients with the 6th graders, higher malunion score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and in those classified with a #x02018;moderate#x02019; or #x02018;severe malalignment#x02019; ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Accordingly, patients with higher malunion score had a higher grade of rotational restriction (Types 1#x02013;4, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02). In addition, it striked that patients with higher malunion scores (ANOVA) and in urdu, moderate/severe malalignment showed a significantly reduced clinical outcome in how much is a essay terms of SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001), NPDI ( P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001 and essay writing on electricity in urdu, P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.00001), CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.005 and P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001), CSOQ-functional disability score (p#x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;.0002 and P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.00001), CSOQ-psychological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.004 and how much is a 900 word essay, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0002) and CSOQ-health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.036 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.036). Essay In Urdu. Means, SD, and ranges of effects divorce essay outcome measures are illustrated in Tables#x000a0; 4 and #x200B; and5. 5 . Data are presented in comparison to essay writing results of other studies. Checklist. The outcome measures and writing in urdu, questionnaires utilized showed good consistency when assessing differences in clinical outcome.
Assessment of clinical outcomes with the validated measures (SF-36, NPDI, CSFQ) and effects child essay, their correlation with the patient#x02019;s self-rated clinical outcome (#x02018;excellent#x02019; to essay #x02018;poor#x02019;) showed strong consistency (Kruskal#x02013;Wallis testing: P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03 to essay P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.003). There were significant differences within the essay, validated measures if calculated for the 4 groups of global outcome: #x02018;excellent#x02019;, #x02018;good#x02019;, #x02018;moderate#x02019; and #x02018;poor#x02019; (Table#x000a0;4 in Electronic supplementary material). Essay. There was also a significant correlation between the validated outcome measures and inbetween the various scoring items of the queries (Table#x000a0;5 in essay writing on electricity in urdu Electronic supplementary material). Self-rated outcome was judged excellent by 15 patients (44.1%), good by 7 (20.6%), moderate by mind body problem essay, 10 (28.6%) and poor by 2 patients (5.9%). So, 65% of patients judged their outcome as good or excellent and 35% as moderate or poor. With the on electricity in urdu, worse self-rated outcome patients displayed a significantly reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 rotation ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and total neck rotation ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05). Likewise, reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 showed slight correlation with decreased outcome measures yielding significance for the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.36, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), the health essay spm, NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.34, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05) and the CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.44, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Patients with reduced total neck rotation had decreased outcomes yielding stronger significance for essay writing on electricity in urdu the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.53, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002), the spm, NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.37, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) and the CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). When calculating the age and gender matched percentage restriction of essay in urdu total neck rotation  against the clinical outcome measures, correlations existed for the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.54, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001), the NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.38, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), the CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007), the spondylolysis listhesis, CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.39, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and on electricity in urdu, the CSOQ-functional disability score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.35, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04). Summarizing, reduced clinical outcome was more reflected by a decreased total neck rotation rather than a reduced C1#x02013;2 rotation. As it was with the ability to rotate the neck, statistical analysis revealed a decreased clinical outcome for elderly patients in terms of the NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.41, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.56, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001).
Older patients had higher health care utilization demands in how much terms of the CSOQ ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.36, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04). Elderly patients had a significantly shorter follow-up period ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006) that might put age and outcome related interdependencies into perspective. It is of note that patients with worse outcomes had reduced total neck rotation, however, the %ROT C1#x02013;2 did not correlate with the essay on electricity, clinical outcome reflecting that a reduced absolute rotational ability affecting the is a 900 word, whole cervical spine was a factor of aging, motion induced pain and a low functional outcome. Essay On Electricity. Significant gender-related differences existed in terms of the NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), the CSOQ-psychiological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.005) and the physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Effects Essay. These results have to be interpreted with the awareness of gender distribution with varying fracture patterns and ages.
So, 8 of essay 11 patients (73%) with a burst or dislocated lateral mass fracture were female. 900 Word Essay. Similarly, when assessing intraarticular fracture pattern as a variable, 8 of 12 females depicted reduced motion pattern and increased pain-levels. Neither the presence of a nonunion nor combined C1#x02013;2 fractures, nor any complication or whether surgery was performed or not had impact on clinical outcome or cervical rotation (Table#x000a0; 3 ). Notably, the number of main fragments identified (2-part, 3-part, 4-part-fractures of C2) had significant impact on the %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) but not on the clinical outcome measures. If the smallest denominator was assumed to be an intraarticular fracture pattern involving the C2-superior articulating facets then patients had significantly reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) and in particular reduced %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006). Rotational abilities were strongly affected by writing on electricity, the presence of an intraarticular fracture pattern.
Calculating any intraarticular fracture pattern against without listhesis, the outcome measures did reveal trends, but did not yield significance. In this context it is of note that only 11 patients were identified to have had a dislocated fracture or burst pattern involving the articular pillar and lateral mass. If calculating rotation and clinical outcome against the presence of essay on electricity in urdu a burst or dislocated lateral mass fracture in eight patients at essay all, the statistical analysis still revealed a trend for essay writing on electricity reduced %ROT C1#x02013;2 , but it striked that this group of patients had significantly reduced outcomes in mind terms of the SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006), the NDPI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), the CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and the CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Essay In Urdu. SF-36 PCS scores did not reach statistical significance but a strong trend existed (SF-36 PCS #x000d8;35.7#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;9.0 vs. #x000d8;43.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;10.2). Differences of 2.5 points are thought to be a clinically meaningful difference for the SF-36 [18, 80].
Patients that had the vertebral body affected (51%) had reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02), but %ROT C1#x02013;2 and total neck rotation were not significantly reduced. However, these patients had worst scores with the how much is a 900 word, CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007) and essay writing, the SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05). This group of patients included most of the dislocated burst lateral mass fractures, patients with intraarticular fractures and the group with highest malunion scores. Health. Eleven patients (31.4%) had at least one lateral AAJ of Type B and 6 of these 11 (54.5%) had signs of C2-nerve root mediated pain with radiculopathia suboccipitally. Writing In Urdu. At all, 20 patients (57.1%) reported on pain when approaching the mid-range or extremes of axial head rotation in neutral or sagittally flexed head position or reported on tenderness and localized pain at the C2-spinous process during daily activities. According to distinct questions within the CSOQ 20% of patients reported that they would need additional treatment for their neck condition in essay the future.
Sixty-one percent of essay in urdu patients judged they would be extremly or moderately satisfied if their neck condition would be the same as at follow-up, while 20% judged they would be moderate or extremely dissatisfied if the neck condition would remain the same (20% ticked #x02018;neither satisfied nor dissatisfied#x02019;). Twenty-three percent reported that the actual result was somewhat or much worse as expected, 49% reported it was somewhat or much better than expected, and without, 28% as expected. Writing On Electricity. Concerning AAOA, the presence of Type B changes at follow-up had significant impact on the rotational ability and is a 900 word, outcome measures. Type B patients displayed significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006) and writing in urdu, %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) but not significantly reduced total neck rotation. Body. Clinical outcomes were worse than in patients with Type A changes in terms of the SF-36 PCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), the SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), the NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002), the CSOQ-psychological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0005), the CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02). The same interdependencies existed even more in patients that had newly developed Type B changes with a significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) as well as reduced outcome measures in terms of essay on electricity SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0009), NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.003), the CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02), CSOQ-psychologic distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0009), CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) and CSOQ-health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006). Patients that had preexisting AAOA of Type B, that had just progressed, had significantly reduced left and right AAJH ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) as compared to body problem Type A patients, but clinical outcome measures were not different (Table#x000a0; 4 ). Fracture of the C2 articular pillar. Writing On Electricity. In 8 of 11 patients (72.7%) with displaced or burst lateral mass fractures the left side was affected. At follow-up, these patients had significantly reduced left-sided AAJH ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02).
With increasing malunion score, ROT C1#x02013;2 was significantly reduced, the most on the left side ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0005). When calculating for the intraarticular fracture pattern that affected the left side in 11 of 19 patients (58%) it also striked that left-sided %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.005) and left-sided ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) were significantly affected in comparison to the contralateral side. The findings of left-sided preponderance were incidental, but substantiated that the intraarticular and particularly burst fracture patterns show their main adverse effects on the development of ipsilateral AAOA, reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 and C2-malunion scores. The latter had the spondylolysis, largest impact on clinical outcome measures. Fourteen patients (40%) were already retired at time of injury unrelated to disorders of the neck. Of 21 patients occupied at in urdu time of injury 15 achieved a level of W1 (42.9%) according to Denis#x02019; Work Scale, 1 had W2 (2.9%), 2 had W3 (5.8%) and 3 patients (85.7%) were not able to resume previous full-time employment or were unable to work because of without neck related impairment. Eighteen patients (85.7%) went back to a full-time employment with a mean time out of work of 17.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;6.8#x000a0;weeks (range 3#x02013;24#x000a0;weeks) after injury. With the dysphagia grading system of Bazaz  the mean score was 1.4#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7 (range 0#x02013;3) for liquids and 1.7#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0 (range 1#x02013;4) for solid nutrition.
Buzz-scores were not significantly affected by anterior surgery. Essay. In summary, 7 out of 35 patients (20%) sustained a complication: 1 (2.9%) with odontoid type II fracture had delayed-union in the HTV but eventually fused after 6#x000a0;months. Another patient suffered from neuralgia at a former pin-site with subsequent phobia wearing huts. One patient had screw-related dysphagia following double AOSF but denied screw removal. Another had hard-to-treat C2-referred pain lasting for 8#x000a0;months after nonsurgical treatment of an how much is a 900 word odontoid type III fracture with split-impression fracture of the lateral mass. Another had early fracture redislocation after double AOSF for odontoid type III fracture with oblique split-impression fracture of the essay on electricity in urdu, lateral mass. The fracture healed uneventful. One female patient with 10#x000a0;years follow-up had HTV treatment for a displaced odontoid type III fracture with en bloc fracture-separation of the comminuted lateral mass. Symptomatic nonunion with severe malalignment developed and the patient was subjected to anterior retropharyngeal release with reduction and C2-buttress-plating 6#x000a0;months after the index treatment. Implant removal was performed 1.5#x000a0;years after index therapy. After 3#x000a0;years the patient showed up reporting a progression of myelopathic signs during a 4-weeks period which was found to be related to anterior subluxation of C1 on effects divorce child essay C2.
The patient denied a second trauma. Intraoperatively, there was no significant sagittal motion C1#x02013;C2. After posterior decompression of C1 the patient recovered completely. Writing In Urdu. Finally, during survey of our patients a 76-year old was subjected to C1#x02013;2 Magerl fixation for painful C1#x02013;2 joint destruction (Fig.#x000a0; 3 ). The patient achieved immediate pain resolution after immobilization of the C1#x02013;2 joints. The current study is a unique approach to the outcome investigation of C2-fractures, and it is the largest reporting of functional CT-scanning in patients with cervical trauma. The author identified several articles [47, 49, 68] reporting on miscellaneous C2-fractures included into cross-sectional outcome analysis or using nonvalidated instruments; most studies are reluctant to essay further delineate distinct fracture morphology and outcome variables in writing heterogenous samples [5, 25#x02013;27, 29, 62, 68]. Therefore, we intended to seek objective outcome data through assessment of validated outcome measures, functional outcome using dynamic CT-scanning, a detailed classification of fracture pattern and an analysis of posttreatment C2-alignment using a classification system based on valid measurements . The efforts are indicated as there is no consensus on the ideal treatment for checklist all subtypes of C2-fractures [2, 29, 43, 46, 62].
Our study yielded for a homogenous sample. We assessed different fractures (odontoid, vertebral body, Hmfx,#x02026;), but unlike prior studies with difficulties addressing all fracture patterns, the authors#x02019; characterization of C2-fractures at injury and at writing follow-up implicates the focus on identical morphological characteristics within the how much is a 900 word, C2-fracture subtypes. Consequently, beside general outcome analysis of C2-fractures, we sought to analyse the influence of on electricity in urdu distinct morphological subtypes (intraarticular fracture pattern, number of solving checklist main fragments, burst component,#x02026;) on the remaining rotation C1#x02013;2 and the clinical outcome. We wanted to in urdu identify risk factors for poor outcome and how much 900 word, thereby identified the severity of malunion. Essay On Electricity In Urdu. We aimed out being able to identify at problem solving checklist an early stage of treatment those fractures prone to symptomatic malunion and poor outcome, thus resulting in essay on electricity an adaption of essay treatment protocols (nonsurgical vs. surgical, nonfusion vs. fusion procedure).
Rarely, the type of anatomical alignment and associated outcome after various motion-preserving treatments is in urdu, reported [1, 10#x02013;12, 21, 26, 34, 41, 42, 46, 47, 57, 63, 71, 74, 78]. A meaningful number of subtypes of C2-fractures exists where complete reduction, normal C1#x02013;2 rotation and a physiological anatomy is body, difficult to restore [1, 10, 11, 34, 42, 43, 71, 82]. Writing On Electricity In Urdu. Likewise, a non-anatomical posttreatment C2-alignment, resembling a malunion, can cause significant symptoms even indicating fusion C1#x02013;2 [13, 26, 30, 42, 47, 51, 52, 67, 70, 71, 78, 79] as it had to be done in one of our cases (Fig.#x000a0; 3 ), two others being scheduled (Fig.#x000a0; 4 ). Malunion in C2-fractures can produce significant sequelae and essay 6th graders, we sought to stratify those C2-fracture subtypes prone to malunion after motion-preserving therapy: In the literature, the writing, approximate rate of effects child malunion in odontoid fractures was reported to essay on electricity be 12#x02013;22% [57, 63]. Using the how much 900 word, classification we established in part I of the essay on electricity, project  we identified 49% of patients having either no or only mild malalignment but 51% having moderate or severe malalignment of without C2 or the C1#x02013;2 complex. Writing In Urdu. Patients with advanced malalignment had significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 and, even more important, the presence of advanced malunions had a strongly significant adverse impact on all clinical outcome measures. Essay 6th Graders. This study offers evidence for the correlation between a distorted posttreatment C2-alignment, including distortion of the on electricity in urdu, physiologic C1#x02013;2 relationships, and worse clinical outcomes, both involving restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 . Our findings substantiate previous studies that noted reduced outcomes in solving checklist patients with distorted C1#x02013;2 joint configurations [19, 26]. Dvorak  reported on 34 Jefferson fractures and demonstrated that patients with residual lateral displacement of the on electricity in urdu, lateral mass of math checklist C1#x000a0;#x02265;#x000a0;7#x000a0;mm were more likely to report worse functional status in terms of the SF-36.
In another study  on 90 isolated subaxial facet injuries, the group of 18 patients treated nonoperatively contained the essay writing in urdu, most benign fracture patterns but had significantly worse clinical outcomes (NASS, SF-36 subscales). Essay 6th Graders. Dvorak hypothesized that the worse outcome even after non-displaced, non-surgically treated facet fractures is essay writing, due to the development of secondary degenerative changes with malalignment at the injury level. Similarly, we observed that malunion as a result of distorted C2-lateral mass, altered C2-articular surfaces, widening of the vertebral body or increased odontoid tilt caused a remarkable drop in outcome measures and ROT C1#x02013;2 . Effects. We demonstrated that maintaining anatomic C2-alignment has a decisive role for writing clinical outcomes (Table#x000a0; 5 ). Functional outcome and spondylolysis listhesis, atlantoaxial rotation. Essay Writing. After motion-preserving C1-ring osteosynthesis in five Jefferson fractures, Ruf  reported a mean left and right ROT C1#x02013;2 of 20.6#x000b0; and mind body essay, 18.6#x000b0; using dynamic MRI-scans. The patient with worst C1#x02013;2 incongruency had the writing in urdu, worst functional and clinical outcome which was attributed to the distorted C1-2 articular surface pattern. Jeanneret  measured left and right ROT C1#x02013;2 25#x000b0; and 24#x000b0; after AOSF using functional CT-scans.
Likely due to sample size and fracture analysis, the essay 6th graders, study did not find any correlation between residual ROT C1#x02013;2 and fracture pattern, quality of reduction or osteosynthesis. We investigated the ROT C1#x02013;2 after treatment of C2-fractures. In our sample with 35 patients, only 30% had normal ROT C1#x02013;2 or mild restriction, but 70% had substantial (#x0003c;20#x000b0;) or severe (#x0003c;10#x000b0;) restriction of ROT C1#x02013;2 at least unilateral. Essay In Urdu. Likewise, in Jeanneret#x02019;s sample only 38% had normal motion C1#x02013;2 and Verheggen  noted that only 61% of patients revealed standard rotation after AOSF. We explored the rotational interdependencies (Table#x000a0; 2 ) and observed that in case of decreased C1#x02013;2 rotation, the essay 6th graders, subaxial spine yielded for compensation, but did not reach significance and is suggested to be an effect of pain-mediated (due to malunions) overall restriction of rotation and coincident a factor of aging. Concerning age, some elderly patients showed advanced subaxial spondylosis and normally the essay writing on electricity in urdu, C1#x02013;2 rotation increases compensatorically with aging . Calculating the ability for neck rotation against age we observed a significant inverse correlation, pronounced for total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ). Although we expected an increased %ROT C1#x02013;2 in the elderly, the correlations were weakest for the %ROT C1#x02013;2 and ROT C1#x02013;2 rendering other factors decisive for reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 also in the elderly patients. Concerning compensational mechanisms we observed that unilaterally restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 was not compensated for by a substantially increased contralateral rotation. In addition, reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 to one side was accompanied by a significantly reduced ipsilateral subaxial rotation. We did not observe a significantly increased C0#x02013;1 rotation in case of reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 as it was in children with pathological stickiness C1#x02013;2 [58, 60].
We had a mean ROT C0#x02013;C1 of 2.6#x000b0; and 2.7#x000b0; to mind body problem the right and left suggesting a normal coupling between C0 and essay writing, C1 . Essay 6th Graders. Only a few patients exhibited increased motion above 2SD but never achieved ranges of essay 30#x000b0; as in the forementioned study. Overall, we demonstrated a significant reduction of ROT C1#x02013;2 in the C2-fractures with decreasing order in odontoid, vertebral body and atypical Hmfx, and how much 900 word, fractures affecting the articular pillar of C2. Like Jeanneret, we investigated the essay, reasons for reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 . While reduction of 6th graders total neck rotation after the C2-fractures is essay writing, assumed to without be a function of essay writing on electricity pain-related restriction of overall motion , aging and degenerative processes, we showed the problem solving, reduction of ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 to writing in urdu be significantly associated with the degree of anatomical distortion and the severity of malunion, outperforming the statistically analysed influence of math problem solving pain in terms of the outcome vehicles. Our patients had no other cervical injuries and essay on electricity in urdu, the source of 6th graders pain could be focused at C1#x02013;2. Statistically a pain-related reduction of ROT C1#x02013;2 and an associated reduction of total neck rotation existed, but the severity of essay writing in urdu malunion had the highest effect on the rotational ability of C1#x02013;2.
There was a slight correlation between total ROT C1#x02013;2 and clinical outcome measures, but no correlation existed for the %ROT C1#x02013;2 and math checklist, the clinical outcome. It seemed that the restriction of rotation was perceived by the patients to be an writing on electricity in urdu acceptable #x02018;price#x02019; to pay causing less disability if they did not perceive motion induced pain. Likewise, Grob  reported the residual neck rotation in 35 fusions of spondylolysis without C1#x02013;2 for AAOA with a mean of essay writing on electricity 58#x000b0;. Notably, rotation was not different between the patients reporting a #x02018;good#x02019; or a #x02018;poor#x02019; outcome. Our current findings substantiate that loss of mind essay ROT C1#x02013;2 and total neck rotation do not cause worse outcomes. In normals the C1#x02013;2 joints are responsible for up to 60% of total neck rotation equaling 30#x000b0;#x02013;45#x000b0; [16, 25, 58, 64, 73]. Even though the osseus contour of the lateral C1#x02013;2 joints looks concave on radiographs, the padding of essay writing joint cartilage converts the articulating surfaces to biconvex discs  with the cartilage cover averaging 1.5#x02013;2#x000a0;mm [48, 51]. The spaces anterior and posterior where the articular surfaces diverge are filled by intra-articular meniscoids . In neutral head position the summit of the atlantal convexity rests on the convexity of the how much is a 900 word essay, axial facet.
As C1 rotates, one atlantal facet slides down the posterior slope of writing on electricity its axial facet, and how much, the contralateral atlantal facet slides down the essay writing on electricity in urdu, anterior slope of without its facet (Fig.#x000a0; 4 ) . Because of the convex shape of the articular surfaces each facet of writing in urdu C1 and C2 moves downwards and forwards/backwards at the same time during rotation [15, 69]. The articular surfaces of C1 and math problem, C2 touch each other at essay writing on electricity the mid- point during the rotational process. The understanding of this process is crucial for recognizing the C1#x02013;2 joints as a source of pain. Pang  established the problem solving, blue print of normal rotation C1#x02013;2 by analysing CT-based motion curves containing three distinct phases [58, 59]: a single motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;0#x000b0;#x02013;23#x000b0;) when only C1 turns; a double motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;24#x000b0;#x02013;65#x000b0;) when both C1 and C2 are turning in the same direction because of essay ligamentous yoking; and a unison motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;65#x000b0;#x02013;90#x000b0;) when both C1 and C2 turn as a fixed couple. The authors showed that neck rotation was initiated at the C1#x02013;2 joints and rotation of C1 occured before C2 rotated . Without. Therefore, any rotation of the head is essay in urdu, conferred to the C1#x02013;2 facets and in the current sample with an essay spm overall reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 of 40#x000b0; the articulating surfaces of C1 and C2 must, at some point, have encountered a restraint.
As Jeanneret , Pang , Ruf , Kim  and others pointed out, soft or bony interlock can have its source in malunited vertebral bodies, odontoid or lateral mass fractures, intraarticular scarring and pieces of writing cartilage wedged into the joint spaces, or can be a sequelae of problem solving capsular and periarticular ligamentous scarring like arthrofibrosis. Essay Writing. We demonstrated that an altered joint anatomy of C1#x02013;2 caused reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 , sometimes deformation being striking and the restraint of axial rotation obvious (Fig.#x000a0; 3 j). Concerning the mind problem, loss of rotation, our findings echo previous observations describing significantly reduced rotation C1#x02013;2 after prolonged immobilization, e.g., with temporary Magerl fixation [7, 71], after ligamentous and capsular injuries to the C1#x02013;2 joints  and after intraarticular or malunited fractures of C2 [52, 57]. In addition to articular surface deformities, distortion of the rotational axis of essay writing in urdu C1 and C2 in terms of deviated instantaneous center of rotation (ICR C1#x02013;2 ), e.g. as a sequelae of a widened C2-vertebral body, deformed lateral mass or tilted odontoid is thought to body contribute to reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 . We investigated the ICR C1#x02013;2 and observed a trend towards an anterior shift of the essay writing in urdu, ICR C1#x02013;2 (Electronic supplementary material). Currently there is math solving, no definition of normal ICR C1#x02013;2 or grading of any deviation of the ICR C1#x02013;2 , so observations warrant further research. Essay Writing In Urdu. Jeanneret noted three patients with restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 and explained the decreased motion with intraarticular comminution of the C1#x02013;2 joints that was supposed to produce painful posttraumatic AAOA . AAOA can disrupt the smooth, gliding joint motions  and a clinical hallmark of AAOA is known to how much be the essay writing in urdu, significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 [20, 31, 35, 66]. Problem. Accordingly, our patients with AAOA (preexisting and essay on electricity in urdu, new onset Type B joints) had significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 . The same interdependencies were stressed if calculated separately for patients with new onset degeneration of Type B as a result of intraarticular fracture pattern or lateral mass comminution.
The patient#x02019;s subjective perception of the treatment-related outcome has increasingly become the focus in spinal care. The current study is one of the first to assess clinical outcomes of fractures at C1#x02013;2 using validated outcome measures  applied on a sample, homogenous for the neurologically intact, with exclusion of health essay spm many confounding patient based variables through hard selection process. Notably, we identified significant impairment in generic (SF-36) and disease specific (CSOQ, NPDI) outcome vehicles. The use of validated measures allowed an objective comparison of writing on electricity C2-fractures morphologically classified with other spinal injuries: Tables#x000a0; 4 and #x200B; and5 5 illustrate that our outcome was better than reported with, e.g., Jefferson burst fractures, except for the SF-36 MCS. On the other hand in divorce comparison to, e.g., subaxial discoligamentous injuries in the neurologically intact treated with plated ACDF our results were inferior. For our purpose of identifying prognostic factors we investigated whether pain and disability in patients with reduced outcomes depended on (1) a restricted ability for axial rotation, (2) distortion of C1#x02013;2 anatomy and severity of malunion, or (3) intraarticular damage with subsequent degeneration and development of AAOA. The statistical analysis revealed that clinical outcome was in the majority influenced by essay in urdu, the severity of mind essay malunion.
Malunion was a frequent sequelae of essay on electricity intraarticular and health essay spm, particularly burst lateral mass fractures with subsequent evolvement of AAOA over time. At all, 65% of patients judged their outcome as good or excellent. Essay Writing In Urdu. But 35% judged their outcome as moderate or poor and 20% assumed that they would need additional treatment for their neck condition in the future. In contrast, in mind literature the results of various treatment modalities for C2-fractures, particularly for essay writing in urdu odontoid fractures, were frequently recognized as #x02018;good#x02019; if not #x02018;excellent#x02019; [25, 62, 72]. In the past, detailed data have been sparse commonly not exceeding cross-sectional assessments and without, despite the prevailing opinion that overall outcome was favourable, long-term analysis identified persisting symptoms of pain and writing, stiffness in a meaningful number of essay 6th graders patients [1, 11, 57, 76]. Platzer  reported on essay writing 110 patients subjected to AOSF. Outcome was 1.4#x000a0;points on math solving a #x02018;Smiley-Webster#x02019; scale, judged #x02018;good to excellent outcome#x02019;. Writing On Electricity In Urdu. Astonishingly, only 14% were reported complaining about limitations in daily living, occasional or chronic pain symptoms and decrease of cervical motion. Unfortunately, the sample was heterogenous including neurologically injured, one-third was reported to have significant co-morbidities or injuries and morphological characteristics of how much essay C2-fractures were lacking.
In contrast, after AOSF subjective-rated pain can be found in essay in urdu 10#x02013;40% [1, 11, 57, 76]. M#x000fc;ller  reported on 27 odontoid fractures subjected to AOSF. Fourty-one percent of patients demanded pain medication and 29% noted motion related pain, only math solving checklist, 18% were completely satisfied with their outcome and 22% of essay on electricity fractures went on to malunion. Several patients were noted to body problem essay have combinations of reduced ROM, persistant pain, a malunion or AAOA. M#x000fc;ller  stressed the importance of anatomical alignment in C2-fractures and the findings of the current study give evidence that with an on electricity increasing number of C2-fragments, deformation of the C2 vertebral body and divorce, particularly fractures of the C2 lateral mass clinical outcome drops: Fractures involving the C2 articular pillar can be isolated articular or lateral mass fractures or extensions of vertebral body fractures [5, 26] and were found to be prone to in urdu a high rate of non-anatomical union  frequently indicating secondary fusion of C1#x02013;2 [30, 67, 70]. Up to 50% of Hmfx involve the articular facets of C2 and in the largest sample regarding anterior fusion C2#x02013;3 for the treatment of mind body problem essay unstable Hmfx, Koller  observed a decreased functional and clinical outcome with a subset of patients having reduced rotation C1#x02013;2 and motion induced C2-referred pain. Similar to our study, several of these patients showed incongruency and deformity of the C1#x02013;2 joints and a positive correlative relationship between the severity of malunion C1#x02013;2 and reduced clincial outcomes. Likewise, Fujimura et al.  reported on on electricity 31 C2-vertebral body fractures subjected to divorce child essay nonsurgical treatment including 3 burst and 17 sagittal fractures of the in urdu, lateral mass. In 15 of 17 sagittal fractures malunion C1#x02013;2 was recognized at follow-up, 8 of the 17 fractures (47%) went to AAOA reporting moderate or severe nuchal pain.
At all, patients that had suffered from lateral mass fractures had moderate to severe pain in 6th graders 82%. Since Jeanneret#x02019;s series, several reports substantiate that C2-fractures affecting the upper facets of C2 can show symptomatic C1#x02013;2 incongruency at follow-up [26, 40, 42, 52] and our study adds objective data delineating a significantly decreased outcome in terms of validated measures with increasing C2-malunion. Accordingly, from the current results the authors support primary fusion C1#x02013;2 in C2-fractures with comminuted or displaced C1#x02013;2 joints showing a high risk of malunion and poor outcomes. Literature [20, 26, 31, 35, 39, 40, 52, 66] and essay writing on electricity in urdu, our current results demonstrate that the C1-2 facet joints can be a meaningful source of pain. How Much Is A 900 Word Essay. Thirty-one percent of our patients had at least one lateral C1#x02013;2 joint displaying advanced AAOA, more than half had signs of writing C2-nerve root conferred radiculopathy and effects, motion induced suboccipital pain. The pain was not caused by nerve root or C2-ganglion compression, as there was no abnormal interlaminar space at C1#x02013;2  in any patient. Facet joint pain is likely to be transmitted by unencapsulated receptors and free nerve endings in the joint capsule and essay writing on electricity in urdu, synovial lining . With aging or posttraumatic changes, degeneration with capsular laxity and synovitis can occur and how much is a 900 word essay, finally AAOA can arise with a mechanical nature of pain [35, 36].
As in our sample, pain derived from the writing, C1#x02013;2 facet joints is frequently described in nonneuropathic terms such as #x02018;pressurelike#x02019;, #x02018;deep boring#x02019;, #x02018;dull#x02019;, and divorce, #x02018;heavy#x02019; [20, 35] and located almost exclusively at the ipsilateral retromastoid and in urdu, occipital region [14, 20, 22, 28, 31, 35, 66]. As in the current study the main manifestations of C1#x02013;2 degeneration and AAOA are pain with significantly restricted ROM [22, 31], elicited or exacerbated by ipsilateral neck rotation [20, 22, 28, 35, 66]. Essay 6th Graders. Our current findings are in line with previous authors#x02019; symptoms predominating on the side of the more significant lateral mass arthropathy, some patients even reporting crepitation [22, 45]. The pain in AAOA is secondary to essay writing on electricity an irritative phenomenon in problem the joint itself. When motion is eliminated in the joint, the irritation within ceases and pain generation is halted .
Therefore, immobilization and definite posterior fusion C1#x02013;2 relieves pain in patients with sequelae of AAOA [22, 28, 31, 35, 55] like in one of our cases with intractable pain resulting from writing in urdu a C2-vertebral body fracture with a burst pattern at the lateral mass (Fig.#x000a0; 3 , #x200B; ,4). Math Checklist. 4 ). Several authors noticed AAOA to be a distracting source of pain [20, 31, 35, 36] and one of the sequelae following C1#x02013;2 fractures [26, 33, 39]. In part I of our project we elaborated the incidence of essay in urdu AAOA with 5% in normals with a mean age of 50#x000a0;years . Nevertheless, degenerative AAOA [28, 31] and posttraumatic AAOA seem to be a neglected and underdiagnosed clinical entity [20, 22, 35, 36, 39]. Thus, we sought to contribute to the understanding and awareness of C2-joint referred pain. With a detailed assessment of clinical and essay 6th graders, radiographic outcome, we identified posttraumatic AAOA in 20% of cases. We observed a strong correlation between the presence of posttraumatic AAOA and worse clinical outcome.
Hence, beside its influence on ROT C1#x02013;2 , the restoration of essay C1#x02013;2 anatomy is another important factor to be considered in without listhesis C2-fracture treatment to avoid C2-malunion and accelerated atlantoaxial degeneration. On Electricity. With growing awareness and the more liberal use of CT-scans using 3D-reconstructions, distinct fracture subtypes that frequently come along with odontoid, Hmfx or vertebral body fractures (e.g. articular surface involvement of C2 or vertebral body widening) will be diagnosed more often. The current study entailed a new approach to solving checklist the outcome investigation of C2-fractures emphasizing the essay writing on electricity in urdu, morphological stratification of distinct fracture subtypes. Using a functional CT-scanning protocol to assess rotation C1#x02013;2, validated outcome vehicles and health spm, applying a validated classification for the posttreatment alignment of C2 and the C1#x02013;2 complex, we demonstrated that malunion in C2-fractures had strong association with development of AAOA and a significant impact on clinical outcomes, atlantoaxial and total neck rotation. Further studies will have to analyse the impact of different treatment strategies not only on fusion rates, but also on the anatomical alignment achieved and its effect on outcome.
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luc sante resume The Factory of essay writing in urdu, Facts. I was born on essay 6th graders May 25, 1954 in Verviers Belgium, the writing in urdu only child of essay, Lucien Mathieu Amelie Sante and Denise Lambertine Alberte Marie Ghislaine Nandrin. Following the bankruptcy of my father's employer, an iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, and at in urdu, the suggestion of friends who had emigrated earlier, my parents decided to move to the United States in search of work. We arrived at Idlewild Airport in February 1959, and moved in with my parents' friends in Summit. New Jersey. Prospects were not as bright as they had been depicted, and that November we sailed back to Belgium, but the situation there was no better, and how much 900 word essay, early in 1960 we reemigrated. Several more such trips occurred over the next few years, spurred by writing in urdu, momentary hopes, by the Cuban Missile Crisis, by the illnesses and deaths of my maternal grandparents. At length my parents decided to how much, remain in America, at writing on electricity in urdu, least until the time came when they could retire to Belgium. I was born in 1954 in problem, Verviers.
Belgium, the only child of Lucien and Denise Sante. Following the bankruptcy of my father's employer, an essay writing on electricity iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, and at problem essay, the suggestion of my mother's brother. Rene Nandrin, my parents decided to move to the Belgian Congo where my father would take up a position as local field director for a palm-oil concern. In February 1959, we arrived in Coquilhatville, on the banks of the Congo River, and moved into a company-owned villa in the European district. Suddenly we had servants and a chauffeured car.
On the other hand. I came down with a succession of ailments aggravated by the climate and essay, spent most of my time in bed. Barely a year later the Belgian government announced that the Congo would be granted its independence that June, and my parents friends and colleagues began to show signs of alarm, sending prized possessions, for example, back to their families in Belgium. Emotions had risen to a point of panic by late May, when the first general elections were held. My parents and their friends dismissed their servants, fearing treachery. My father barricaded my mother and me and would himself not leave the house without a loaded revolver on his hip. Math Problem Solving? Violent incidents began occurring, most of them in the south of the country but some close enough that my father, over my mother's protests. sent us home. He followed a little over a month later, when fighting had become widespread; his employer turned over local control to native African managers. Connections made in the Congo led my father to essay writing on electricity in urdu, a job with the Ministry of Commerce. and we moved to Berchem-Ste.
Agathe, a suburb of Brussels, where I recovered and health essay spm, later found I had a surprising aptitude for competitive cycling. I was born in 1954 in Verviers, Belgium, the only child of on electricity, Lucien and Denise Sante. Following the bankruptcy of his employer, an iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, my father tried to find another job, but without success. After depleting their savings and selling our house in Pepinster, as well as most of the major household possessions, my parents moved into a succession of progressively smaller and dingier apartments, finally winding up in a single room in Seraing, an industrial suburb of Liege, where my father got a barely remunerative stint as nightwatchman in a warehouse. We endured two years of this as a family. My mother became chronically ill, probably due to stress as much as to bad food and lack of heat, and math problem, consequently I was taken in by my Remacle cousins in the country. They, too, were feeling the essay on electricity in urdu pinch of the economy, however, and palmed me off on other relatives, who in essay, turn passed me along after a while.
I spent three years being thus shunted around, until the Christian Brothers admitted me as a hardship case at their boarding school in essay, Liege in the winter of 1964. By then my mother had been hospitalized full-time and my father had retreated into a vigilant and apparently unbreakable silence. At the school I was constantly victimized by the other pupils, most of them off-spring of well-to-do families. Finally, at thirteen, I snapped, I set a fire that consumed the dormitory and took the lives of mind problem essay, five boys. I was born in on electricity in urdu, 1954 in how much is a, Verviers, Belgium, the only child of Lucien and essay writing on electricity, Denise Sante. My father's employer, an iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, miraculously escaped the effects of the recession of 1958 and spondylolysis, the collapse of Verviers's textile industry by a rapid and essay writing on electricity in urdu, timely change to the manufacture of radiators. Effects Divorce Child? My father, who had worked his way up to junior management from the labor ranks, devised a streamlined method of cooling molds that earned him a succession of promotions, ultimately to essay, the top seat. By 1968 we had sold our row house in 6th graders, Pepinster and moved into a villa in essay writing on electricity, a parklike setting on the heights of the boulevard district of Veviers. I grew up fast, and was quickly bored by the provincial life around me. I barely maintained passing grades at St.
Francois-Xavier, the local Jesuit college, and would surely have failed and been expelled had it not been for my parents' social and political prominence. As it was, I was taking clandestine excursions--longer and longer ones--out into 900 word, the world: to Amsterdam, to Paris, to London, to Majorca, I took every drug I could get my hands on, and I was possibly a father several times over: I was adept at vanishing when matters came to a head. My parents' threats to cut off my allowance became steadily more credible until, in the spring of 1971, I bribed the manager of the Place Verre branch of the essay on electricity Generale de Banque and spondylolysis listhesis, withdrew my entire trust fund in cash--or nearly entire; I left a token five hundred francs. I flew to Marrakech, where I lived for eight months in a hotel frequented by members of British rock groups, until a run-in with one of the Berber chieftains who controlled the hashish traffic from the Rif caused me to fear for my life. Writing On Electricity? I snared a series of van rides that took me to Goa, on the Indian Ocean, where I dwelt in a permanent cloud of dope in a waterfront flat, when my money ran out, I relocated to how much is a essay, the beach. I contracted scabies and syphilis, but I didn't care.
I was born in 1954 in essay writing in urdu, Verviers, Belgium, the only child of Lucien and Denise Sante. Following the bankruptcy of my father's employer, an iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, my parents decided to emigrate to the United States. Without? We arrived at Idlewild Airport in February 1959, with eight suitcases and an address in Johnsonburg. Pennsylvania. The address belonged to a family whose son had died near Henri-Chapelle in the terrible winter of essay on electricity in urdu, 1944, and whose grave my mother had maintained as part of a program in which young Belgian women adopted the remains of American servicemen. For a few years my mother had kept up a peculiar correspondence with this family; they exchanged cards and photographs and brief letters neither side understood, lacking a common language. Upon deciding to come to America she had dug out the effects child essay address, writing this time in laborious, dictionary-assisted English, but had not received a reply: She maintained, however, that they must have gotten her address wrong, misreading her Belgian script: their return letter surely lay in some bin in Brussels. She was determined to call on them upon our arrival, but, after many halting inquiries, discovered that there was no public transport that went anywhere near Johnsonburg. Pennsylvania. My parents were directed by Travelers' Aid to an agency that helped them find an apartment in Ozone Park.
Queens, and after a time my father found work as custodian at a doughnut franchise in Long Island City. My parents were miserable, impoverished and isolated and increasingly without hope, but lacked the means to return to Belgium; all their savings went into a fund that eventually enabled them to send me to boarding school with the Christian Brothers in Liege. I languished there, dreaming only of returning to America. I was born in 1954 in Veviers. Belgium, the only child of Lucien and Denise Sante. Following the bankruptcy of his employer, an writing on electricity iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, my father miraculously got a nearly identical job with another iron foundry, which made structural supports for concrete constructions. I grew up in Pepinster, attending the essay Catholic primary school and essay, then St. Francois-Xavier, the Jesuit college in Verviers, with money my grandmother had provided for this purpose in her will. I was a good student, and my teachers paved the way for my admission to the University of Louvain, where I studied Romance philology and eventually wrote my dissertation on the influence of the Japanese Noh drama on the works of Paul Claudel. In the course of my studies there it occurred to me one day that I had a calling, that I had in fact long had this calling but had been inattentive to it.
After obtaining my degree I entered the Jesuit chapter house at Tervuren, and in effects, 1978 I was ordained. Essay Writing On Electricity? I celebrated my first Mass at effects child essay, St. Remacle, the ancestral family church in Verviers, with all my relatives crowding the pews, and then moved to writing in urdu, Rome, where I had a job awaiting me in the Propaganda Office of the Holy See. Five years later I was appointed secretary to the papal nuncio in El Salvador. I was born in 1954 in Verviers, Belgium, the 6th graders only child of Lucien and Denise Sante. Following the essay bankruptcy of my father's employer, an iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, my parents decided to effects child essay, emigrate to on electricity in urdu, the United States, on no more firm a basis than a visit to the U.S. pavilion at the 1958 Brussels World's Fair. We arrived at health, Idlewild Airport in February 1959, with eight suitcases, my father's prewar memories of high-school English, and the name of writing on electricity, someone's cousin who apparently lived in effects divorce child, Long Island. New York, which my parents thought was a town. A taxi driver who knew some French took us to a hotel in Manhattan, which turned out to be a clip joint.
We lost three of essay, our suitcases before fleeing to another hotel, respectable enough but commensurately expensive. My parents combed telephone books in child essay, search of the cousin, but to no avail. In Urdu? They applied for help from the is a Belgian consulate, and were turned away with frosty finality. They spent days on complex and indeterminate errands, looking for chimeric friends of on electricity, relatives of friends, my father trying to look for jobs in his field without much idea of where to start. They hadn't imagined it would be like this; without connections or a grasp of the language they were lost. The money was rapidly dwindling, too; already there was not enough left for passage back to Europe, and soon they would no longer be able to essay 6th graders, foot the hotel bill. On the advice of the chambermaid a kind woman from Puerto Rico--communication between her and my parents, conducted around a tongue none of them possessed, was comically histrionic--my parents relocated to a dank hostelry near Herald Square where the essay writing rooms were lit by fluorescent tubes.
We lived on rolls and hot dogs. My mother made me sleep wrapped in body problem essay, a chiffon scarf to protect me from the cockroaches. My father took his watch, of a decent but undistinguished Swiss make, to a pawnshop, where he was given five dollars in return. Our suitcases, minus their contents, followed, and soon my parents overcoats and their extra pairs of shoes went as well. They were beginning to consider applying to a church for assistance, but were hindered by their pride. One day, when it seemed no other option remained, a man who lived down the hall from us offered my father a job. He was to deliver a manila envelope to writing on electricity in urdu, an address in Newark; he would be paid fifty dollars. Essay Spm? He accepted with alacrity and set off. Essay Writing On Electricity? That night, after I had fallen asleep, while my mother wept with fear at having heard nothing from him, two men in math solving, dark suits came to our room and took us away. They were FBI agents.
My father had been arraigned for interstate traffic in narcotics; the house to writing on electricity in urdu, which he made his delivery had been under surveillance for several weeks. My mother was held as a material witness in mind essay, the Essex County Women's Correctional Facility. I was kept in a wing of Juvenile Hall for four days, in the course of writing, which I repeatedly wet my bed and mind body essay, was punished by essay writing on electricity, being deprived of food. Math Problem Solving? Then I was sent to a foster home. Writing On Electricity In Urdu? with a large and strict Irish-American family in Irvington. My inability to speak English enraged the father, who would take me into health essay, the vest-pocket backyard and beat me with a razor strop. Essay On Electricity? I was moved to another foster home, and how much is a 900 word, then another and another--I lost count. I had no news from my parents. After a while I couldn't remember their faces. I was born in 1954 in Verviers, Belgium, the only child of on electricity in urdu, Lucien and Denise Sante. Following the bankruptcy of effects, my father's employer, an iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, and with the knowledge that there were no other jobs to be had, a combined result of the collapse of the centuries-old Verviers textile industry and of the recession of 1958, my parents decided to go for broke. They sold our row house in Pepinster and the bulk of its contents, and we set off by essay writing, train for Biarritz, the beautiful city in France fronting on the Bay of Biscay and backed against the Pyrenees.
The trip was glorious; we laughed and sang songs and pointed out the window at spm, the spectacular scenery. When we got there my parents checked into a modest hotel, left me with sandwiches and a pile of comics, and went to the casino. My father's plan was to parlay the stake amassed from selling off their possessions into a small fortune at the baccarat table. It didn't work. I was born in 1954 in Verviers, Belgium, the only child of Lucien and essay, Denise Sante. Math Solving? Following the bankruptcy of my father's employer, an iron foundry that manufactured wool-carding machinery, my parents sat on the floor. Dust accumulated.
Things fell and essay writing on electricity in urdu, were not picked up. Mold grew on the potatoes in the cellar. The milk solidified. The electricity was cut off. Neighboring boys threw stones that broke the windows, and cold air blew in, First insects, then rodents, and eventually birds arrived to make their homes with us. Spondylolysis Without Listhesis? Soon snow covered the dust, and on electricity, then soot covered the snow.
We grew increasingly warm as we slept. (C) 1998 Luc Sante All rights reserved. ISBN: 0-679-42410-5.
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Essay writing on electricity in urdu - Original Essays
5 Must-Dos For Outstanding Essay Writing. By Clare #038; Chris on February 21, 2011 45 Comments. Essay writing is so important, so here#039;s what you can do to help your child write great ones! Your teen needs to step up to the mark because school is getting harder. High school education continues to move away from tests with one word answers and essay writing in urdu towards students having to come up with paragraph or even full essay answers. And there’s a good reason for this. The internet has become so widespread and so accessible, that having a library of singular facts stored in your head is no longer helpful. 6th Graders! The average cell phone can now access Google or Wikipedia anywhere. Essay On Electricity In Urdu! Type in your question and solving checklist boom, there#8217;s your answer. Essays require more than just a memorization of facts.
They require students to essay writing on electricity, have an understanding of what they’re talking about. They also require students to know how to express themselves clearly and concisely in writing. Being able to communicate well is an absolute must in the real world. It#8217;s also necessary in all subject courses at university, and definitely in any professional capacity. Essay writing is definitely a learnable skill, but not necessarily a straight forward one for a lot of students. Because we want your teen to master essay writing as much as they can during their time at effects, high school, here are 5 tips that will significantly increase your teen’s essay marks. 1. Every essay must have a proper structure. An essay must be broken into paragraphs to make it readable. It’s horrible reading a full page of solid text. Breaking down an essay into essay writing different sections is what allows it to math checklist, flow in essay writing on electricity in urdu a logical manner. At high school all essays should follow a simple formula.
Your teen needs to learn this formula off by heart! Introduction: Tell #8217;em what you’re gonna tell ‘em. Essay 6th Graders! Introduce the essay writing on electricity, topic and briefly outline the points you’re going to make in essay your essay in the order you#8217;re going to write about them. If the essay on electricity, essay is meant to argue a point, your teen should make it clear in the introduction what their argument/point of view is. Body Paragraphs: Tell ‘em. At high school an essay will usually have 3-5 paragraphs. Effects Divorce Essay! Each paragraph contains its own main point that contributes to the overall theme or argument of the essay. (These paragraphs follow their own structure – see tip # 2) Conclusion: Tell ‘em what you told ‘em.
Sum up what the essay was about. 2. Each body paragraph must have a proper structure. Not only does the essay as a whole need structure, each paragraph needs to meet certain requirements. On Electricity! S = Statement: This is the main point of the paragraph. What part of the film is body essay being discussed and what did it mean to the film? What was important about an historical event and how did it affect later events? Basically, what’s the essay in urdu, point you’re about to 6th graders, discuss in this paragraph. Writing! E = Explanation: Explain what you said in how much is a essay your statement. Tell the writing on electricity, reader why your statement is true. Why did the setting reflect how the health essay spm, main character was feeling?
In what way did the weather affect the essay writing, outcome of the battle? This part should make up the essay, bulk of the paragraph. X = eXample Give an example! A quote, an example, a fact. Something concrete that gives evidence to your statement. I = Importance Why is the point you’ve made in this paragraph important? What does it mean to the story, or the film, or the event? Tell the essay in urdu, reader why it matters. This one might not always be applicable, but if you can then go for mind problem it. 3. On Electricity In Urdu! Every essay needs an essay plan. You wouldn’t go on a road trip without a map and essays are just the divorce child essay, same.
Before your teen starts writing an essay they should make a quick plan of what they’re going to write about. An essay plan does not have to essay writing on electricity in urdu, be a big thing. Not at all. It only takes a few minutes but will save your teen SO much time overall. Essay plans instantly give an essay structure, they prevent you from problem essay forgetting to on electricity, include any important points, and they prevent you from losing your way as you write. An essay plan can be quickly scribbled in a margin, or the first page of an exam book that isn’t marked. Here is an example of the way I would do an essay plan before I started writing. (It#8217;s for the film The Matrix #8230;)
Essay Plan Example. Each of the three #8216;fingers#8217; coming off each paragraph make up #8216;SEXI#8217;. I haven#8217;t done the #8216;I#8217; part, but within each paragraph I would try and emphasize why this point was important to the setting of the film. Every time your teen writes an essay, whether it#8217;s just for practise or in an exam, they need to jot down the points that are going to fill their ‘SEXI’ for listhesis each paragraph. The detail that they list here means they don’t have to worry about forgetting anything important while they’re writing. This depends on writing in urdu, what situation the essay is is a being written in. If it’s being written for homework and your teen doesn’t have the time pressure of an exam, it can be a good idea to essay writing, go and do something else for a while once they’ve finished writing. You know when you come back to mind problem, look at something you’ve written and you see all the little mistakes you didn’t notice before? This is why. Your teen should check that the writing on electricity, paragraphs are written in a logical order. Simply put – does the essay make sense?
Does each paragraph follows SEXI? Get them to body problem, read their essay aloud (or in on electricity in urdu their head) so they can see how it flows (or doesn’t as it may be). Divorce! If the writing, essay is being written in an exam your teen won#8217;t have the luxury of time. So the number one rule here is: stay until the end! While it may seem like eternity to a high school student, exams aren’t actually that long.
And a few minutes of essay 6th graders, proof reading can often make the writing on electricity in urdu, difference between one grade and another. Mind Body! It’s worth staying right to the end. Writing essays can be practised! Many students go through a whole year at school and only do one or two practice essays (that they were forced to do). They may know the subject backwards, but if they don’t know how to on electricity, write a good essay then they’re screwed. Make sure your teen includes practice essays as part of their exam preparation. Getting a hold of is a essay, past exams and using them to practise is a great idea.
If you can then have a read of their work yourself that’s fantastic. They might need an adult eye to writing, pick up something that’s not quite right. Even better, get your teen to ask their teacher to essay, mark it. Most teachers would love an essay writing on electricity interested student to ask them to mind problem essay, mark a practice essay! If you think your teen would benefit from exam tips, including how to write fantastic exam essays, it might be worth checking out our Exam Survival Package. You can read what other parents have said about it here. Was this helpful? Similar articles: This is essay writing on electricity a great article! I love it for divorce its succinctness and think it would make a great poster in a high school classroom!
I forwarded it to all three of my kids! i looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this article. it really helped me making an essay in essay on electricity in urdu my 5th grade class and child guess what I got a 4 by just remebering these tips! I am in fifth grade And I have to write an essay on electricity essay in an hour and a half tomorrow. This really helped me understand and I will post my grade when I am informed of it. Thank you so much for the tips and essay I will be sure yo use them on my essay. Essay Writing! Dear Clare and Chris: I#8217;m a Mexican teacher of spondylolysis without, English as a foreign language and I#8217;m constantly searching for guidance to essay on electricity in urdu, improve my teaching. I teach a preparation course for the FCE by Cambridge.
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This is fantastic. My children, 12 and 9, found this very useful as booster for their previous knowledge. Thanks for this good work. Please continue. But you do not get enough time to make a structure plan in the exam#8230;. Is there any alternative for that#8230;?? I would be waiting for an example. Hi there, we hope that this article has given a few simple tips on how your son should do about writing a good essay.
You can check out on electricity in urdu all of essay, our posts on essay writing here. Our Exam Survival Package also has a great video on writing essays in exams. Plus there are hundreds of other tips all centered around getting fantastic exam results in the videos too! Check it out here. This is a great resource very informative and accessible! A small grammar gripe you misuse practice (noun)/practise (verb) throughout and the title doesn#8217;t need an apostrophe.
Writing essays should be practised! Actually, the essay, apostrophe is okay. Thank you for this outline. Hi Erin, thanks for your comments! Yes thank you for pointing out the practice/practise error. This article is a few years old now and I#8217;ve since been schooled on the difference between the two, but I don#8217;t believe they distinguish between the how much is a 900 word, two in the US, so someone is always going to think that I am wrong #128578; [#8230;] While a school essay is not the same as writing for on electricity a business or website, I wanted to recommend this great blog post I just read about writing school essays. [#8230;] [#8230;] You can help your teen make their writing simpler and more like a straight-A student’s by helping them plan their essays. [#8230;] [#8230;] may not understand how to apply what they have learnt in class to the essay format, or how to structure an essay, or how to structure paragraphs or sentences, or how to convey what they understand about the topic to the reader in a clear and concise [#8230;] Also get our free 2-week email course and study articles sent to effects essay, your inbox. Writing In Urdu! Everything we know about exam study in one digital package.
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Example Of Style And Tone Analysis Of Short Story Essays and Research Papers. STYLE , TONE , AND MOOD IN LANDLADY Prose 1 Arief Febriyanto 63708028 Moch Fajar Akbar 63708014 Willi Adjie 63706897 . ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER 2011 STYLE , TONE , AND MOOD 1. STYLE Style is the use of literary devices, tone , and mood in writing on electricity a particular way that makes author’s writing recognizable. In another word, the style of writing is the spm, style of author who writes it. The author’s style can be recognized by the following. Emotion , Feeling , Fiction 1366 Words | 5 Pages. Literary Analysis Short Story Example. ?Name Class Instructor Date Analysis Paper on The Blind Side Have you ever helped someone out and had your actions misread by the people . Essay In Urdu. around you? In the movie The Blind Side, based on author Michael Lewis’ book, The Blind Side: Evolution Of A Game, Leigh Anne Tuohy takes in health a homeless African American teen named Michael Oher. With Leigh Anne and her family’s help Michael turns out to be an unbelievable All American football player and first round pick of the Baltimore Ravens in the 2009 NFL. 2009 NFL Draft , Isidore Newman School , Leigh Anne Tuohy 1860 Words | 6 Pages. Short Story Analysis In this essay, your purpose is to fully explain an element (theme, characterization or . Essay Writing. symbolism) in a short story of your choice.
I will provide you with examples of each element from stories by Hemingway, Updike and Vonnegut ; you may write about any of health these authors except the ones that we have discussed in class. However, you may choose to investigate an author of essay on electricity your own choice. Below I have listed some contemporary authors and story collections you may want to. Ernest Hemingway , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Fiction 1773 Words | 6 Pages. Yellow – Short Story Analysis Sometimes, one’s problems can get so much out of hand that they will slowly build . up to spondylolysis without listhesis, be a massive blockage in one’s life. In Peter Carty’s short story yellow, we hear about Jon a man who generally is not happy with his current life situation. He is dealing with a lot of problems, and instead of coping with them he chooses to escape from them. Jon is writing said to be a man in his late thirties, yet still looking fit. “He was overweight but in good physical condition. Bullying , Desert , Meaning of life 952 Words | 3 Pages. its scars.
This short story is told from the perspective of without listhesis someone obviously close to Marais because of the in depth feeling . portrayed in writing on electricity in urdu the content of the story . As an example the child, narrator is talking about the effects that the accidental killing is going to have on writing on electricity, Marais's political and spondylolysis listhesis, social life. Also, the shadow that has been caste over South Africa will continue to grow with the negative publicity an accident of this magnitude brings with it. He knows that the story of the Afrikaner. Black people , Fiction , Racial segregation 1077 Words | 3 Pages. ? Short Story Content Analysis Essay What is the point of any piece of great literature? Or rather, what is essay great . literature? Some would say that accomplished literature is a way of exceptionally telling a story . However, what is the point of storytelling? In many cases, stories are told for entertainment. However, most stories have a moral or theme conveying an important message about life or how to live it.
This is the point of great literature, to convey this message beautifully. Essay. Some pieces of. Conflict , Family , Fiction 2324 Words | 7 Pages. Style and Tone Essay Style is the way in which something is writing in urdu written, as opposed to the meaning of what is . written. The writer uses a certain style and spondylolysis listhesis, tone to in urdu, craft the story . Style refers to the writer’s choice of diction, sentence structure, tone and organization. No One’s Mystery by effects divorce Elizabeth Tallent shows style and tone throughout the whole story , which shows reality vs. Essay On Electricity In Urdu. fantasy and being in love with someone you shouldn’t. Diction refers to the class of words than an problem essay author decides is.
A Story , Emotion , Feeling 994 Words | 3 Pages. An Analysis of on electricity Hawthorne's Short Stories. An Analysis of Hawthorne's Short Stories In many of Nathaniel Hawthorne's short . Without Listhesis. stories , he creates characters with either a malicious or evil feature to relay to the reader a more allegorical meaning. Many would say he targets woman without justification. Therefore a reader may interpret him to essay writing on electricity, be a misogynist. In the story Rapaccinni's Daughter he uses Beatrice as a carrier of a deadly poison. In Young Goodman Brown he targets Faith as the character who is lost to the Devil. Allegory , Gender , Mosses from an Old Manse 815 Words | 3 Pages. Analyzing a short story The basic components of a short story 1. Plot . (introduction, conflict, climax, resolution ) The sequence of events or incidents of which the divorce child, story is composed.
In the plot there may be diffferent kinds of essay on electricity conflicts (person agains person – person agains environment – person against him/herself). Artistic unity is math problem checklist essential to a good plot ; nothing irrelevant should be there that does not contribute to the total meaning. . Antagonist , Character , Fiction 954 Words | 5 Pages. but once. On Electricity. ? Letting go when necessary. ? Love and care for family members. ? Respect has to be earned. 3.0 SETTING ? Atmosphere • The . story probably takes place in early 20th century when office work was done on typewriters and tapes were still in essay 6th graders use. Computers were probably not in use yet. Essay Writing On Electricity In Urdu. ? Location • Ross and Bannister’s firm. ? The story is how much essay set in writing on electricity the town of Belmont in the office of Ross and Bannister’s where Lucy Beck works as a secretary and where the haunted typewriter is. . Fiction , Ghost , Leon Garfield 1290 Words | 5 Pages. ?Emergence of a New Woman in Kate Chopin’s Short Stories The turning of the 19th century instilled a desire in all women to math solving checklist, be . free and on electricity in urdu, liberated from their husbands. They desired freedom, liberation and happiness. Such characteristics were portrayed throughout the spondylolysis, short stories written by Kate Chopin. For the majority of Kate Chopin’s life, she was brought up without a male figure and was constantly surrounded by essay writing on electricity in urdu females (Toth, 1999).
Kate Chopin was a woman whose feminist viewpoints were far. Fiction , Gender role , Short story 1208 Words | 4 Pages. HOW TO WRITE A SHORT STORY ANALYSIS. How to Write a Short Story Analysis Paper 1. Choose a story and re-read it. . Example : I liked the story “Good Country People”; I?ll read it again. 2. Effects Child Essay. React personally. What aspects of the story do you seem to be most affected by?
You should look at more than one aspect. Example : I find when I look at writing on electricity in urdu, how I reacted in my journal to this story , what I really liked about it was the way the plot developed. I was really surprised at the climax – when Manley took Hulga?s leg and left her stranded. A Story , Essay , Fiction 1128 Words | 4 Pages. Short Story /Film Analysis Aric McDonald Short Story / Short . Essay. Film Comm. 411-35 11:30-12:45 Spring 1997 The three short stories are similar because they all involve jealousy. This type of jealousy surrounds the writing on electricity, main characters who are envious of the achievements or the attention that another man receives. The first story is spondylolysis without listhesis about an old man who is taking his wife on a second honeymoon when she encounters an on electricity old suitor, creating jealousy. A Story , Charles Lindbergh , Envy 943 Words | 3 Pages. A Family Supper Short Story Analysis. ? A Family Supper by Kazuo Ishiguro l Plot “A Family Supper” tells the divorce, story of a Japanese family after World War II.
The son, . having lived in writing California for several years, returns to Tokyo to see his father and sister Kikuko. The son and the father talk about the death of his mother due to is a 900 word essay, poisonous and the failure of the father’s jointly owned firm. The father tells his son about how honorable he thought his business partner, Watanabe, was even though he had committed suicide. Writing On Electricity In Urdu. The. Daughter , Family , Father 1268 Words | 5 Pages. ENG 4U1 Short Story Discussion Questions “If Not Higher” by I.L.
Peretz Pre-reading: Write a journal entry discussing . Health Spm. one moment that you did something for/to someone that made you proud. Write another moment that you did something for/to someone that made you ashamed. 1. Briefly examine why you believe the author chose to create these characters, to have them perform these actions, to tell their tales from this particular point of view. 2. Essay Writing On Electricity In Urdu. Examine your own views on the end result. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1223 Words | 5 Pages.
compassion in health people can exhibit in situations regarding tradition and values. Jackson presents the theme of the short story . with the use of writing in urdu symbols and setting. The setting of The Lottery supports the theme. Settings are constructed to help build the mood and foreshadow things to come. Spondylolysis Listhesis. In the lottery, however, the setting ironically foreshadows exactly the opposite of what is to essay writing in urdu, come. The story begins with a description of essay 6th graders a seemingly cheerful environment. On Electricity In Urdu. Jackson creates a comfortable atmosphere by. Fiction , Shirley Jackson , Short story 962 Words | 3 Pages. enter the house.
Two boys one of them striking the other with a willow switch about the head and shoulders, the essay spm, other crying, enter the writing on electricity, house.” (Moody 95) . Body Problem Essay. Moody plays a lot with his word choice one of the preferred styles in “Boys” is repetition to create emphasise. Another preferred style noticed throughout his piece is to italicize certain words. To italicize specific words the essay writing, author creates stress in the way they are uttered to generate an impact in the reader, influencing their perception for the. Creative writing , Italic type , Microsoft Word 1011 Words | 3 Pages. ? Example of Story Analysis “The Whale” By: Yves Theriault Protagonist: Ambroise Bourdages Ambroise is a fisherman . who lives with his mother in is a a small port town. He has his own crew and fishing boat. Ambroise is in love with a woman named Gabrielle.
He is in urdu trusting of mind problem others and does not lie or deceive people. For example , he believes that Clovis, banker?s son, can be trusted and would never lie to others, so Ambroise invites Clovis with him to catch another whale. Ambroise also has integrity and. Clovis culture , Fishing , Impressment 1271 Words | 2 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Analyzing Novels amp; Short Stories Setting Where and When where a . story takes place can be profoundly significant. Consider where the author’s story is placed and why the author made that decision. In Shakespeare’s Othello, for example , the writing, setting is Italy, although Shakespeare was writing in England. He set his play elsewhere, in part, so he could make social commentary about England without incurring the wrath of English rulers. Remember, many stories would be irretrievably altered. Character , Fiction , Grammatical person 1166 Words | 4 Pages. was during that parade where she showed her true colors.
In the story , a drag queen comes from the parade to greet Neil’s mother Barbara and math solving checklist, as . Neil and he returns to the parade, Neil looks back and sees a look of disgust on his mother’s face. In Urdu. At this point, Neil realizes that his mother will never accept him for the way he is. Checklist. This is just one instance where Neil feels he cannot be accepted in on electricity his mother’s presence. Mind Body Problem. Later in the story Neil decided to move away from home to go live in New York, where. Brenda Howard , English-language films , Family 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Jessica Gonzales ENGL 1301 Short Story Analysis First Confession In the story of “First . Confession” Frank O’Connor has us look at the story from the essay in urdu, boy, Jackie’s, point of view. Spondylolysis Listhesis. Jackie is a seven year-old boy who must go to make his first confession before he can take his first communion. Essay Writing. The story takes places in various settings that include Jackie’s house, Jackie’s school where Mrs. Ryan would come and give her warnings against essay hell to the children, the Chapel where Jackie and Nora have. Character , Confession , Eucharist 1055 Words | 3 Pages. paper I will be analysing the short story called “Crossing”.
Furthermore I will be interpreting this short . Essay. story and is a 900 word essay, I will be going in-depth with the text to do these things and utilise the English skills and abilities I have been taught throughout my time of on electricity studying the English language. I will do my very best to try and meet the desired criteria for this assignment and answer the effects divorce essay, assignment’s requirements the best I can and hopefully adequately. The short story “Crossing” is about a father. Divorce , Family , Father 1225 Words | 4 Pages. For generations, Violence against women has been a grave cause for concern but it is in urdu only recently that women are beginning to child, stand up against violence such . as sexual assault and molestation. The short stories “A Wednesday Circle” and “My heart is broken” give us an insight into our society merely a couple of decades ago and we see a large difference in how sexual violence was represented. Instead of it being characterized as a serious crime, it is essay writing deemed as something that should be kept secret.
Domestic violence , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Guide to Literary Analysis of a Short Story. Guide to Literary Analysis of a Short Story A short story is a relatively brief . invented prose narrative that typically deals with a limited group of characters involved in a single action. Essay. It usually aims at unity of effect and often concentrates on the creation of mood rather than the telling of a story . A short story as well as a novel may belong to one of the following types, or genres: * social which studies the essay in urdu, effect of social conditions at a given time and essay, place upon human life and. Character , Fiction , Literature 1753 Words | 6 Pages. ? Short Stories : Characteristics • Short - Can usually be read in one sitting. •Concise: Information offered in . the story is writing on electricity relevant to the tale being told. Problem Solving Checklist. This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot •Usually tries to leave behind a single impression or effect.
Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. Writing On Electricity In Urdu. •Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringing personal experiences and prior knowledge to the story . Four Major. Character , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 1006 Words | 3 Pages. A Short Story Analysis: Girl by Jamaica Kincaid. Jamaica Kincaid, born Elaine Potter Richardson, is spm originally from St. John's, Antigua (Britannica). She was born in essay in urdu 1949 and three years later she had . 900 Word Essay. learned to read by attending local schools which provided a british style education (Britannica). In Urdu. Her father was a cabinet maker and mind essay, her mother was a political activist (Britannica).
By the age of sixteen, she left her home in St. John's to come to America and be an essay writing on electricity au pair in divorce child Manhattan (Garner). She however felt that being an au pair was synonymous. A Small Place , Essay , Fiction 1403 Words | 4 Pages. Literary Analysis of writing on electricity ''a Very Short Story. ''A very short story '' by Ernest Hemingway. Title: ''A very short story '' Author: Ernest . Hemingway (1899-1961). Source: CAPPELEN DAMM AS, Oslo 2008 – ''Access to English literature, VG3''. Anthony, Burgess, Mikkelsen amp; Sorhus.
Chapter 1, page 23-24. Math Problem Solving. Setting. A lot of geographic places are mentioned in the short story , as the characters move around, however the most important part of the story is set to on electricity, Padua, in northern Italy. The story is about an Italian woman, Luz, and an American. Adultery , Human sexuality , Love 2473 Words | 6 Pages. ENL407 COURSE TITLE THE SHORT STORY QUESTION ‘The short story lacks criticism and lacks form’. . Justify this statement using any three stories from how much is a essay, THE JAMBULA TREE AND OTHER STORIES . The short was said to lack both criticism and form. These are some of the many false accusations that were levelled against the short story . These allegations, coupled with several others, have been responsible for the attitude of critics towards the short story . Critics considered the short story to be an inferior kind. Fiction , First-person narrative , Narrative 2482 Words | 7 Pages. “The Black Cat” Analysis When reading a short story many people take the in urdu, details given to be the unconditional . truth. This is without listhesis probably why so many of these people are confused or repulsed by a story like “The Black Cat.” Throughout the story , the essay writing in urdu, narrator makes numerous contradictions. These contradictions, combined with his actions make me doubt the legitimacy and truth of what he says.
In the first few paragraphs of the essay, story , the narrator makes a point of rejecting the idea that he is in urdu mad. Cat , Fiction , Shame 1004 Words | 3 Pages. her. Left alone, she embarks on a reflection of her past, realizing the breakage that lies behind her and willingly steps forth to accept the future that . lies ahead, foreshadowing the brightness of the identity she longs to discover. In the 900 word, short story , The Story of essay writing on electricity in urdu An Hour by 6th graders Kate Chopin, the symbolism of the window’s images support the idea that personal freedom constructs ultimate peace with an identity. Essay On Electricity In Urdu. Through the how much essay, use of symbolism, the on electricity in urdu, window was seen to be an image of the how much is a 900 word essay, possibilities beyond. Chair , Death , Denotation 1121 Words | 3 Pages. An Analysis of the Short Story 'Stolpestad' feels as if you have done it a million times before. The main character of the short story ‘Stolpestad’, written by essay writing on electricity William . Lychack in 2008, lives a life where every day feels exactly like this. The main character is conveniently also named Stolpestad, and in the following essay I will analyse and interpret his story . Stolpestad is an American police officer working in the same city he grew up in.
Already as the story starts Stolpestad is portrayed as being close to 6th graders, a depression. Essay. It is nearing the. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Elements of Short Stories Plot (what happens) conflict (the basic opposition or tension that sets the essay 6th graders, plot of a . short story in motion; it engages the reader, builds suspense or mystery, and arouses expectation for events to follow.) open-ended at writing, both ends exposition (background information, setting the scene, establishes situation, dates the action) rising action (complication) (develops and intensifies the essay 6th graders, conflict) climax (crisis) (the moment at essay writing, which. Character , Fiction , Irony 1473 Words | 6 Pages. more to effects child essay, the world than meets the eye. In the short stories “How to Talk to Girls at Parties” by Neil Gaiman and “Gryphon” by . Charles Baxter, two young boys have experiences that will change the writing on electricity, way they view life forever. Enn, from the story by Gaiman, is an awkward teenager who afraid of girls but is talked into attending a party anyway by his friend Vic. Tommy, from listhesis, “Gryphon,” is a typical fourth grader in a very atypical situation. In both stories , eccentric female characters spark and in urdu, ignite.
Coming of spondylolysis without listhesis age , Issei Noro , Neil Gaiman 905 Words | 3 Pages. How Character and Style Affect a Story. writer in the world has their own style of writing. Some have a happy fairy tale ending style , a lesson learning . style , but some have a dark, gloomy, and even spooky style . In the story , “The Yellow Wallpaper,” Charlotte Perkins Gilman uses her type of in urdu writing style that was considered to child, be dark, gothic, and writing in urdu, freaky in her characters and mind body essay, her setting of the story . By doing this, she allows the reader an unexpected twist from the normal lesson learning or fairy tale stories . Writing On Electricity. Gilman’s uses of character. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Fiction , Silas Weir Mitchell 1058 Words | 3 Pages.
Analysis of Short Stories, “The Yellow Wallpaper” and health essay, “The Tell-Tale Heart” Analysis of Short Stories , “The Yellow Wallpaper” and “The Tell-Tale Heart” “The Yellow Wallpaper,” by Gilman, . Charlotte Perkins short story illustrated the attitudes towards women’s mental and physical health in the 19th century. The story presented in first person is a collection of a woman’s journal entries whose physician husband, John had confined her in a bedroom upstairs. The husband believes that confinement is the essay on electricity in urdu, best rest cure after the spondylolysis without, childbirth and forbids her from working where. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 1230 Words | 3 Pages.
Short Story Analysis Essay The Cactus ?Melanie Solis English 1302 Professor Wishard May 12, 2015 “The Cactus” Analysis Resubmit Benjamin Franklin once stated that “Lost time is . never found again”, the short story “The Cactus” is about a man named Trysdale, who allows his “vanity and in urdu, conceit” (O. Henry “The Cactus” paragraph six) get in the way of his relationship with a girl that adores him. He fails to health spm, find meaning behind a cactus that she gave him in response to his proposal. Instead of knowing the cactus’ importance, which she. Fiction , Meaning of life , Novel 875 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of the Short Story Floating. An Analysis of on electricity in urdu “Floating”: “Floating” by Karen Brennan is essay a story about a woman who believes she can float or levitate. The . Essay. authors target audience is people that have had depressing things occur in their lifetime, or even more specifically, women that have gone through miscarriages. The story is effects told through the perspective of a woman and I think that the author did this to show that if guilt and on electricity in urdu, pain eat at a person this is what can happen. The author uses symbolism to get her point across. Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Childbirth , Delusion 1799 Words | 4 Pages.
Short story : Definition and History. A short story like any other term does not have only one . definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in is a 900 word a general idea. According to essay on electricity, The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), “the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Divorce. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and essay writing on electricity, less complicated than those of a novel.” In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Character , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 1817 Words | 5 Pages. 5 Important Elements of problem a Short Story A short story is a short work of writing fiction. . Fiction, as you know, is prose writing about imagined events and characters. Prose writing differs from poetry in essay that it does not depend on essay, verses, meters or rhymes for its organization and spondylolysis listhesis, presentation. Essay Writing On Electricity In Urdu. Novels are another example of fictional prose and are much longer than short stories . Some short stories , however, can be quite long.
If a a short story is a long one, say fifty to one hundred pages, we call it. Character , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 633 Words | 4 Pages. ? Short Story A short story is a brief work of literature, usually written . in narrative prose. Emerging from essay, earlier oral storytelling traditions in the 17th century, the short story has grown to encompass a body of work so diverse as to defy easy characterization. At its most prototypical the short story features a small cast of essay writing in urdu named characters, and without, focuses on a self-contained incident with the essay on electricity in urdu, intent of how much evoking a single effect or mood. In doing so, short stories make use of plot, resonance. Boleslaw Prus , Fiction , Literature 1222 Words | 3 Pages.
Analysis of a Short Story a Worn Path by Eudora Welty. Analysis of a short story “A Worn Path” by Eudora Welty. Lit.1 Characters: Phoenix Jackson : Is . the protagonist of the story . She is described in writing on electricity vivid colors, suggesting her lively nature: she wears a red rag in her hair and health essay, her skin is described as “yellow,” “golden” and “copper.” Her age is indicated by the way she moves — slowly, in small steps, with the assistance of a cane — and by the wrinkles on her face, which form “a pattern all its own . Essay. . . as though a whole little. A Worn Path , Black people , Eudora Welty 1151 Words | 4 Pages. Text Analysis of the spondylolysis without, Short Story Piano by William Saroyan. Text analysis of the short story Piano by William Saroyan Piano by William Saroyan Text . Analysis Saroyan, William (1908–1981) was a successful playwright. The eccentric, spirited author was born in Fresno, California, where his Armenian parents were fruit farmers and essay writing in urdu, where he worked at essay 6th graders, odd jobs before gaining fame as a short ? story writer. He came to playgoers' attention with My Heart's in the Highlands but became famous with his much lauded The Time of Your. Fiction , Piano , Pulitzer Prize for Drama 1784 Words | 5 Pages. Short Stories- The Knife by Judah Waten Textual Analysis.
Title -The Knife Author - Judah Waten Anthology - Spectrum One ? Narrative Short Stories . pg 133 Plot The Knife written by writing in urdu . Judah Waten, is a short story about a young Italian- Plinio, who has immigrated to Australia from a ?poor village in Calabria, in a very desolate part of Southern Italy'. Plinio then starts to is a, reminisce about the life he had back home and the reader learns that he lived in poverty and had a very modest life. It then goes on to describe Plinio walking home from work one. Conflict , Short story , The Reader 2351 Words | 7 Pages. The Red Convertible Short Story Analysis. Chase Brown Oliva 9/22/12 English 102 Short Story Analysis : The Red Convertible “The Red Convertible” by . Louise Erdrich is a short story about two Native American brothers, Lyman and Henry, and their growing bond as brothers. Symbolism is used rather heavily in this story . On Electricity In Urdu. One of the effects divorce child, main symbols of the story , as noted in the title, is the red convertible. The red convertible symbolizes the relationship status of the two brothers, and the struggles they face as Henry is drafted into essay writing on electricity in urdu the. Cold War , English-language films , Korean War 776 Words | 3 Pages. critical role throughout a variety of stories . It not only creates suspense but surprises the reader as well.
This can be shown through the . three short stories entitled, “The Possibility of Evil”, “Just Lather, That’s All” and “The Skating Party”. Health. It is on electricity critical that situational irony be used for effect in Shirley Jacksons', “The Possibility of Evil”. The short story , “The Possibility of Evil” is an excellent example of situational irony. During the story , the reader expects Miss Strangeworths’. Fiction , Irony , KILL 699 Words | 3 Pages. English Short Story Test 1. The Boat The main conflict in health ‘The Boat’ according to me was the decision that the on electricity in urdu, son had to . make he had to decide what is more important, his dreams of school, or his obligation to his family.
The son chooses the without listhesis, same path the father did, but in a way that he can still end up happy. He dropped out of essay writing on electricity in urdu school to work on the boat with his father until the day he passes, so that he can still live the dreams he has always wanted but keep with the obligation to essay spm, his Father. Family 1316 Words | 4 Pages. defined as a statement different from what appears to be true. It is an incongruity between what is essay writing expected to happen and what actually happens (Meyer, . 286-287). In a lot of cases, irony is usually used to health spm, raise the reader's interest by making the on electricity, story or poem more unpredictable. In the poem “Suburban” by John Ciardi, the author approaches the reader with humor and irony. When Mrs. Friar phones Mr. Ciardi, saying: “The fact is your dog has just deposited – forgive me – a large repulsive object in.
Comedy , Drama , Irony 1893 Words | 5 Pages. she put her to health essay, sleep. 1JAN2013 ( Short Story ) Magnificence by Estrella Alfon (Reaction) Imagery and Point of View in . Alfon's Magnificence by: Antonio Conejos Alfon's Magnificence is similar to essay, Hemingway's Hills Like White Elephants in that a taboo subject is implied but not stated and it takes the talent of the health, author, combined with the skill of the reader, to tease out the on electricity, subtext of the story . The subject of Magnificence is child abuse and mind essay, the story manages to in urdu, convey this primarily through. Boy , Female , Fiction 1817 Words | 5 Pages. Analysis: Short Story and Robin Black. ? Engelsk A – 2.g skriftlig terminsprove Analysis of “…Divorced, Beheaded, Survived” by mind body problem essay Robin Black In this essay will I analyse and . In Urdu. interpret Robin Black’s short story “… Divorced, Beheaded, Survived”. I will focus on the structure and the use of problem solving symbols in the short story in a part of my essay. The short story “… Divorced, Beheaded, Survived” is written by Robin Black in 2010. The short story is about a woman who thinks back of essay on electricity in urdu her childhood, where her brother still lived.
She recalls how. Anne Boleyn , Character , English-language films 1174 Words | 3 Pages. of any story depends on the way it is told” Storytellers use short stories to portray people, places and ideas . in order to entertain and essay, engage the audience’s interest. The success of any story depends upon the way is it told as to achieve its purpose the author intended. Composers of texts use a variety of narrative techniques to convey the themes, characters, setting and plot of the story to the responder and thus fulfill its purpose. I will be illustrating this through the writing in urdu, analysis of the Henry.
Comedy , Fiction , Ray Bradbury 2221 Words | 6 Pages. ?The stylistic analysis of listhesis Richard Gordon’s story “Doctor in the house” by essay writing on electricity in urdu Arailym Zharmukhamed from effects child, IN-11-2 “Doctor in the . house” was written by Richard Gordon, a famous English writer. He was born in 1921. He had been a surgeon and on electricity in urdu, anaesthetist, he wrote numerous novels, screenplays for film and television and accounts of popular history, mostly dealing with the how much, practice of on electricity in urdu medicine. Spondylolysis. He was most famous for a long series of comic novels on a medical theme starting with “Doctor in essay on electricity in urdu the House”, and. Examination , First-person narrative , Medicine 1723 Words | 4 Pages. A short story concentrates on problem checklist, creating a single dynamic effect and is limited in character and situation. Writing In Urdu. It is a language of . maximum yet economical effect. Every word must do a job, sometimes several jobs. Short stories are filled with numerous language and sound devices. Essay. These language and sound devices create a stronger image of the scenario or the characters within the essay, text, which contribute to health essay, the overall pre-designed effect.As it is essay shown in the metaphor 'lipstick bleeding gently' in Cinnamon.
Fiction , Poverty , Short stories 1309 Words | 4 Pages. ?The misleading enthusiasm “Reunion” is essay a story written by John Cleever. In the following I will write an essay about the . short story “Reunion” and I will analyse and interpret it. I would draw parallels between “Reunion” and essay on electricity, the essay “Living with Strangers” by Siri Hustvedt. When you are a boy there are many things you would like to math, prove to essay in urdu, yourself and others, but one of the most important things in your childhood and youth are confidence and manners, and therefore it is important that. City , English-language films , Essay 1036 Words | 3 Pages. A Literary Analysis of the spondylolysis without listhesis, Short Story Is Called “Cat in the Rain” A Literary Analysis of The Short Story is Called “Cat in the Rain” Do you think when the end of a . story is changed; do the essay in urdu, main purpose/message of the story takes on a new meaning?
Ernest Hemingway wrote the short story that is called “Cat in the Rain” in 1920s. There are especially two main characters that are George and his wife who has no name in this story . Also, there are other two characters that are called as the Hotelkeeper and the Maid, and a cat, which symbolized the main purpose of. Cat 945 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE Final Paper Ashford University Introduction to Literature ENG 125 Date Final Paper A . short story and poem, no matter how structurally different are two literary pieces where a rich story is embedded. Spm. Readers are drawn towards these scripts by essay writing on electricity in urdu means of without rhythm (poem), characterization, or a fictional setting in their respective narratives. However, the mere script would not make it entertaining enough. It would depend on the imagination of the. Fiction , First person , First-person narrative 1833 Words | 5 Pages. ?English Sac – Short Stories Analytical The stories ‘The Happy Prince’ by Oscar Wilde, ‘The Gift of Magi’ by . O.Henry and ‘The Four Horsemen‘ by Jenny Pausacker all explore the themes of love, sacrifice and being non judgemental or judgemental.
Throughout this topic, love, sacrifice and being non judgmental or judgemental of people are qualities that not all people value. But there are still many people who value and support it. The theme love is clearly highlighted in “The Happy Prince and ‘The. Judgment , Korban , Love 1141 Words | 3 Pages. Character Analysis of Faith in the Story, Young Goodman Brown.
writing. His characters are often consumed with their own passions. Nathaniel Hawthorne is known for creating a world within a world set around his . characters. In order for one to comprehend Nathaniel Hawthorne’s concept of the character Faith in the story “Young Goodman Brown” the reader should understand: the use of nuances, the use of symbolism, the abstract of writing on electricity allegory and spm, the use of ironies. Essay Writing On Electricity. The nuances are subtle. In other words, if the reader is not trying to make coherent sense out. Allegory , Fiction , Irony 1186 Words | 3 Pages. The writting style of Faulkner and Updike in how much essay the short story AP and A Rose for Emily Writing Styles of Faulkner and Updike in the Book “Aamp;P” and “A Rose for Emily” The short stories “Aamp;P” . by John Updike and “A Rose for Emily” by essay writing in urdu William Faulkner have different writing styles . “A Rose for Emily” is without listhesis famous for using fancy long words and complicated sentences. “Aamp;P” wants readers to see the beauty and essay writing, magic of effects essay life, so he tried to describe everyday things using the most clear and beautiful language as possible.
These two authors have a unique and interesting ways of essay on electricity writing. Fiction , John Cheever , John Updike 1017 Words | 2 Pages. Compare the Similarities of short stories, poetry and drama. Short stories , poetry and drama are different types of 6th graders literature but they share many of the essay on electricity in urdu, same elements. Some of the many . elements shared are figures of speech, conflict, foreshadowing. Checklist. One of the same elements short stories , poetry and drama have is setting. The setting of a work of fiction establishes its historical, geographic, and physical context. (pg. Essay. 251.) Setting can also be important in short stories , poetry and drama because setting encompasses a wide variety physical and cultural. Drama , Fiction , Genre 802 Words | 3 Pages. Edgar Allen Poe’s style in The Black Cat and Tell-Tale Heart In many of Edgar Allen Poe’s short stories , a . reader can encounter with many similarities of without style and technique.
In this paper, I am going to state the essay writing, similarities of The Black Cat and Tell-Tale Heart to understand Poe style in spondylolysis listhesis short stories . In Urdu. To start with, in both of the stories , the setting is jail because the main characters of two stories are criminals. Such an spondylolysis entrance to on electricity in urdu, the stories enables the reader’s attention to be more. Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction , First-person narrative 901 Words | 3 Pages.