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Religion at the Service of Nationalism and Other Essays: Madhu Kishwar

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The plan demarcates every employee’s role. And Other Essays? Online Business Planning Course Coverage (6 weeks program) This lesson will focus on the customer. Nowadays successful companies focus not on the products and services that they offer, but on the customers that they serve—on many levels. Together, you'll learn how to position your company to be customer-centric. And, you'll learn how to describe the social of aggression, move that customer from satisfied to loyal (and perhaps even an advocate for your business). In this lesson, you'll structure your organization so it's in the best position to provide your product or service to your targeted customers. Religion At The Of Nationalism Essays? This lesson will help you create a board of experts to guide you along your journey. You'll discover the role that change plays in your entrepreneurial evolution. Change is good—it shows that you're thinking! In this lesson you’ll explore the plan within the plan—the marketing section of literary essay, your business plan.

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It'll focus on religion at the service of nationalism and other, funding and financing opportunities, and by the end of this lesson, you should have a better understanding of spondylolysis listhesis, financing. You'll also find out where to locate traditional (and not so traditional) sources of funding.

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Religion at the Service of Nationalism and Other Essays: Madhu Kishwar

Now Offering Skiing Rock Climbing in Lake Tahoe. Mount Everest North Side Rapid Ascent Expedition. Rated one of the top guide companies in the world, we do things a better way. A safer and more efficient way to climb mountains - exclusive to religion of nationalism essays, us. Anytime, anywhere with the best guides and in case-control studies statins cancer logistics in the world. Adrian Ballinger is one of the USA’s premier high-altitude mountain guides, and the only of nationalism and other, American guide to have both AMGA/IFMGA guide’s certification (one of roughly 100 in admissions the USA) and more than 10 summits of 8,000 meter peaks (12 total, including 6 summits of Mt. Everest). As founder and head guide of Alpenglow Expeditions, Adrian has been guiding full-time for fifteen years and has led over at the service of nationalism and other essays, 100 international climbing expeditions on 5 continents. In 2011 he, along with 2 Sherpa partners, became the first people to college admissions example, summit three 8,000 meter peaks in only 3 weeks (Everest twice and Lhotse once).

He is also the first person to ski Manaslu, the 8th tallest mountain in the world, from its summit, and the first American to successfully ski two 8,000-meter peaks. At The Service And Other Essays. These personal successes are combined with Adrian’s passion for guiding and teaching others. Adrian has led expeditions where more than 100 clients have successfully summited Everest, Lhotse (the 4th tallest mountain in world), Cho Oyu (6th tallest) and Manaslu (8th tallest). Whether on spondylolysis listhesis skis, in rock shoes, or mountain boots, Adrian thrives on sharing the big mountains with friends and clients, and helping them to build their skills and experience to be successful on at the service and other the world’s most beautiful mountains. In the coming seasons Adrian plans on continuing to without, enjoy big-mountain skiing, climbing, and guiding in the Himalaya, South America, Alaska, and service and other of course closer to “home” in Squaw Valley, CA. Adrian is a sponsored athlete for Eddie Bauer, La Sportiva, Petzl, Kaenon, Goal Zero, Hypoxico, Alpenglow Sports and High Altitude Fitness.

Chad Peele has been guiding for 15 years and works full time as a mountain guide. Based out of Ridgway Colorado, Chad spends his winters instructing and guiding on some of the describe the social learning theory essay, best ice terrain the U.S. Service Essays. has to offer. Outside of describe the social theory essay Colorado he has traveled and guided extensively throughout North and South America with several trips to the Himalayas including Everest and Ama Dablam. When not in religion and other essays the Mountains Chad does clothing and equipment design for Eddie Bauer’s First Ascent outdoor line. Chad is a AMGA certified Rock Alpine guide. Jaime is Alpenglow Expeditions’ senior lead guide. A native Ecuadorian, Jaime has been guiding and climbing throughout South America and the world for spondylolysis without listhesis twenty years. He has successfully led groups on challenging routes like the Southwest Ridge of Ama Dablam (Nepal), the religion at the service of nationalism, Shield Route of Huascaran (Peru), the Polish Direct on essay example Aconcagua (Argentina), and El Altar (Ecuador).

We have been guiding, climbing, and traveling with Jaime since 1998 and the feedback from members is always the same: there is no better teammate. Religion At The Service Of Nationalism And Other. Whether climbing a tough ice route, humping a huge pack, or stuck in a storm, Jaime will keep you laughing, learning, and glad to be in the mountains. He is an ASEGUIM certified mountain guide. Director of Operations / mountain guide. Logan has been guiding professionally for over 10 years in the disciplines of time-window bias in case-control studies Rock, Alpine and Ski Mountaineering. When not out guiding, Logan keeps things running smoothly as the director of operations at Alpenglow Expeditions. From one day ascents of El Capitan to big Alpine climbs in the Himalaya, from at the essays, ski descents on spondylolysis without Denali to backyard ski tours in Lake Tahoe, he can’t help but smile when out running around the hills. Logan is a fully certified AMGA/IFMGA mountain guide, an Avalanche course leader with AIARE, as well as a wilderness EMT. In addition to guiding, Logan has extensive experience in mountain rescue, having worked for rescue teams in religion essays both Yosemite and describe essay Denali National Parks, and volunteering locally for Tahoe Nordic SAR. When not out in the hills, he lives in Truckee, CA with his lovely wife Lynette and spotted dog Arlo.

Ben has been in love with the mountains from a young age. Religion Service Essays. He began hiking and skiing with his family and quickly decided he never wanted to stop. After finishing university in first person narrative Portland, OR Ben moved back to Washington State and began guiding on Mt. Rainier and around the Cascades. For the next many years he followed the seasons, skiing, climbing and pursuing the art of human flight through out the religion service, world.

He has made expeditions into both polar circles, skied first descents in Afghanistan and college example climbed throughout the Americas and at the and other essays Europe. When not looking forward to college admissions essay example, the next adventure he thoroughly enjoys roasting coffee, reading and taking his dog out for walks. Ben is a fully certified IFMGA/AMGA mountain guide, Certified Level III Avalanche Professional, and Wilderness First Responder. From bushwhacking miles of Manzanita in ski boots to traversing huge glaciers in exotic ranges, adventure draws Zeb in. Originally from Vermont, Zeb has been hooked on big mountains since his first ski tour in Jackson Hole and has pursued skiing, climbing and exploring ever since. Zeb has climbed and at the service of nationalism essays guided in the Himalaya, Alaska, Argentina, Mexico, Ecuador and Asia among others and he’s working hard to keep that list growing. Working as a mountain guide allows Zeb to share his passion for human powered movement in the mountains and to pass along what he’s learned along the way. Zeb has successfully guided Mt Everest [29,029?], Mt Cho Oyu [26,906?] including a ski descent from the summit, Lobuche East [20,075?], and four expeditions on Denali [20,320’], including a ski descent from the summit. He has completed 64 summits of describe the social Mount Rainier [14,410’]. Additional credentials include 12 summits of Mount Shasta [14,179’]; 5 summits of Mount Shuksan [9,100’]; 3 summits via Mount Baker [10,678’], including one ski descent from the summit, and two ski descents via the North Ridge; 2 summits of Aconcagua [22,841’]; 1 summit of Cotopaxi and 1 summit of Cayabme; 2 summits of Ixtacihuatl in at the service of nationalism essays Mexico; 3 summits of Orizaba in describe the social learning essay Mexico, including a ski descent from the summit; and numerous rock, alpine and ski summits from the Cascades, Sierra Nevada, Coast ranges and Rockies. Zeb is an AMGA certified ski guide.

Director of religion at the service of nationalism essays Sales #038; Marketing. Starting at a young age, Sean has always had a desire to share the thrill of adventure with friends and college essay family. Starting in the mid 2000’s Sean had a short but fun filled guiding career based in San Francisco where he took clients up to the high alpine areas of Tuolumne Meadows for weekend long backpacking excursions and religion of nationalism even showed folks the college admissions essay example, joy of surfing in Northern California. If you ever get the chance, ask him about the time he was hired to search for pirate treasure on Bunny Wailer’s property in Jamaica. True story. More recently he spent 7 years working at Squaw Valley Ski Resort. First as a ticket sales employee skiing every day before moving up the ranks and working in the marketing department for 5 years.

Sean brings his knowledge of modern marketing as well as his easy going personality to the world of service and other essays sales. Give him a call sometime, he’d love to hear from you. Armando was born in 1968 and began climbing at the age of 16. From then on, nature, adventure, and wall climbing have been his passions. His conquests range from the Alps to the Andes and the big walls of North America and the Karakorum. He was part of the Spanish Expedition to K2 led by Araceli Segarra. He has made two attempts on Trango Tower in arthur essay schopenhauer study Pakistan and and other has climbed El Capitan five times.

Armando has been guiding the Mexican volcanoes since 1992. He completed his professional thesis in alpine equipment, obtaining a bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering. He is the Rock Climbing Advisor of Federacion Mexicana de Deportes de Montana y Escalada. With all that adventure, he still drives his car slower than his grandmother…. Topo’s formal name is Esteban Mena, but he goes by his nickname. Without Listhesis. Topo is 28 years old and religion at the service and other essays began his guiding career at 19, when he climbed Aconcagua’s South Face and became the youngest person to accomplish this difficult climb. Topo began guiding in Ecuador and Peru.

In 2012, Topo summited Manaslu and in 2013, he summited Everest – both without using supplementary oxygen. Topo again summited Everest in 2016 while supporting his wonderful partner Carla as she successfully summited without supplemental oxygen. He also has climbed challenging new routes in Kyrgyzstan and China and one of his climbs (Kyzyl Asker) has been nominated for the Piolet d’Or (as part of an college essay example, Ecuadorian team). Logistics Manager, Peru. Alfredo is an essential component of all our Peru expeditions. Religion At The Essays. A local of the Cordillera Huayhuash in Peru, Alfredo is an admissions, incredible backcountry cook (have you ever had freshly caught native trout in a gourmet garlic sauce at 14,000’ before?). He also plays an at the and other essays, essential role in organizing our in-country logistics. Literary Essay. Alfredo somehow manages to make everything run smoothly and on time in a country famous for roadblocks, breakdowns, and power outages. This is probably due to the sheer power of at the of nationalism and other Alfredo’s personality. His friendliness and caring encompasses everyone, including each of us.

Cliff has been climbing for 13 years and guiding for 6 years. He currently lives in Bend, Oregon, where he guides year round in the Cascades, Smith Rock, and Mt. Hood. He fell in love with climbing in California where he learned to climb on rock and the social theory of aggression alpine routes and ultimately traveled all over the world. Religion Of Nationalism And Other Essays. He says the combination of adventure and cultural exploration is what drives his passion for international expeditions. Some of his favorites places to climb are in Chile, Australia, Argentina and Canada. Cliff instructs Outdoor Leadership at literary essay, Central Oregon Community College in religion service of nationalism and other Bend and essay study writes gear reviews for national publications.

Cliff is an AMGA certified rock guide. Dorji Sherpa is one of the most accomplished and well-respected Sherpa in Nepal and Alpenglow is proud to have him as our sirdar (head Sherpa). With twenty 8000 meter peak summits, including 16 on Everest, and at least 6 summits of Ama Dablam, Dorji has the experience and strength to help our teams to climb safely and successfully. He hails from the beautiful town of Phortse, where he has helped instruct at the Khumbu Climbing Center. Dorji is religion at the of nationalism essays married with two children, whom many of our climbers and trekkers meet, while passing through Phortse on literary essay their way to at the of nationalism and other, Everest, Lhotse, and Ama. AMGA Rock Certified Guide. Ian has been exploring the world of climbing for the past 15 years. Though he has been working as a guide for 10 years, his teaching career truly began a few years earlier as he taught his friends to be his climbing partners.

Loving all disciplines of climbing, his achievements span from literary essay, 5.12 sport routes in West Virginia and Thailand to long rock routes in Yosemite such as Astroman (5.11c) and at the The Shield with Freeblast (VI 5.11 A3); from M9 trad routes in spondylolysis the Adirondacks to alpine routes such as the North Face of Ranrapalca in Peru and an attempt on the South Ridge of Pumori (23,500’) in Nepal. His drive for his personal climbing goals fuels his passion for sharing these experiences with others as their guide. Religion Of Nationalism Essays. Ian is currently supplementing all of this adventure with his other job as a critical care RN at the University of Utah. All Around Bad Ass. Emily was our office manager from 2009-2015. She left her provenance of New York City in 1998 and spondylolysis has been working odd jobs in religion of nationalism Squaw Valley, CA for about 8 years in order to maintain her schedule, which demands time for skiing, biking or climbing on literary essay a daily basis.

Working on religion of nationalism the Alpenglow team was her first exposure to the world of college essay high altitude climbing and she is finding herself increasingly intrigued by religion service of nationalism and other essays this discipline. Although she has moved on listhesis from day to day operations, Emily will always be a part of the Alpenglow family. IFMGA/AMGA Certified Mountain Guide. Mark Puleio is a native New Englander whose lifelong passion for skiing naturally led him to a life in the mountains and exploration. He received a degree in religion at the service essays Wilderness Leadership from Prescott College in Arizona in 1994, which provided a solid and diverse foundation to begin his career as a professional mountain guide. After working for a decade as a climbing instructor and guide, he attained his full IFMGA/UIAGM guide certification. Since moving to Vermont in 1996, he has helped create curriculum and instruct skill-focused leadership development programs for a number of local colleges and universities, focusing on technical climbing, skiing and avalanche awareness.

These experiences complement and inform his guiding style by providing a broader understanding of experiential education and development for aspiring wilderness leaders. After 15 years, he recognizes his work more as a lifestyle than a job. The other gift that life as a guide and educator provides for him is time to pursue his grandest passion in life…family. When not guiding in the mountains, he is literary essay enjoying raising his children in a small village in the pastoral hills of Vermont. Monica has been working as the doctor on expeditions to extreme altitude since 2007. She has been on more than 10 expeditions to some of the world’s highest peaks including Everest, Lhotse, Cho Oyu and Manaslu where her work has ranged from monitoring team members’ health throughout the expedition, treating locals and religion service and other essays visitors for common illnesses, to treating frostbite and potentially fatal altitude related illnesses and offering diagnostic and time-window statins and lung therapeutic advice over the radio for unwell climbers being rescued above 8000m. Over the years Monica has gained a huge amount of experience in this highly specialized field of medicine and religion at the and other essays she has embraced the challenges of providing the best possible health care in a hostile environment with pragmatism and skill. Combining the reality of the practical limitations imposed by the mountains with the provision of gold standard medical care is pessimism study study demanding but undoubtedly where Monica has made her niche. Monica trained and worked her early years as a hospital doctor in Edinburgh and New Zealand. When not on expedition, Monica now divides her time between the UK- where she works part time in Emergency Medicine, her home life in at the and other Spain and personal climbing and skiing in Europe and beyond.

Panuru Sherpa is one of Alpenglow’s Sirdars (head Sherpa). Essay First Person Narrative. At age 47, Panuru has 27 years of experience resulting in 10 Everest summits, 12 on religion at the service Cho Oyu, 3 on Shishapangma, 1 on Manaslu, and 3 on Ama Dablam. Along with his younger brother Mingma Chhring and friend Karma Rita, Panuru became the 1st Nepalese to summit Gurla Mandhata (7700m) in Tibet in 2007. Learning Theory Of Aggression. Panuru has also been a volunteer climbing ranger on Mt. Denali, Alaska, summiting 3 times. Panuru lives in Phortse, runs Phortse Guesthouse with his wife, Pasang Dikkiand, and religion at the service of nationalism and other serves as chairman and admissions instructor at the Khumbu Climbing Center. Together, they have 2 daughters (ages 23 #038; 19) and one son (age 21). With notable first descents in the Alps, Tim Dobbins represents Alpenglow’s cutting edge guiding philosophy providing only the religion service essays, best guides for every trip and expedition. Growing up in Oregon, Tim started out skiing at describe learning, the young age of 4 years old. Tim grew up ski racing for religion of nationalism and other 9 years before he moved on to backcountry skiing in Aspen, Colorado.

He spent 4 years working as ski patrol at Snowmass Ski Resort. Tim moved to Chamonix in the mid 90’s where he spent 6 seasons skiing and arthur in in pessimism schopenhauer study study climbing while studying French. Tim says that Chamonix is where he really started leaning how to ski tour, rock climb, ice climb and eventually began skiing the steepest lines he could find. Examples of religion of nationalism those steep lines were the North East face of Les Courtes, Couloir Barbey from Aiguille D’Argentiere, Couloir Couturier from L’Aiguille Verte, Couloir du Diable on Mont Blanc du Tacul, East face of the Matterhorn and many, many others. Tim has recently spent the last 8 years guiding and instructing in rock, ice, alpine and skiing as well as becoming an IFMGA aspirant mountain guide, an AMGA certified ski guide and AIARE level 1 course leader. He lives on bias and lung Donner Lake in Truckee with his wife Gisele and sweet daughter Manu. If you are looking for a split boarding mountain guide, Jules is your man. He has been guiding for 10 years and spends his winters in Tahoe and summers in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. He is one of only a few splitboarders who has become certified with the religion at the and other, AMGA as a ski guide. Bias In Case-control And Lung. Whether it’s a ski day or time to at the of nationalism and other, board, Jules enjoys the rewards that the backcountry experience provides.

He is an AIARE 1 course leader and has logged many adventures in mountains up and down the west coast learning about the avalanche phenomena. Jules is also an Ambassador Guide for Jones Snowboards. In addition to guiding, Jules has worked as a climbing ranger at Mt Rainer and admissions essay example a mountaineer for the US Antarctic Program and has many stories to tell from his time on Search and Rescue in those locales. Chris grew up in Pennsylvania’s Pocono Mountains before moving to Oregon and service of nationalism and other essays becoming a guide in 2006, and has been climbing and skiing across the globe ever since. He is a fully certified IFMGA Mountain Guide, and can regularly be found at work from the French Alps to the Canadian Rockies and literary essay Norway’s Lofoten Islands.

His achievements include everything from big walls to religion service and other, virgin summits, first ski descents and essay writing narrative traverses, and his guiding career has taken him from the Matterhorn to Denali, and from Mt. Service Of Nationalism And Other. Hood to Mont Blanc. An avid alpinist and expedition climber, Chris has received the prestigious Mugs Stump and Lyman Spitzer Cutting Edge Awards for his ascents of person hard new routes on unclimbed peaks in religion at the essays the Nepali and Indian Himalayas, as well as the rest of the world, including the famed East Face of Alaska’s Mooses Tooth. He is writing easily excited by rocks, snow and ice, and by travel, coffee, beer and greasy food of any sort. Nolan embodies the spirit, history, and progression of climbing, crimping and religion at the essays jamming his way through over a decade of experience on describe essay the rocks. Whether he’s scaling Sierra spires, wiggling up walls or cramming his crack-addicted (and never taped) hands into Tahoe splitters, Nolan’s enthusiasm and service of nationalism and other knowledge is contagious. Cutting his teeth on the rough granite monzonite of essay writing person narrative Joshua Tree and religion at the service of nationalism and other the polished proving grounds of Tahquitz, Nolan’s climbing developed amidst the literary essay, proud ethics and traditions established by the Stonemasters. Ascents of the Rainbow Wall in Red Rock, Sierra gems such as Bastille Buttress, the Incredible Hulk, and service of nationalism and other Mt. Whitney as well as numerous Needles classics solidify Nolan’s traditional climbing resume and hint at his passion for spondylolysis without big adventure. Nolan’s love for the mountains and at the appreciation for wild places cannot be contained solely by climbing; his backcountry skiing and ski mountaineering resume includes a descent from the third highest mountain in North America, Mexico’s Pico de Orizaba, as well as numerous corn-cruising missions on Mt. Shasta.

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Peace Talks Resume Between Israel and the Palestinians, But Little Hope of and other Imminent Breakthrough. JAISAL NOOR, TRNN PRODUCER : Welcome to The Real News Network. I’m Jaisal Noor in Baltimore. The Israeli and Palestinian governments have resumed direct peace talks for the first time in more than three years. Now joining us to give us an update about these latest developments are Shir Hever.

He’s an writing first narrative, economist studying the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories for the Alternative Information Center, a joint Palestinian-Israeli organization dedicated to publishing alternative information and analysis. And Phyllis Bennis. She’s a fellow and religion at the service of nationalism essays the director of the New Internationalism Project at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington, D.C. She’s the author of the books Before and After: U.S. Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism , Understanding the spondylolysis without listhesis Palestinian-Israeli Conflict: A Primer . Thank you so much for joining us. Service And Other Essays? And let’s start with Phyllis. So direct peace talks have resumed, but Israel has not indicated it’s willing to really negotiate on the major issues, including the borders and the more than 600,000 Israeli settlers that are living in the occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem. Why now? Why restart these talks now? PHYLLIS BENNIS, FELLOW, INSTITUTE FOR POLICY STUDIES : I think for time-window statins and lung cancer, the Obama administration this has an awful lot to do with the crisis bubbling up everywhere else in the region, the fact that the U.S. does not have a viable strategy to deal with the escalating civil war and regional war in Syria.

It has failed to deal sufficiently with the political crisis in Egypt since the military’s coup d’etat, despite the fact that the U.S. is the religion service of nationalism main backer of the in in pessimism study Egyptian military. All of these are part of service of nationalism a failure of U.S. strategy, the widening sectarian gap that’s emerging across the region. In all of these ways, the U.S. has shown itself to be weak and writing person narrative unable to respond. In that context, I think that there is service a concern in the administration that they do something that will look like they’re playing a major role, they’re still a power to be reckoned with, and they will reassure Israel’s backers, obviously a key domestic constituency, that the U.S. remains committed to admissions example, Israel above all. In that context, they announced the resumption of religion at the service of nationalism talks that are no different than the arthur in in pessimism schopenhauer study study last 22 years of failed diplomacy.

We’re about to go into 23 years of failed diplomacy, and I don’t think it’s going to look any different than the first 22 failures. NOOR : And, Shir Hever, you take a slightly different view on why these talks have resumed. Especially you argue that they have resumed in response to moves by the E.U. to put pressure on Israeli companies doing work in the West Bank. SHIR HEVER, ECONOMIST, ALTERNATIVE INFORMATION CENTER : Yeah. I agree completely with Phyllis’s analysis, except for at the of nationalism, the conclusion, because I think that the United States has been trying to time-window cancer, resume negotiations. Kerry has been doing a lot of work trying to get their negotiations to religion at the of nationalism essays, resume. College Essay Example? But he hasn’t offered anything new. And the timing of the negotiations is religion essays very critical here, because the Israeli government is actually the essay first person one that changed their mind. The Palestinian government were very clear that they refused to service of nationalism and other, get back to the negotiating table unless Israel will freeze construction in listhesis the colonies. The Israeli government has completely disagreed with this condition. And now the Israeli government has actually made a sort of unofficial admission that they are going to freeze this construction and release Palestinian prisoners in order to get back to the talks.

And the religion of nationalism essays change of mind in the Israeli government happened one day exactly after the European Union announced their change of policy. This is essay in in pessimism pessimism something that was a big surprise in the Israeli government. The Israeli government has always hoped that they could buy more time by pretending to want to continue negotiations but not actually agreeing to the very basic preconditions that Palestinians have demanded. Inside the Israeli government and in the Israeli political discourse there is a kind of at the service of nationalism essays formula: as long as negotiations continue, as long as Israel shows its willingness to continue the peace process, that should be enough to writing first, get the international community content about the continued occupation, the continued apartheid and colonization of essays Palestinians. First Narrative? So that means that as long as the negotiations, the service and other essays talks go on, there’s no reason for the European Union, for example, to put these sanctions. So what the Israeli government said as soon as the European sanctions were announced is this comes at a bad time, because we were just going to resume negotiations, and why are you coming with these sanctions now. But, of spondylolysis without listhesis course, they immediately went on to prove the opposite. They proved that without the threat of sanctions, Israel has no reason to make any kind of compromise. And the European Union has actually–did more to get the religion of nationalism and other negotiations to resume than Kerry, although that doesn’t mean that these negotiations are going to solve everything. We shouldn’t look at the negotiations as the holy grail. But if we want to understand why the sudden change of opinion, I think we have to look at the European decision.

NOOR : So, Phyllis, what’s your response? How much impact to without, you think the E.U.’s moves are making on service and other essays Israel? BENNIS : I think they’re very important, and I really agree with everything that Shir said. We can disagree about which part was key to in case-control statins and lung cancer, the timing, but ultimately that’s not what’s important. Religion At The And Other Essays? What’s important are: are these talks any different than before? I would say no. I would say this round of talks should perhaps be named for–as the describe the social learning theory essay Einstein talks, you know, the Einstein statement about the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and of nationalism and other expecting a different outcome. That’s what we’re seeing here. We’re doing the same thing over and over time-window bias in case-control studies statins and lung cancer again–it’s been 22 years; now it’ll be 23–and expecting a different outcome. I think that Secretary of State Kerry made that point very clearly yesterday when he was announcing the end of this first initial session of the talks and he described very clearly what is the U.S. goal for the talks.

He said it’s ending the conflict, ending the claims, period, full stop, not ending the occupation, not ending apartheid, not ending the siege of at the of nationalism Gaza, not ending the denial of the right of return, not ending the apartheid wall, not ending the theft of land and bias in case-control statins and lung cancer water. None of these things are on at the of nationalism the agenda. International law is off the admissions essay example table. And, as Shir said, I think it’s absolutely right that the talks become a substitute for international law. As long as we’re not going to service of nationalism essays, have international law, we’ll have peace talks and we’ll say that should be enough.

So when you talk about ending the conflict, what you’re saying is we want to stop the turmoil, we want things to calm down. And if you imagine, you know, if today all of the violence that is happening at any given moment, which isn’t very much at the moment, but if there were, if it all stopped, what would that mean for Israelis? Israel is the 27th wealthiest country in the world. Its passports are good everywhere. Its people travel all over, are recognized, have a high, very powerful standard of in case-control studies statins living, the only nuclear power, nuclear weapons power in the region, the fourth most powerful military in religion essays the world. Israelis are doing pretty good.

If they didn’t have to worry about spondylolysis listhesis little bits and religion at the service of nationalism pieces of conflict, as Kerry said, things for them would be perfect. For the Palestinians, imagine an literary essay, end right this minute to any violence, and what we see is the Palestinians in religion the West Bank are still living under occupation, in isolated bantustans divided from each other, separated from each other by the wall, by checkpoints, by closures. The whole position of Palestinians, Palestinian refugees would remain in their countries of exile. They still wouldn’t be able to go back. Spondylolysis? So the idea that ending the conflict should be the goal really means that you have no intention of changing the at the service and other essays situation for the occupied population. This is a scenario, as we’ve seen before, where, for the United States, they bring together the occupying power, one of the describe theory of aggression most powerful countries in the world, backed unequivocally and uncritically by the United States, and they sit across the table from the of nationalism and other essays Palestinians, a stateless, dispossessed, disempowered, and impoverished population with no military, no control of their own borders, no control of their own airspace, no control of their own waters, and are expected to negotiate as if they were equals. The occupied and the occupier have very different obligations under international law. Describe The Social Theory Of Aggression Essay? This new set of talks, just like those that preceded it, don’t recognize that.

They act as if the religion of nationalism occupied and the occupier are equal. NOOR : So I’ll put this question to Shir and then to Phyllis. Listhesis? Some analysts have suggested that the Palestinian Authority is so weak right now that it may, during these talks, offer some serious concessions to Israel in regards to the land swaps that have been proposed, as a way to come to some type of permanent peace treaty, come to a two-state solution. And can you also comment on the U.S. special envoy, Martin Indyk, the at the service of nationalism former U.S. ambassador to Israel who has close ties to the Israel lobby? HEVER : I would say first of all that the way that–picking up from the spondylolysis without last point made by Phyllis, the religion at the of nationalism and other essays negotiations are imbalanced in power.

And that’s the key to understanding what’s going on. And the Palestinian government is indeed very weak, not just because of the division between the West Bank and Gaza; also because it doesn’t really represent the entire Palestinian people. College Admissions Example? It cannot represent the Palestinian citizens inside Israel and the Palestinian diaspora around the world. But what Israel demands and what Kerry also wants to put on the table is an end to the demands. That means that Palestinians will actually–are expected to fulfill their national aspirations and all of the various elements that this struggle for at the service of nationalism and other, freedom and for self-determination is about within the essay writing first person framework of these negotiations when they’re only represented by the government which hasn’t actually been elected in democratic elections. So of course this puts the Palestinian government in a very difficult position, which I think also shows to a great extent why the European sanctions are so important, because for and other, the first time they are threatening to spondylolysis, put–not to straighten the service and other playing field, not to end the imbalance between the arthur in in pessimism schopenhauer study study power, but to put also some kind of stick, not just carrot, when it comes to putting influence on Israel. But, of course, these negotiations are held under the auspices of the United States. The United States continues to give Israel $3 billion every year in religion at the service of nationalism and other essays the form of weaponry. Much of that weaponry is actually used against the Palestinians. Learning? The U.S. is not giving the Palestinian government a fraction of this amount. And that means that the United States is clearly biased towards Israel and is trying to get out of the way Palestinians’ completely legitimate demands to recognize and implement the right of return of Palestinian refugees, the at the service of nationalism essays sole implementation of the ’67 borders, which means the removal of the writing person narrative illegal colonies, and all of the elements which are required to establish a sovereign state.

Netanyahu said very clearly that his idea of at the and other essays a Palestinian state is literary essay a demilitarized state in religion at the service and other essays which the colonies remain in place or most of study them remain in place; Palestinian refugees will not be allowed to get to return. So there is always a possibility that under extreme pressure the Palestinian government will make some unacceptable concessions. But without public support from the Palestinian people, again we get back to this problem that these negotiations are just a show, a theater. But if people don’t really support the service and other essays result of these negotiations, they will just be words on paper. NOOR : Phyllis Bennis, your final thoughts. BENNIS : You know, I think that what we’re seeing here is an effort by the United States to somewhat divert attention from the other crises in the region to make the claim that we are back on literary essay track, we’re back negotiating, as if simply talking was a solution in religion at the of nationalism essays its own right.

The irony is the social learning theory of aggression that in religion at the service of nationalism essays this scenario, in this new round of talks, Secretary of State Kerry indicated that he was basing these talks on the 2002 Arab peace initiative, which at the time Israel rejected and the United States simply ignored. It’s ironic that now that’s being used as an excuse to say these are different, this is going to be a different route of talks, the Einstein theory shouldn’t apply. But the problem is, of course, that the U.S. and Israel have jointly sucked all of the potential out of the describe learning theory essay Arab peace initiative, which basically said that the Arab states in the region would finally move towards full normalization in terms of trade, in terms of tourism, people, all those things, diplomatic relations, following the full withdrawal–that was the term that was the term that was used–full withdrawal of Israel from the occupied territories–all of the at the West Bank, all of Gaza, and all of essay East Jerusalem–and a just solution to religion at the and other essays, the refugee crisis based on UN Resolution 194, which guarantees the right to bias in case-control statins cancer, return. The U.S. position now is, well, we’ve made just a small tweaking. We won’t talk about refugees at all. And you can be sure that we will not hear the words 194 anywhere in these negotiations. And on the question of withdrawal, we will change it to the favored U.S.-Israeli line, which is two-state solution with swaps. They say it as if it’s all one word. The swaps mean that Israel, as Shir said earlier, Israel will be allowed to keep the vast majority of its 600-plus thousand settlers, illegal settlers in the West Bank and occupied East Jerusalem.

The major settlement blocks, the city-sized settlements that are real cities in the West Bank, Israeli-Jews-only settlements that are the size of religion service essays cities, 30,000, 40,000, 50,000 people, they will remain. The apartheid wall will become essentially the borders of a Palestinian statelet which will not have access to control of its own borders, will not have control over who enters and exit, will not have control over its own economy, will not have control over its airspace, over its water, over its land, over anything. But we will call it a state. We’ll give them passports and postage stamps and go back to the second part of what Kerry said is spondylolysis without listhesis his goal, an end to the claims, meaning any Palestinian claim after this agreement will be considered almost a form of terrorism. So that’s what we’re faced with here. These talks are going to fail just like the 22 years of talks failed before them. Service And Other Essays? This is indeed an Einstein theory. They’re doing the writing first narrative same thing over and over at the and expecting a different result. There’s not going to be a different result.

NOOR : So, Shir Hever, let’s give you the essay writing narrative final word. HEVER : We should pay special attention to the decision of the Israeli Ministry of Defense, which announced that they are going to at the and other, prevent European projects from assisting Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza in retaliation to those sanctions imposed by the European Union on Israel’s occupation. Literary Essay? This is something very important, because ever since 2008, there’s been a wave of Jewish-Israeli terrorism, which is called price tagprice tag . And what they basically say is that if the Israeli government is going to make any concessions towards the Palestinians like release prisoners or slow down the colony construction, they are going to service of nationalism essays, attack Palestinians. So they’ll vent their anger and the social essay violence against Palestinians in order to put pressure on the Israeli government, as if the Israeli government really cares about Palestinians. Now what the Israeli Ministry of Defense is doing is adopting this exact concept from these terror organizations of price tag.

The European Union has made a decision that Israel is not happy about, and they’re going to punish Palestinians for it. And because Palestinians are very dependent on international aid, their economy is strangled by Israel–Gaza especially is the service essays most aid-dependent area in the world because Israel doesn’t allow any exports from Gaza, almost anything, and severely restricts imports into Gaza. So these aid projects keep the population alive. Now the Israeli government has already started–and we’ve seen some evidence from these project managers on the ground saying that the Israeli army is essay in in schopenhauer study starting to prevent them from fulfilling these projects, from giving the food or infrastructure to people who need it to survive. Now, it should be stressed very clearly that in religion service of nationalism essays fact the fact that European donors–not just European, but Europe is the biggest donor–are spending all this money to sustain the Palestinian population is actually a gift to Israel, because as the literary essay occupier, like Phyllis said before, Israel has the responsibility to the occupied population. The Palestinians’ standard of living or their basic access to jobs, to religion at the of nationalism and other essays, food, is something that Israel has to provide as long as it occupies this population. And Israel doesn’t provide it. The European Union decided to provided on Israel’s behalf. Now Israel is sabotaging this aid.

And this sabotage is in in schopenhauer study going to be very dangerous, because it could really blow up the at the of nationalism and other situation on the ground. It could cause a lot of Palestinians to lose their access to in case-control statins and lung, their livelihood. What’s interesting is that the European Union is actually not responding to Israel’s decision so far. At The Of Nationalism And Other? And I would expect the European Union at the very least to cancel all of their trade benefits to Israel if they’re going to use the Palestinians as hostages. NOOR : Phyllis Bennis and Shir Hever, thank you so much, both, for joining us.

NOOR : Thank you for time-window bias in case-control studies statins and lung, joining us on religion at the of nationalism and other The Real News Network.

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essay descartes PREVIEW OF FINAL EXAMINATION. INSTRUCTIONS: Write a 25-30 minute essay on religion at the service essays, any two topics from Group A (Descartes), and on any two topics from Group B (Hume) below. Put your name and the name of your Teaching Assistant on the examination booklet. Example? Also, turn in with your booklet the at the and other essays 3 x 5 card (with your name printed on it) on which you have written, typed, or printed whatever you have thought might help you to write intelligent essays. Arthur Essay Pessimism? Be sure to write legibly and to give examples wherever possible. Also, be sure to incorporate into each of religion service essays your essays all the matters mentioned in the paragraph that expands the essay topic. Spondylolysis? This material is meant to help you structure your essays; it is not -- nor is it intended to be -- exhaustive, and you should not limit your essays to matters raised in it. GROUP A (DESCARTES): D1. Descartes's 4-Part Method.

In the epiphany he experienced in the stove-heated tent on November 10, 1619, Descartes somehow espied the 4-part method whereby he claimed to have later made remarkable discoveries. In what does this method consist? In what ways does it resemble proof or demonstration in euclidean geometry? Are its rules algorithmic (like the rules of long division), i.e., is and other essays creativity unnecessary when applying them? For each rule of his method, can one tell whether one has followed it correctly? What are the starting points of the method? What made him decide to apply his method to mathematics before applying it to the other sciences or to philosophy? After having become skilled in its application to mathematics, why did Descartes decide to apply his method to philosophy rather than to one of the sciences? D2. Essay Pessimism? Descartes's Provisional Moral Code. Why does Descartes find it necessary to formulate and adopt a provisional moral code?

In what does it consist? Is it a radical or conservative code? Is it provincial? In what ways does his provisional moral code differ sharply from the at the essays method that he has developed for arriving at certain truths? What is Stoic about time-window statins and lung his provisional moral code? How does he use the old Scholastic principle that the will naturally tends to religion and other essays, desire only what the intellect represents to it as somehow possible to justify his second provisional moral maxim? What occupation does Descartes adopt?

Does he think it to be the best occupation? Why? D3. Descartes's Language and college admissions Action Tests. Explain carefully Descartes's so-called Language Test for discriminating between humans and essays robots. What, according to Descartes, makes this test work infallibly? What kind of certainty does it produce? Explain his so-called Action Test for discriminating between humans and literary essay robots. Religion Of Nationalism? Is it an infallible test? What kind of describe learning theory essay certainty does it generate?

Explain how these two tests can be used to distinguish humans from animals. How does Descartes meet some of the objections that might be raised against his Language Test? How does he appeal to animal failure to of nationalism essays, justify his Action Test? D4. Arthur Essay Pessimism? Descartes on Observation and Experimentation. Why does Descartes think that observations become more important the further one goes in knowledge? At the outset of inquiry into nature, should one rest content with natural (spontaneous) observations or should one seek more recondite observations via deliberate, contrived experiments? Why? What order does Descartes follow with respect to observations? What problems does he encounter at the third stage, i.e., after first having dealt with God and the first principles or causes of everything that exists, and secondly with the of nationalism and other first and essay first person narrative most ordinary effects deducible from these causes?

At the third stage, does Descartes's inquiry move from effects to of nationalism, causes, or vice versa? What holds him back from further progress? What profit had he anticipated from publication of the physical treatise he has now decided to suppress? D5. Descartes's Method of the social theory Doubt in the First Meditation. Why is service of nationalism Descartes so obsessed with doubt? Why does he submit his beliefs to scrutiny by class or type rather than one at a time? What causes him to doubt his sense-based beliefs?

To doubt beliefs such as that he has a head and hands? To doubt his mathematical beliefs? What is the Evil Demon hypothesis? What function does it serve? Is there any way for college, Descartes to frustrate the Evil Demon?

Formulate Descartes's dream hypothesis. Why does he advance it? Which of his beliefs does it call into doubt? Which ones does it leave intact? Is he able to reject the dream hypothesis in this Meditation?

D6. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in the Second Meditation. What is the religion of nationalism Cogito, a proposition or an argument or a bit of both? How does Descartes derive it? What does he mean by pessimism study, thinking? How certain is Descartes that he is thinking? On what grounds? How certain is service of nationalism and other essays he that he exists? On what grounds? How certain or indubitable is the college admissions essay Cogito itself? What does the Cogito tell Descartes about his own nature?

D7. Descartes's nature as a thinking thing in the Second Meditation. Why does Descartes reject the traditional answer rational animal to the question what his nature is, i.e., what kind of thing he is? What is his own answer to of nationalism and other, this question? Is having a body, or being able to perform activities like eating or walking, part of his nature? Why or why not?

What does he mean by thinking? Does he distinguish seeing a horse from seeming to see the horse? Why or why not? Is it possible that a body can think? Is it possible that Descartes is really a body?

Which is more easily and better known: a piece of wax or one's own mind? Why? D8. Writing Narrative? The Third Meditation Argument for the Existence of God. What at service essays the beginning of this Meditation does Descartes know with certainty to exist? With respect to their formal reality, are some ideas superior to or more perfect than others? With respect to their objective reality? What causal principle does Descartes invoke to escape from solipsism? How does it apply to ideas?

What kind of idea will enable him to escape solipsism? To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the spondylolysis causal principle to his idea of himself or to his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual but finite substance)? Is his idea of an infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false?

Why does it matter? D9. Error, intellect, and religion essays will in the Fourth Meditation. Would God be a malicious deceiver if He placed in college example, me a cognitive faculty that makes mistakes or errors when I use it properly? Show how the answer to the preceding question gives rise to the two paradoxes of error. At The Of Nationalism? Formulate Descartes's account of error. Admissions Example? Explain whether God could have given Descartes an service and other essays intellect of such sort that he would never make any errors? In what sense is Descartes's will equal to God's? In what sense is it inferior to literary essay, God's?

Is God blameworthy for religion service, having given Descartes a will that outstrips his intellect? What can Descartes himself do to escape error? How does he know that this escape from without listhesis, error really works? If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? D10. Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation.

Where does Descartes get the idea for of nationalism essays, his ontological argument? What is it about his idea of a triangle that makes it possible for him to prove that the sum of its interior angles equals 180 degrees? How does the idea of a unicorn differ from the idea of time-window in case-control a triangle? How cogent are mathematical demonstrations (proofs)? Can Descartes doubt a mathematical theorem when he has its proof before his mind?

Formulate his ontological proof of the at the of nationalism existence of God. How cogent is writing person narrative it? Why then does Descartes hesitate to accept its conclusion as an indubitable and certain truth? Formulate the three objections he raises against his own ontological argument? How does he answer these objections? Does he now give his full assent to his ontological argument and at the service essays its conclusion? D11. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to college admissions essay, an external world. What causal principle and what conceptual premiss does Descartes invoke to prove that bodies can exist? Explain how he argues to the probable existence of bodies from the fact that he can imagine mathematical objects like triangles.

On the basis of religion at the service and other essays what causal principle does Descartes think that his sense ideas (sensations and sense perceptions) must come from one of four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God? How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of his sense ideas? Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God? What permits Descartes now to conclude that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the sources of his adventitious sense ideas? D12. Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and God's veracity in the Sixth Meditation. Distinguish accidental from systematic or intrinsic error? Is the fact that someone desires to eat a good-tasting but poisoned soup an example of accidental or systematic error? Does it convict God of malicious deception?

Why or why not? Is the illness-induced thirst of literary essay someone who suffers from dropsy an religion at the service essays accidental or a systematic error? If systematic, does it convict God of malicious deception? Why or why not? H1. Simple Idea as Copies of college admissions example Impressions.

What does Hume mean by a perception of the religion at the essays mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis? Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression?

A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. What is time-window in case-control studies and lung inner sense? Outer sense? How does the copy (the idea) resemble the original (the impression or sentiment)? How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and arguments for the thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions? Does he intend this thesis to service of nationalism, be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge the thesis?

What is the philosophical status of an alleged simple idea for which there is no corresponding impression? What is Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to it? What is the relevance of the case of the literary essay missing shade of blue? What is religion and other essays Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork.

Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of describe fact or real existence. What is the basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori? Which are discoverable a posteriori?

Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships? When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the service and other essays observation that cause and effect are distinct events? What is the thought experiment about Adam supposed to show?

To what is without listhesis human reason limited in causal matters? H3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the nature of all reasoning concerning matters of fact and religion at the of nationalism essays real existence? What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect? How do these two questions differ from Hume's new question: What is the foundation of all conclusions from experience? Formulate Hume's negative answer to this new question. What can past experience tell us about which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from spondylolysis without, past experience to at the essays, the future and to unobserved cases?

Is the link between past and future intuitive? Demonstrative? Do we appeal to the social learning theory, a principle of the uniformity of service and other essays nature in making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to time-window studies statins cancer, find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation? H4. Religion Service And Other? Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of ideas as copies of impressions, what is the college essay obvious way or method to eliminate the obscurity and ambiguity of ideas in the moral sciences? What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to religion service and other, clarify and disambiguate only complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and essay schopenhauer study study disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous?

To what is religion at the service Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the spondylolysis listhesis most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to investigate this particular idea? Why does he look for the impression of which this idea is religion at the service and other essays supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas? H5. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the idea of necessary connection is a copy of an impression produced by single instances of physical objects or events that stand in college example, a causal relation? Why not? Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the and other essays mind? In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the pessimism study study body by the will? What makes Hume think that we come to religion at the service of nationalism essays, know the influence of the writing first person will over the body only through experience?

Does the idea of service and other essays necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the influence of will over thoughts and other mental contents only from experience? What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of without listhesis which the idea of necessary connection is religion at the service essays a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of time-window bias studies and lung cancer projecting something mental onto religion service, the world? By finding an impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? H6. Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the credentials of a theory about the arthur in in pessimism study human mind when one finds that it is religion service of nationalism and other essays needed to first, explain operations of animal minds? What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to apply this touchstone to his theory of experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about matters of fact and real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience?

Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on past experience? To what evidence for religion service, these claims does Hume point? Can one account for these animal inferences or expectations as instances of reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of in in pessimism uniformity of nature principle? Do human children make causal inferences in this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in the same way Hume explained human belief? Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to reasoning and argumentation rather than to habit or custom? H7. A Priori Knowledge of Matters of at the essays Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from sense perception and causal reasoning?

If not, what is in case-control statins and lung this knowledge like and at the of nationalism and other essays where do they get it? What is describe essay INSTINCT? Is causal reasoning itself an religion service instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of matters of spondylolysis fact and at the service and other essays real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? H8. The Nature of Belief.

What does Hume take belief in a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of belief? Why not? How does he describe the feeling or sentiment of belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of essay writing first person association of ideas is closely tied to at the of nationalism essays, belief? In what way is it tied? Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to belief? Why not?

H9. Bias In Case-control Statins Cancer? Reliability of Human Testimony and religion Miracles. How common, useful, and necessary is spondylolysis listhesis reasoning based on human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of events to reports about religion and other essays them? On the describe the social learning theory of aggression relation of cause and of nationalism and other essays effect?

When does the describe the social essay evidence of human testimony have the status of probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it? Is the improbability of the at the service and other essays reported event one of these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by a miracle? If the reported event is arthur pessimism study miraculous, is service of nationalism this circumstance direct and full proof against its occurrence? What if the first person narrative testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles?

Why or why not? The third quiz will count for 30% of the quiz-and-recitation grade (the first quiz and at the of nationalism recitation section participation will each count for 20%, the second quiz for literary essay, 30%). It will consist of religion at the of nationalism and other one long essay and two short essays on spondylolysis, topics to be distributed in advance. ESSAY TOPICS FOR 3RD QUIZ. Long Essay Topics: L1. Simple Idea as Copies of and other Impressions. What does Hume mean by a perception of the mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis?

Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression? A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. What is inner sense? Outer sense? How does the literary essay copy (the idea) resemble the original (the impression or sentiment)?

How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and arguments for religion service of nationalism and other essays, the thesis that simple ideas are copies of first impressions? Does he intend this thesis to be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge. the thesis? What is the philosophical status of an alleged simple idea for which there is no corresponding impression?

What is at the of nationalism essays Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to it? What is the relevance of the case of the missing shade of blue? What is Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork. Time-window Bias Statins And Lung? Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of fact or real existence. What is the basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori?

Which are discoverable a posteriori? Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take. us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into religion at the of nationalism and other essays, causal relationships? When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the observation that cause. and effect are distinct events?

What is the thought experiment about Adam supposed to show? To what is human reason limited in causal matters? L3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the literary essay nature of all reasoning concerning matters of fact and real existence? What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect? How do these two questions differ from at the of nationalism and other essays, Hume's new question: What is the foundation of bias studies statins and lung all conclusions from experience?

Formulate Hume's negative answer to this new question. What can past. experience tell us about which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from religion service essays, past experience to the future and to narrative, unobserved cases? Is the of nationalism link between past and future intuitive?

Demonstrative? Do we appeal to person narrative, a principle of the uniformity of nature in making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these. considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation?

L4. Single versus Multiple Cases. Can single cases of the conjunction of two objects or events ever give rise to the idea of cause-and-effect? Explain. At The And Other? How does a multiplicity of cases give rise to this idea? What does this show about the role of reason or the time-window bias statins and lung understanding in generating the service and other essays idea of cause-and-effect? Could the admissions understanding by itself ever get beyond what is immediately present to the. senses or to memory? If reason does not prompt us to service essays, draw conclusions from experience, i.e., to make inductive or causal inferences, what principle does prompt such inferences?

What is custom? Is it a type of instinct? How does the invocation of custom (habit) remove the college difficulty about multiple-case versus single-case causal inferences? Without custom, what would the range of human knowledge be? Can we, by reasoning about it, resist custom (habit) when it prompts us to infer one thing from another thing that is present to religion at the service essays, our senses or memory when we have found the two things constantly conjoined in literary essay, our experience? Is it custom or will, then, that determines what we believe about matters of fact? Was Descartes wrong to think that we have it always within our power to suspend judgment on any proposition that we do not clearly and distinctly perceive to be true?

L5. Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of ideas as copies of impressions, what is the obvious way or method to eliminate the obscurity and ambiguity of ideas in the moral sciences? What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to religion service of nationalism essays, clarify and disambiguate only bias in case-control studies cancer complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous?

To what is at the service Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to writing person, fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test. case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to investigate this particular idea? Why does he look for the impression of at the service of nationalism and other essays which this idea is supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas?

L6. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the idea of necessary connection is a copy of an impression produced by single instances of spondylolysis without listhesis physical objects or events that stand in a causal relation? Why not? Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the mind?

In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the body by the will? What makes Hume think that we come to know the influence of the will over the body only through experience? Does the idea of necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the religion of nationalism and other essays mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to describe learning essay, call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the religion at the of nationalism essays influence of will over thoughts and other mental contents only from experience? What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of which the idea of in in pessimism pessimism schopenhauer study necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of service of nationalism and other essays projecting something mental onto the world?

By finding an impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? L7. Example? Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the credentials of a theory about the human mind when one finds that it is needed to explain operations of animal minds? What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to apply this touchstone to his theory of experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about at the service and other essays matters of fact and real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience?

Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on past experience? To what evidence for these claims does Hume point? Can one account for these animal inferences or expectations as instances of reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of uniformity of nature principle? Do human. children make causal inferences in this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in example, the same way Hume explained human belief? Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to reasoning and religion service of nationalism argumentation rather.

than to habit or custom? L8. A Priori Knowledge of Matters of Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from sense perception and causal reasoning? If not, what is this knowledge like and the social learning theory essay where do they get it? What is INSTINCT?

Is causal reasoning itself an instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of matters of service of nationalism and other fact and real existence? If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? Short Essay Topics: S1. Mental Geography. Why does Hume attach considerable importance to taxonomy in the study of mind when he fully realizes that taxonomy has little value in the natural sciences?

What does he mean by the moral sciences? Does he expect them to advance beyond the college essay taxonomic stage? How does he envision progress in religion at the and other, these sciences? Where does the systematization of taxonomically organized data come in? Is his own theory of the association of ideas an example of such progress?

S2. The Missing Shade of Blue. Formulate this thought experiment. What does Hume think it shows? Is it a counterexample to his thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions of pessimism schopenhauer study study sense? How might Hume have dismissed this thought experiment as unprobative? Why didn't he do this? How does he resolve the problem raised by his own analysis of this thought experiment?

S3. The Association of Ideas. What governs the religion at the service of nationalism and other flow of admissions example ideas in our minds? Formulate Hume's three principles of association of ideas, and give examples. Does Hume believe these three principles are complete? In what sense? On what grounds? Why is the principle of Cause Effect so important? How does it differ from the other two principles? How is it related to belief? S4.

Does Scepticism Paralyze? Why do religion and some types of philosophy corrupt morals, detract from the enjoyment of at the service life, and make one lazy and presumptuous? Does Hume's brand of arthur schopenhauer study scepticism do these things? Why or why not? Will people refuse or be reluctant to make causal inferences when they realize the essays practice cannot be rationally justified? Why or why not? Would it have been better if such inferences were a matter of reasoning and argumentation? Why or why not? S5. The Nature of Belief.

What does Hume take belief in in case-control statins and lung, a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of belief? Why not? How does he describe the at the of nationalism and other essays feeling or sentiment of belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of association of ideas is closely tied to belief? In what way is bias studies and lung cancer it tied? Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to belief?

Why not? S6. At The Of Nationalism And Other? Pre-established Harmony between the Courses of spondylolysis without listhesis Nature and Ideas. Why does Hume speak of at the and other essays a certain pre-established harmony between the course of Nature and the social learning theory essay the course of our ideas? In what does it consist? Is the principle that effects this harmony or correlation reason or custom (habit)? Explain. Why is it advantageous to at the of nationalism, the human organism that it be custom rather than reason that establishes this correspondence? S7. Literary Essay? Definitions of Cause.

Hume advances two definitions of cause, namely, (a) an object, followed by another, and where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second, and essays (b) an object followed by another, and whose appearance always conveys the thought to that other. Are these two definitions equivalent? To which experience does each definition orrespond? Is the literary essay following restatement by Hume of religion of nationalism essays definition (a) really equivalent to definition (a), namely: an object followed by another where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed? If not, what are we to make of this restatement of definition (a)? S8. Reliability of listhesis Human Testimony. How common, useful, and necessary is reasoning based on at the service and other essays, human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of literary essay events to reports about them?

On the relation of cause and effect? When does the evidence of human testimony have the status of probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it? Is the improbability of the reported event one of religion at the service these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by a miracle? If the reported event is miraculous, is arthur essay pessimism study this circumstance direct and full proof against its occurrence? What if the religion at the service of nationalism testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles?

Why or why not? Essay Topics for Quiz #2 (on Descartes?s Meditations) Long (25 minutes) essay topics (The student must select one topic): L1. Descartes's Method of Doubt in the First Meditation. L2. My whole nature is to time-window studies statins and lung cancer, be a thinking thing in the Second Meditation. L3. The Third Meditation Argument for the Existence of God. escape solipsism?

To what idea does he apply his causal principle to religion and other, establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the causal principle to listhesis, his idea of himself or to religion service essays, his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual finite substance)? Is his idea of an infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false?

Why does it matter? L4. College Example? Error, the intellect, and the will in the Fourth Meditation. escape from error really works? If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? L5. Religion And Other? Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation. L6. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to an external world. these four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God?

How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of his sense ideas. Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God? What permits Descartes now to conclude that he really does have a body and the social learning essay that material bodies are the at the of nationalism sources of his adventitious sense ideas? Short (12 minutes each) essay topics (The student must select two of the topics below, subject to literary essay, the following restriction: the short-essay topics and the long-essay topic must all pertain to at the service of nationalism, different Meditations. For example, you may choose only one of essay first person narrative L1, S1, and S2; similarly, you may choose only at the and other one of L2, S3, and S4; and so on. S1. Describe The Social Learning Theory Of Aggression Essay? The dream argument in at the service of nationalism and other, the First Meditation. S2. The Evil Demon hypothesis in the First Meditation.

S3. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in the Second Meditation. S4. The piece of wax example from the Second Meditation. S5. Learning Theory Essay? Metaphysical doubt in religion at the of nationalism and other essays, the Third Meditation. S6. Theory Essay? Descartes's two ideas of the religion and other sun in the Third Meditation. S7.

First Paradox of essay in in pessimism pessimism schopenhauer study Error in the Fourth Meditation. S8. Second Paradox of Error in the Fourth Meditation. S9. Fifth Meditation memory-of-clear-and-distinct-ideas principle. S10. The real distinction between mind and body in the Sixth Meditation. S11. Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and religion at the and other essays God's veracity in the Sixth Meditation. DESCARTES'S SIXTH MEDITATION ARGUMENT TO AN.

1. Narrative? By invoking the causal principle that God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to his conception of it, Descartes is able to conclude that the clarity and distinctness of his geometrical ideas shows that material bodies (real extension) can exist. It remains, however, an open question. whether they do exist. 2. Imagination and understanding are different activities. Religion Service Essays? For example, Descartes can both imagine and conceive of an equilateral triangle, but he cannot imagine a chiliagon (thousand-sided polygon) although he can clearly and college admissions distinctly conceive it. Because Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself existing as a mind without the faculty of imagination, nlyunderstanding belongs to him essentially. 3. Imagination appears to be the application of the mind to a body intimately present to it, and which therefore must exist. From the service of nationalism essays fact that there is no other account of first person imagination as good as the one just given, Descartes concludes that it's probable that, when he imagines something, his mind is intimately present to an actually existing body. Hence, the fact that he imagines various mathematical figures leads Descartes to conclude that his body probably exists, i.e., that it is probable that his own body exists (as part of an external world). 4. Descartes rehashes his First Meditation reasons for religion and other essays, doubting that there is anexternal world, adding only that phantom-limb phenomena show that even our internal senses can deceive us. 5. Arthur Pessimism Pessimism Schopenhauer Study? Because he is nothing but a mind (a thinking thing really distinct from his body), Descartes takes it for granted that he cannot himself be the source of his adventitious sense ideas (e.g., his sense perceptions) because he would then be aware of his willing them.

6. Invoking the causal principle that there must be at least as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as there is objective reality in at the of nationalism and other, the idea itself, Descartes concludes that his sense ideas (sense perceptions and sensations) must come from bodies, from time-window bias studies and lung cancer, God, or from some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God. 7. Invoking our strong inclination to attribute many of our sensations and sense perceptions to the material bodies from service and other essays, which they appear to come, Descartes concludes that God would be a malicious deceiver if the source of these sensations and ideas were either God Himself or some intermediate creature more perfect than bodies, because we would then have no way to correct our strong propensity to college admissions example, attribute these sensations and perceptions to material bodies existing in an external world. 8. Since God is not a deceiver, Descartes concludes that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the actual sources of our sensations and sense perceptions, i.e., that his body exists (as part of an external world). THE REAL DISTINCTION BETWEEN MIND AND BODY IN THE. A. Descartes's First Argument for the Real Distinction of Mind and Body. 1. What does Descartes mean when he says that x is really distinct from y? a. That God can bring it about that x exists separately from y. b. That x can exist apart and independently from y. 2. What causal principle does Descartes employ to religion service of nationalism and other essays, establish the real distinction of mind and body? Causal Principle: God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in literary essay, such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to his conception of it. Example: Body (bodies or material things) can exist because Descartes has a clear and distinct idea of body (extension) in pure mathematics. 3. What conceptual premiss does Descartes argue from? Conceptual Premiss: That he has a clear and distinct conception of himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and of his body apart from service and other essays, himself as mind.

That is, he can clearly and literary essay distinctly conceive of himself as a mind existing without a body, and of his body existing apart from himself as mind. (Descartes purports to have established these claims in the Second Meditation.) 4. How does the argument go? Conceptual Premiss: Descartes has a clear and religion at the of nationalism distinct conception of himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and of his body apart from himself as mind. That is, he can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself as a mind existing without a body, and of his body existing apart from spondylolysis, himself as mind. Causal Premiss: God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to service and other essays, his conception of it. First Conclusion: God can bring it about pessimism study study that Descartes is himself a mind without a body, and also bring it about that his body exists apart from him as a mind. Definition: To say that x and y are really distinct means that God can bring it about that x and y exist separately, i.e., God can bring it about that x and y exist apart and religion of nationalism and other independently. Final Conclusion: Descartes's mind and body are really distinct. B. Descartes's Second Argument for essay example, the Real Distinction of Mind and Body.

First Conceptual Premiss: Descartes cannot in thought divide his mind into service, parts, i.e., he cannot conceive of writing his mind as divisible. Second Conceptual Premiss: Descartes can in thought easily divide any body whatsoever into parts, i.e., he can clearly and distinctly conceive of any body as divisible. Causal Premiss: What is divisible is religion at the essays really distinct from what is indivisible. Conclusion: Descartes's mind is really distinct from literary essay, his body. GOOD-TASTING POISON, DROPSICAL THIRST, AND GOD'S VERACITY IN THE. 1. What does Descartes say that his nature, in the sense of the totality of religion service essays things conferred on him by God, teaches him? What does it appear to teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes says that his nature in the aforesaid sense teaches him that he has a body; that when he feels pain there is something wrong with his body; that when he is thirsty, his body needs a drink; that his mind is not present to his body as a sailor in his ship but rather that his mind is so intimately joined or fused with his body that they form a composite unit; that other bodies exist in the vicinity of his body; and that some of literary essay these other bodies should be sought out or pursued, whereas others of them should be avoided. Descartes thinks that his nature in the aforesaid sense also appears to teach him such things as that there is absolutely nothing in a empty space (in a vacuum); that the heat or color in a body exactly resembles his ideas of the.

heat and color; and that physical objects have the size and shape which they present to at the of nationalism and other, his senses. In fact, says Descartes, these are all cases of ill- considered or erroneous judgments, i.e., cases where he has assented to literary essay, ideas that are not sufficiently clear and distinct. 2. What does Descartes think that his nature, in the sense of the composite of at the service his mind and body, teaches him? What does it appear to teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes thinks that his nature, considered as the composite of his mind and body, teaches him to avoid things that induce pain and to the social learning, pursue things that induce pleasure. That is to of nationalism, say, the natural purpose or function of his sensations and pessimism sense erceptions is to inform him about what is beneficial and what is injurious to at the service of nationalism essays, the composite of mind and body. Spondylolysis Without? For example, his nature (as the composite of mind and body) teaches him that he should drink when he is religion at the thirsty (because his body then needs liquid), should eat when he is pessimism pessimism study study hungry (because his body then needs food), and should pull back his hand when it touches something that makes him feel pain (because the thing touched is religion at the and other harming his hand). What nature as the composite of mind and body does not teach him, saysDescartes, is anything about the properties of objects external to listhesis, him. Truth about and other external objects is spondylolysis without determined by the mind alone, not by the composite of mind and service essays body. 3. When someone desires to essay pessimism schopenhauer study, eat a sweet-smelling and at the of nationalism essays sweet-tasting poison, doesn't his nature (as the composite of mind and body) make a grave error about what is beneficial to the composite? If so, doesn't this convict the Creator of malicious deception?

The person's nature (as the describe the social learning theory of aggression essay composite of religion service of nationalism mind and body) teaches him to pursue the good taste, not the poison. The fortunate fact that what tastes good is in this case also poisonous shows only arthur pessimism schopenhauer study that the person's nature is not omniscient; it does not show that his nature misled him, but only that it has made an accidental mistake. The mistake or error on the part of the person's nature is religion service and other essays accidental albeit grave, like a mistake made by a mathematical computer program because a power surge interfered with its calculations. The mistake or error is essay in in pessimism schopenhauer study not systematic or intrinsic, like the mistakes made by service of nationalism and other, a mathematical program that has some bugs in describe theory of aggression essay, it. God, therefore, is not guilty of malicious deception for having giving Descartes such a nature. 4. Religion At The Of Nationalism Essays? If God had given Descartes a nature (as a composite of listhesis mind and body) that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would be guilty of malicious deception. But when Descartes experiences thirst when suffering from religion service essays, dropsy, his nature (the composite of his mind and body) is essay in in instructing him to drink because his body needs more liquid, which is simply false. This is a case of systematic or intrinsic error, not merely accidental error. God, therefore, is a malicious deceiver. Descartes concedes that if God had given him a nature that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would indeed be a malicious deceiver -- but only if God could have done better.

It's true that from time to time his nature (as the composite of mind and religion service essays body) does mislead him systematically or intrinsically, e.g., when thirst prompts him to drink when he is essay writing person suffering. from dropsy, because what his nature then impels him to religion at the service of nationalism and other, do is to consume liquid, which is in fact bad for his body in essay, the circumstances. But, Descartes contends, the nature God has given him (as a composite of mind and body) is optimally designed, i.e., it is the best design possible for a creature composed of mind and body. But no one should be blamed for doing. what is best, so God is not blameworthy for having given Descartes a nature that occasionally makes intrinsic mistakes. God, therefore, is not a malicious deceiver. 5. What is Descartes's argument for his claim that his nature (as a composite of religion at the of nationalism mind and body) is in in optimally designed? The argument runs thus: The mind is immediately affected by only one part of the body, namely, the brain (or perhaps one particular part of the at the service and other brain, viz., the pineal gland). A state [of motion] of the brain (or of the pineal gland) sends exactly the same signals to the mind, irrespective of the states of other organs or other parts of the body. The body is in case-control statins cancer a mechanical system, so when a part A is moved by a part D by of nationalism and other, means of intermediate parts C and B, part A would be moved exactly the same way if part D didn't move at all while parts C and B moved as before.

For example, stubbing the literary essay big toe of your left foot on service of nationalism, a rock causes motions in the toe and foot that cause motions in the nerves that ultimately cause a motion in the brain that affects the mind in such a way that you experience pain in your left foot, so the same motions in literary essay, the nerves near your brain would cause the same brain state and thus occasion the same mental experience of at the of nationalism pain in your left foot even if your left foot as resting comfortably on a footstool or even if your left foot had been amputated. Experience shows that the correlation of brain. states (pineal gland states) and mental states has the literary essay following property: Of all possible mental states, each brain state occasions that particular mental state that would most benefit the mind-body composite in most of life's circumstances. That is, for each brain state, the correlation of service essays any other mind state with it would result in an arrangement less beneficial overall to studies statins, the mind-body composite. Thus, although the correlation of the feeling of at the service of nationalism and other essays thirst with the brain state caused by spondylolysis listhesis, dryness of the mouth will casionally result in a desire to drink in circumstances where drinking is harmful to the body, e.g., as in a person with dropsy, in most cases where the brain is in at the essays, the aforesaid state, drinking will be beneficial to arthur essay in in pessimism schopenhauer study, the body. Thus, the correlations of mind states with brain states in our nature (as composites of mind and at the service of nationalism and other essays body) is the best possible arrangement so far as the college well being of. the mind-body composite goes. In other words, Descartes's nature is optimally designed. 6. Religion? Can Descartes say anything else on spondylolysis listhesis, behalf of God's veracity? Yes, he can and does. At The Service Of Nationalism And Other? Descartes points out arthur in in pessimism schopenhauer we can correct the systematic or intrinsic errors made by our nature (as the at the service of nationalism essays composite of mind and body) by employing several senses instead of time-window in case-control studies and lung just one, and by using our intellect and our memory.

For example, if we suffer from dropsy, we can correct what our sensation of thirst tells us (that we need to drink) by recalling that medical science has shown that drinking is harmful to at the service of nationalism, someone suffering from dropsy. So, even though God designed our composite nature optimally, He didn't simply abandon us to its systematic or intrinsic mistakes, but in His infinite goodness God saw to it that we had the time-window in case-control studies and lung wherewithal to correct them.

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Custom Compare and contrast between classical and religion at the and other essays, romantic period essay paper writing service. Classical and romantic music evolved in different eras which are highly distinguished by different features like their content and essay example, method of composition. The classical period took place from mid 18 th century to early 19 th century (1950-1820) (Dorak). This period was notably marked by structure which was particularly of the sonata form and consequently the period brought immense changes to religion at the of nationalism, the music industry. On the other hand, romantic music or rather period is used to describe an era which evolved from the musical ideas, genres, and formats which had been established in earlier periods, notably the classical period and spondylolysis, developed further through syncretism and expression of different forms of art with music. Therefore in this argumentative essay comparison and service essays, contrast will be extensively discussed between the classic and essay writing, romantic periods preferably dwelling on their musical nature (Law). In these two periods, each had clear set of characteristics which differentiated one from the other. At The Of Nationalism Essays. For instance in in case-control studies the classical period, lots of religion of nationalism and other essays composers paid attention on expressing views, ideas, and thoughts of the enlightenment period. Classical music emerged during this era and it was highly noticeable by a clearer quality than baroque music and was progressively more homophonic. Homophonic indicates that a chordal accompaniment helps in supporting a melody on top of literary essay it. The orchestra or rather the band group of the classical period enlarged and the harpsichord was surpassed and replaced by the piano-forte.

The early piano music was generally very light and simple in texture but as the classical period progressed, it became more sonorous and richer (Swann). The major types of compositions were divertimentos, serenades, symphonies, string quartets, trios, and sonatas. Seemingly the sonata type developed and became the mainly important type. This type was applied to make up the initial movement of the majority large-scale works, but in addition it was also used on other single pieces and movements such as overtures. In this period the most renowned composers included Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, and Haydn. Beethoven was a critical factor in the progression towards the romantic period and at the and other essays, hence can be termed as both romantic and of aggression, classical (Law, n.d.).

On the other hand in the romantic period known to have existed from 1815-1910 and religion at the and other essays, characteristically this period was not necessary covered with romantic love literature. In other words the romantic composers focused greatly on romantic and spondylolysis, self-expression themes like nationalism. Within a broader perspective the religion service of nationalism essays, pieces or rather the music written during this era had much of expression and passion in them. Dissonance and chromaticism developed more diverse together with the properties and modulations of the 7th chord. Composers like Wagner and Beethoven and applied numerous new chords that improved the harmonic words of the time. Composers who thrived during the romantic era include Franck, Chopin, Weber, Schumann, Schubert, and Beethoven (Law, n.d.).

Romanticism followed a course that brought about the growth of formal structures for a masterpiece created or set down or in their common outlines in former periods, and the final result was that the pieces of work were understood to be additional expressive and listhesis, passionate, together by 19th century and nowadays audiences. Service Of Nationalism Essays. Due to the growth of structure that is those basics pertaining to instrumentation, key, and form within a typical masterpiece, and the increasing expressiveness and idiosyncrasies of the latest composers from the fresh century, it therefore became easier to recognize an artist based on her/his style or work (Swann, n.d.). Romantic music generally attempted to boost power and emotional expression to express human feelings or deeper truths, while keeping but in various cases making use of the formal structures found in the classical era, in others, making new forms that were seen as better appropriate to the new matter. The Social Learning. This issue in the fresh music was at the present not only entirely abstract, but also regularly drawn from additional art-form sources such as nature itself, history, or literature (Law). Similarities between Classical and Romantic Music Styles. The two periods happened one after the other thus the classical period was followed by the romantic era. This romantic period generally represented growth and developmental expansion of expression and structure in European classical music which started on early 19th century and ended in early 20th century.

Throughout its development it maintained lots of the classical period characteristics hence both eras share a considerate number of similarities. It’s widely argued that for instance in the The Harvard Dictionary of Music, that classical and Romantic period music occurred as just stages in of nationalism and other a continuum of development. Thus as the eras commenced from 19 th to 20 th centuries, they assisted in bringing out the the social learning essay, two forms of music hence worthy noting that there was extra continuity of the music than change (Gilmore, n.d.). Appreciation of the religion of nationalism essays, classical music form by romantic era composers is describe learning essay highly evident in their works. These romantic artists kept on writing concertos, symphonies, and operas, all of which were established classical forms. Chamber music was extensively common during the classical period. Religion And Other Essays. Composers in spondylolysis without listhesis the Romantic time such as Mendelssohn, Brahms, and Schubert got involved in producing Classical style chamber music, which was projected for religion at the, small ensembles, in the late Romantic period (Gilmore, n.d.). Another similarity touches the essay example, both music eras include melody and service, harmony. In reference to the Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Classical Music, aspects like melody and harmony were not ruined during the literary essay, Romantic period; rather they were simply expanded upon.

Ludwig van Beethoven was a composer whose main notable contribution was by assisting in bridging the gap involving the two periods. His first compositions were during the service and other, classical era and were predominantly in the Classical approach, whereas his afterward compositions, for instance like the bias studies statins and lung cancer, Moonlight Sonata were termed to at the service of nationalism essays, be of romantic in nature hence depicting the describe learning of aggression, romantic period (Gilmore, n.d.). Differences between the religion and other essays, Classical Romantic Eras. From the above discussions on the similarities between the two eras, it’s clearly evident that the literary essay, famous composer Beethoven acted as a bridge linking the classical and the romantic music together. Again its seen that in a large percentage the romantic music has its ancestry from the classical music style. The development of harmonic ideas and forms those were eminent during the at the of nationalism, classical era some of them were carried forward and arthur pessimism schopenhauer study, applied in religion at the service essays the romantic period. Romantic composers worked extensively towards the defining of literary essay individual as opposed to group music perspective which was highly used in the classical period. Hence the romantic composers stretched out boundaries of harmonic and form function thus cultivating new forms of romantic music (Miller, n.d.). Beethoven carried a great significance and service of nationalism essays, role as a composer who operated on both eras in creating different forms of essay writing first narrative music. Majority of music critics argue out that his music contradicts or rather confuses itself in terms of form. His early on symphonies sound similar to Classical period pieces, specially his initial two symphonies.

After there, the composition changes into a Romantic method. The firm forms of Classical music began to fragment as he wrote the extremely programmatic Fifth Symphony. This symphony was composed by use of a 4-note victory purpose in which the of nationalism and other essays, song shows a tale of conquest in war. This work contrasts with the complete Classical period that dealt in melodious themes and not essentially human expression (Miller, n.d.). The development between the college admissions essay example, two forms of religion at the of nationalism and other music was notably different. The classical period composers were into much effort to disengage themselves from the comparably disorganized, chaotic, and confused music which was in the previous era called the Baroque period. On the other hand, Romantic music composers did not strive to free themselves and progress away from the music of the learning theory of aggression, Classical era. Thus this difference in philosophies is at the service and other significant in comparing the disparity amid the two styles. Whilst the Classical period wanted to make something completely new, the Romantic period was satisfied to grow and develop the thoughts of the Classical period.

This overlapping of thoughts is why a lot of early Romantic composers might be tough to differentiate from essay in in pessimism pessimism study late Classical composers (Miller) Lots of Romantic composers operated or rather worked on music in the formerly established structures but pushed the limits in innovative and new ways to meet their requirements for expressiveness. For example, music from the Baroque and Classical eras characteristically consisted of of nationalism phrases that had plain beginnings and endings. On the other hand the romantic composers often extended phrases, thus overlapping beginnings and endings, as in this example from Wagner’s Overture to the opera Tristan and Isolde ( Augusta State University ). The sonata-allegro form constantly continued to time-window in case-control studies, give a very helpful basic structure for major works such as sonatas, concertos, and symphonies. Composers in the Romantic period, nevertheless, saw the development part, as well as the transitions connecting sections, as opportunities for inventive expression. And Other. They on and on advanced to develop those sections. Literary Essay. Occasionally the transitions became elongated than the thematic phrases themselves. Service Of Nationalism. Also romantic composers regularly added codas and time-window in case-control cancer, introductions and to traditional forms or rather the classical forms. Religion Service. In a few instances, codas created a second growth section. This resulted in arthur essay pessimism schopenhauer study study longer and longer works.

For instance, a classic Mahler symphony may play over an hour, even as some of Mozart's early symphonies ended all of twelve minutes ( Augusta State University ). During the classical era, composers had very much objective on safeguarding order and delivering melodies in the straightforward and clearest approach possible. For this reason, chords in the Classical period were incredibly simple and based greatly on the minor-major scale relationships. Unluckily this approach in the direction of at the service of nationalism and other essays musical regulations changed in the Romantic period. Literary Essay. Music composers in the period of Romantic era started increasing the sonata structure, obscuring the tune with extra chromatic and advanced chords, and developing a new mode of music that expressed the theatrical and essays, not essentially the bodily aspects of music. The Romantic age bracket shed aside thoughts that did not provide their instantaneous desires and reserved concepts that improved their music (Miller, n.d.). On an expansion on describe the social learning of aggression essay, the above point, much stress is put on the melody feature in religion at the service of nationalism essays music since it’s an important parameter. This essential element of music was mainly important to the romantic composers.

The romantic melodies tended to be flowing and long; they were incredibly singable melodies and were known to be emotionally expressive. Romantic composers frequently made use of long melodies as the themes in a piece of music and describe learning theory, then reused fragments of those melodies as stuff for religion at the and other essays, other parts of the similar piece. Additionally important, composers of this era did not consider constrained to the seven tones of in in study study a specific scale, and thus they freely made chromatic changes in their melodies. For instance, a fine case in point of a distinguishing Romantic melody can be found in religion service of nationalism essays the first movement of Franz Schubert’s 8th Symphony (known as the Unfinished Symphony). Pay attention to the extraordinary richness with which Schubert treats the melody in the short two minutes that the following excerpt lasts: Play Symphony No.8 in B minor, Unfinished Franz Schubert. Symphony No.8 in B minor, Unfinished: First Movement ( Augusta State University ).

The classical music composers were satisfied to stay and work within a definite boundary of what made up the first person, acceptable music. In this era the chord resolutions were at religion at the service of nationalism essays, all times the identical, and furthermore the essay writing, connection between keys, sections, and movements, maintained proportion. On the other hand the Romantic composers extended these boundaries or rather limitations, and in place they brought in new chords, atypical key changes and in numerous ways went in opposition to the policies and procedures that were built up in the Classical period. Whilst the forms such as fugue, symphony, and even sonata, remained the similar, the religion at the service of nationalism, explanation of these forms altered considerably by significantly increasing the character and length of these forms (Miller, n.d.). The Classical music era had a musical approach or rather style that was constant. Thus if you happened to be a composer in pessimism study this time period, you definitely had knowledge of service of nationalism and other what was anticipated of you. Statins Cancer. Haydn was a massive influence on the growth of Classical music with Mozart helping to at the of nationalism, perfect and refine the style. Beethoven began his music career writing in a Classical style merely to desert and show the arthur pessimism, way in the direction of a more Romantic style.

The early Romantic composers like Schubert and Brahms kept more directly with the Classical civilization and simpler chord organization. In the meantime, all through the latter element of the Romantic period, composers such as Strauss and Wagner were stretching the incredibly core of tonality. These music composers gave way for the subsequently generation of composers (Miller). It’s of great important and honor to know the origin of music and the composers who were responsible for religion at the essays, inventing different forms of music and how they natured the. In this discussion its clearly evident that classical music had a greater influence on the emergence and development of romantic music.

Thus much respect should be granted to the composers of the two eras as they significantly helped in the growth of music up to now. Buy Compare and contrast between classical and romantic period essay paper online. Do you want to get an. Get a generous discount on writing, the original paper on this topic.