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The A-G / College Entrance Requirements
The Resume Is Dead, The Bio Is King. Who am I? How can I help you? How did I get here (i.e. College. know what I know)? Why can you trust me? What do we share in common? Your bio is the lynchpin for expanding your thought leadership and recognition, especially online. It frames the conversation and sets the tone. It’s your job to reveal a bit about yourself and personal assessment, how you see the world. Do this well, and college a-g requirements, people will eagerly want to engage with you further.
Here’s the challenge: who taught you how to inspiration my paper, write your bio? Admittedly, most of us never got a lesson in this essential task. College. You’re not alone. Even the most skilled communicators get tongue-tied and twisted when trying to represent themselves in writing. We fear the two extremes: obnoxious self-importance or boring earnestness. It gets further complicated when you’re in the midst of a career or business reinvention. You have to paragraph, reconcile the different twists and turns of your past into a coherent professional storyline.
The personal branding industry has only muddied the waters. It’s easy to feel turned off by the heavy-handed acts of self-promotion that the various gurus out there say you’re supposed to do. We’ve been told to carefully construct a persona that will differentiate and trademark our skills into a unique value proposition. That’s mostly a bunch of buzzword bingo bullshit. Instead, share more of what you really care about. And then write your bio in service to your reader, not just ego validation. Imagine that: A compelling reason to tell your story beyond bragging to the world that you’re “kind of a big deal.” Embrace the holy-grail of storytelling: tell a story that people can identify with as their own – and the need to persuade, convince, or sell them on anything disappears. With all this in mind, here’s a few key pointers for reinventing your bio as a story: You’re a creative. Having something to say is the ultimate proof.
What’s missing from the college a-g requirements, larger conversation? Speak to that. Don’t be afraid to tell the bigger story. We want to holocaust research paper, know how you see the world. Show us that you have a unique perspective or fresh vantage point on the things that matter most. Explain the origin for how you came to a-g requirements, see the world in this way.
Maybe it was something that happened to essays parents and children, you as a kid or early in your career. College. Consider your superhero origins. How did you come into these powers? What set you off on research paper questions this quest or journey? What’s the riddle or mystery you are still trying to solve? When you tell the story of who you were meant to be, it becomes an undeniable story. Natural authority is speaking from the college, place of what you know and have lived. 3. Incorporate External Validators.
Think frugally here. To paraphrase the artist De La Vega, we spend too much time trying to convince others, instead of research paper questions, believing in college a-g requirements, ourselves. Nonetheless, if you’re doing something new, different, or innovative – you have to anchor it into the familiar. Help people see that your novel ideas are connected to things they recognize and trust. Be Legal Essay. That might be your notable clients, press, publications, or things you’ve created. College. Just enough to show people your story is for my paper real. 4. Invite people into college a-g requirements a relationship.
Now that you’ve established you’ve got something to share, remind people you’re not so different from online degree, them. Vulnerability is the new black. Share some guilty pleasures. Describe what you like to geek out on. Reveal a couple things you obsess about as hobbies or interests. This will make you more approachable and college, relatable. You’re human, too. Help people find the invisible lines of connection. To revamp your bio, start with these simple storytelling principles and questions above.
In the process, you’ll discover a greater potential to shift how you see yourself and how the world sees you. Your story sets the boundaries for everything else that follows. If you’re having trouble being heard, recognized, or understood, it’s probably an issue related to your story and of a essay, identity. The good news? It’s never to late to college, reinvent your story. Have you updated your bio recently?
What do you struggle with? The Best Creative Career Insights, Delivered Weekly. this is a gross generalization. in MEDICINE the CV is totally king. If you submit a Bio, you will not be looked at. A doctor that doesn#8217;t remember or just didn#8217;t pay attention to the very first sentence of the article #8220;If you’re a designer, entrepreneur, or creative#8230;#8221; Scary#8230; I hope you#8217;re not my doctor. I haven#8217;t cared about elements five essay my resume in many years. I find having great companies to decorate my resume to upend another company is a waste of time. What matters for me are work that I can proudly say I did it by myself. That#8217;s all that matter for me, not a fancy resume. #128578; Thanks for input here much appreciated. So, here#8217;s the thing#8230;What do you do to a-g requirements, spice up a resume when asked for one?
Hyperlinks, etc? Animoto? Yes, hyperlinks are fine. Make sure if you#8217;re applying to masters in creative, a company through their job board, the resume is standard (without pictures) so the applicant tracking system can read every word on a-g requirements your resume. My Paper. Perfect for college me. Of A Five Essay. its like a story of college a-g requirements, your self, destined for succes. Again make sure your story is plain because CLARITY is also King.
How long should your bio be? And is it a part of your resume, or something you just post on your blog/ LinkedIn? I love it. Elements Five Essay. Finally. A-g Requirements. Can you + Pinterest? thanksssss. Bio is always a king therefore we found http://www.biotuft.com.
Thanks so much. This was to the point. More articles on Resumes, Bios Portfolios. Grape Expectations: The Transformation of Wine Labels. Essay. Just a few years ago, most bottles of vino featured label designs that you might describe as “vintage”—and not in a good way. College A-g Requirements. But things have changed.
99U heads to be legal essay, wine country to find out what’s behind this recent evolution. Turning Hand-Painted Ads into Social Media Magnets. Colossal Media uses old-school artistry to draw millions of college, eyeballs to should essay, big brands, from college, Nike to Netflix. How do they do it? A Real-Life Education in elements of a essay, Protecting Your Creative Work In a Digital Age.
Artist Syd Weiler’s Trash Doves sticker pack turned into an internet phenomenon earlier this year. Then the nightmare began. Here is what she learned about a-g requirements protecting art on the internet. Creative Careers Demand Reinvention. We are what we do.
Until the guillotine drops and we have to become our next best self, an equally terrifying and exhilarating prospect. How Sophisticated Branding Aims to Make You Rethink Cannabis. As the marijuana industry begins to inspiration my paper, mature, purveyors recognize the need to separate themselves with distinct branding. The hand-painted signs, bad puns, and Rastafarian flags that once defined the industry are giving way to sophisticated design that abandons aging stoners in favor of more upscale clientele. A five-step guide for how to a-g requirements, build and develop a compelling narrative, that can be adapted to your preferred storytelling medium.
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A-G Requirements | El Camino Real Charter High School
Shakespeare: A Marxist Interpretation. Published: The Critics Group, New York, 1936, Angel Flores, Chairman; Translated: SONIA VOLOCHOVA with the assistance of Kronman Zena Rautbort and the Editorial Committee; Transcribed: Sally Ryan for marxists.org, 2000. The sixteenth century witnessed the flowering of the drama in college, England. At the end of the century a whole galaxy of brilliant dramatists appeared: Lyly, Kidd, Greene, Marlowe, Heywood, Dekker, and, somewhat later, Ben Jonson, and Beaumont and holocaust paper, Fletcher. Although Shakespeare, like a majestic mountain, overshadows them all, nevertheless each was an independent and significant artistic entity. A similar blossoming of culture, although to a lesser degree, took place in college a-g requirements, other fields of marijuana, artistic effort. The gifted Petrarchists, Surrey and Wyatt, were creating a new form of college, lyric, which reached its height in the sonnets of elements of a paragraph essay, Shakespeare and the poems of Spenser. There were other poets, as Gascoigne, Puttenham and Sydney, all radically abjuring the medieval tradition. The English novel–the chivalric and pastoral romance, the picaresque, and the realistic novel of manners (Lyly, Greene, Nash, Deloney)–evidenced like progress.
Although less brilliant than the Spanish novel of the same era, it was almost as colorful and interesting. English singers and musicians of the sixteenth century were famous throughout Europe. While in the realm of the pictorial and college, plastic arts, there was only one outstanding English genius, the renowned architect and theatrical designer Inigo Jones, nevertheless, England attracted to her shores many great masters–Holbein, for instance. A new secular learning and a new philosophy, supplanted the old scholasticism. At the beginning of the century, Erasmus settled in personal assessment, England, where he spent several years; in 1510 he was teaching Greek at Cambridge. At this time England produced her great humanist, a friend of Erasmus, and one of the forerunners of socialism, Sir Thomas More (1478-1536), author of Utopia. When Henry VIII decreed that all schools in England include Latin in their curricula, a flood of college a-g requirements, translations was released, not only of the ancient poets, but of philosophers, scholars and historians as well. (Cicero, Herodotus, Suetonius, Pliny.) Education was primarily confined to aristocratic and elements paragraph, court circles. College A-g Requirements? Most Elizabethan statesmen possessed culture, and were men of high attainment.
The pursuit of knowledge spread likewise among the ladies of the upper classes. The mother of Bacon and the wife of Lord Burghley were excellent Latin scholars. Lady Jane Grey, the parents and children unhappy claimant to the English throne after the death of Edward VI (1553), read Plate in the original, and Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603), a pupil of Ascham, knew Latin and Greek in addition to four other languages. She rendered one of the treatises of Plutarch into English and intended to translate Euripides. A-g Requirements? Nevertheless, judging by the number of about and children, mythological references and classical allusions in college, Shakespeare and in other dramatic writing for the public theatres, with their motley audiences, it must be admitted that quite a large section of London's population possessed some degree of culture. This scientific-philosophic movement reached its apex at research paper questions the end of the century with the appearance of the philosophical system of Bacon (1561-1626) whom Marx called the first creator of English materialism. 
The sixteenth century was the era of the Renaissance in England. This fruition of art and philosophy in England was analogous to that of other Western European countries. It also resulted from the radical upheaval in all domains of economic and social life–the decline of the old feudal order with its method of production, which was now being replaced by capitalist relations characteristic of the epoch of primary accumulation. This movement, which developed in England later than in the countries of southern Europe, swept over the land. It was colored by specific local conditions, which gave a distinctive character to English culture at the end of the sixteenth century. The forces which gave rise to a new England influenced every sphere of socio-economic life. The first upheaval, and the greatest, affected agricultural relations. Serfdom disappeared throughout England in the fifteenth century because it was more profitable in a rising capitalist economy to hire labor. With the growth of the wool industry and export markets, sheep-raising increased tremendously and created a heightened demand for pasture land. This resulted in the enclosure system–the forcible seizure of the college commons from the peasants by the rich landlords–which developed toward the close of the fifteenth and throughout the sixteenth century. Moreover, with the should essay development of the wool industry as a more profitable source of income, much cultivated land belonging to the landlords became converted into sheep-walks.
The great mass of the peasantry found itself with no land to cultivate. Hence, a great supply of free agricultural labor was available, ready to work for a pittance to college a-g requirements stave off hunger. This was a fundamental prerequisite for personal, the development of capitalist industry. Another temporary measure to satisfy land hunger was the sale of church land, confiscated by the state after the advent of the Reformation, about 1535. Most of the land was bought for a trifle by the bourgeoisie, who likewise purchased land from the old feudal lords, land devastated as a result of the feudal Wars of the Roses (1455-1485), graphically described by college a-g requirements Shakespeare. Thus, a bond of unity was formed between the old landowners and the new bourgeoisie, since the my paper former began to apply capitalist methods to agriculture.
As a result, there arose a new social group alongside of the old–a bourgeois landed gentry. However, in becoming landed noblemen, these former merchants carried over their old ideology into the new agricultural relations. This resulted in the formation of the so called gentry, composed principally of the middle and petty landed nobility, which, by fusing with the old landed nobility, replenished its ranks. This revitalized and ascending class marked the college a-g requirements start of that squirarchy which ruled England from the time of Queen Elizabeth to the middle of the nineteenth century. On the other hand, the class of wealthy peasant farmers, the to write my paper so-called yeomanry–the backbone of old England–degenerated during the sixteenth century. They were dislodged by the new landowners drawn from the bourgeoisie and the nobility, and college a-g requirements, were forced to accept the status of tenants. This process went hand in hand with the radical transformation of industry. A new system of be legal essay, manufacturing came into a-g requirements, being, characterized not by the concentration of labor power in the workshop, but rather by the monopoly of the products of domestic industry.
These products were made by the newly pauperized and dispossessed peasants, who were reduced to marijuana should be legal the status of wage workers. A prerequisite for a-g requirements, the development of essays and children, capitalist industry was already present. The expropriation of the agricultural producers, the peasants, their severance from the soil, was the basis of the whole process.  The royal power was utilized to support the new order, whose interests depended upon the political power of the state. Thus, the ruling dynasty, the college Tudors, was but the of a paragraph agent of the rising class of the epoch. All the decrees of Elizabeth evidenced a tendency to further the new manufacturing system. Many brutal laws were passed against beggars and vagrants–people who were being expropriated, and who were resisting economic bondage. College A-g Requirements? During the reign of Elizabeth's father, Henry VIII, 72,000 thieves were put to marijuana should death. A decree was issued, regulating wages and college, establishing a fixed maximum. Despite this, the new industry had to carry on assessment a bitter struggle against two obstacles–feudalism in the country, and the guild system in the city.
The new manufactures were inaugurated in seaports, or else in parts of the countryside where the old urban system did not run, and where the guilds which were a part of that system had no say. In England, the corporate towns and therefore, there was a fierce struggle between these new industrial nurseries.  Finally, the intensive development of English trade was of great significance, closely connected as it was with the new naval and colonial policy. To-day, industrial supremacy implies commercial supremacy. A-g Requirements? In the period of manufacture properly so-called, on the other hand, it was commercial supremacy which implied industrial supremacy. Hence the preponderant role of the colonial system in those days. Paper Questions? 
At the college beginning of the epoch raw wool was the essay chief article of export; later, woolen cloth. English merchants gradually freed themselves from foreign middlemen, sold and shipped their own wares, and established their own markets. Commercial corporations sprang up for the purpose of trading with the Baltic regions, Muscovy, the Mediterranean countries, the Near East, Guinea, America and India. Characteristic of the college epoch is the name of the oldest of the commercial companies, The Merchant Adventurers, which, appearing at the end of the fourteenth century, numbered 3500 by the beginning of the seventeenth. They knew how to trade with the newly discovered lands, how to steal, smuggle and trade in slaves. If enclosure was the first prerequisite of primary accumulation, colonial trading was the second.
There also existed another type of merchant, who engaged in operations on online masters in creative writing a smaller scale. He traded primarily at home, and had close connections with the industrialists. He was thrifty, and carefully and systematically accumulated penny upon penny–the classic type of penurious accumulator, the Puritan. It was precisely this class that approached its goal with such force and college a-g requirements, certainty that it later was to take history into its hands and personal essay, forge the great English revolution of the seventeenth century. Thus, the process developed, smoothly and uniformly, in a-g requirements, all three fields. The transformation of agricultural economy and the resulting pauperization of the countryside were closely connected with the development of the new capitalist industry (manufacturing), and commerce (wool, cloth), which were interdependent. As a consequence, the elements paragraph essay social aspect of England changed completely. An entirely new alignment of class forces came into being, out of which developed new class struggles. Each class contained a number of conflicting groups. College? At the same time, the be legal two most powerful classes, the a-g requirements landowning gentry and the bourgeoisie, antagonistic by nature, were during this stage of their development, to a certain extent collaborators and at times even allies, because of the specifically English conditions. Attending their growth were the early capitalization of the landowning economy, the Reformation with its confiscation of Church lands, and so forth.
The great feudal wars had destroyed the old feudal nobility, and the new nobles were children of their own age to my paper whom money was the power of all powers.  Engels developed this thought further: Originally an college oppressed state liable to pay dues to the ruling feudal nobilty, recruited from serfs and about parents and children, villeins of every type, the burghers conquered one position after another in their continuous struggle with the nobility, and finally, in college, the most highly developed countries, took power in its stead: in France, by directly overthrowing the nobility; in England, by making it more and more bourgeois, and incorporating it as the marijuana be legal essay ornamental head of the bourgeoisie itself.  In still another passage he characterized England's position on the eve of the great revolution: The new starting point was a compromise between the rising middle class and the ex-feudal landowners. The latter, though called as now, the aristocracy, had been long since on the way which led them to college become what Louis Philippe in France became at a much later period, the first bourgeois of the Kingdom. Fortunately for England, the old feudal barons had killed one another during the inspiration Wars of the Roses. Their successors, though mostly scions of the old families, had been so much out of the direct line of a-g requirements, descent that they constituted quite a new body, with habits and marijuana essay, tendencies far more bourgeois than feudal.
They fully understood the value of money, and at once began to a-g requirements increase their rents by turning hundreds of small farmers out and replacing them by sheep. Henry VIII, while squandering the Church lands, created fresh bourgeois landlords by wholesale; the innumerable confiscation of to write my paper, estates, regranted to absolute or relative upstarts, and college, continued during the whole of the seventeenth century, had the same result. Holocaust Research? Consequently, ever since Henry VII, the English aristocracy, far from counteracting the a-g requirements development of industrial production, had, on the contrary, sought to indirectly profit thereby; and there had always been a section of the great landowners willing, from economical or political reasons, to essays about co-operate with the leading men of the financial and industrial bourgeoisie.  Foreigners, visiting England in the sixteenth century, were surprised by the unusual sight of castles with no military equipment, no armed guards, gates wide open. This can be readily understood; their owners were not grim feudal lords but bourgeois, or landowners turned bourgeois.
This partial coalescence of the interests of the bourgeoisie and the landowners is college excellently illustrated by the history of the Verney family. The founder of the line, the online masters in creative writing merchant Ralph Verney, became Lord Mayor of London in 1465. After the Battle of Tewkeshury which ended the Wars of the Roses, Edward IV knighted twelve citizens in testimony of gratitude to his supporters; among these, Verney stood first and received a grant of land. Later he purchased new estates and soon became one of the landowning aristocracy. His descendant, Sir Edmund Verney (1590-1642), was a landowner and a brilliant courtier–knight-marshal and standard-bearer to Charles I –who spent his time between his estate and London. In his domain, organized on a sound capitalist footing, he retained, however, many patriarchal customs; he disliked buying flour, meat and hay, preferring instead to exact them according to feudal prerogative. In London he resorted to various schemes to supplement his income. He obtained patents-royal for garblinge tobacco (i.e. College A-g Requirements? inspecting it), and for hackneys for assessment essay, hire. In his person were embodied the nobleman, the landowner, the bourgeois merchant, and the trader. Nevertheless, the college a-g requirements words of Marx concerning the extinction of the old feudal aristocracy and the change to capitalist technique on the part of of a paragraph, its successors, must not be taken too literally. The economically backward regions of the West and North of England still held many feudal lords, hostile to the new economy and political life, and college a-g requirements, antagonistic to the spirit of the times.
The impetuous Mortimers and marijuana should essay, Glendowers depicted in Shakespeare's Henry IV had not disappeared by the time of Queen Elizabeth. Enjoying superficial honors, boasting numerous privileges, and securing high posts when they took residence in London, they lived nevertheless under the watchful supervision of the central authorities and represented, not a living cultural force, but an outwardly impressive though impotent fragment of the past. The antagonism between them and the new capitalist-landowning nobility frequently broke out with great violence. Especially strong was the antipathy towards the gentry, who filled Parliament, controlled all local government in the counties, and acted in a-g requirements, close alliance with the commercial and industrial bourgeoisie. Similar divisions were to be observed in other classes. Antagonism also existed between the old corporation guild members and in creative writing, those who had begun to work under new capitalist methods; and between the poor tenants and the farmers who thrived under the new regime. Hence, the numerous coalitions among the college a-g requirements various strata of different classes, which figured so importantly during the bourgeois revolution. Should Be Legal Essay? Yet, with all these contradictions, the leading role of the two powerful classes, the bourgeoisie and the gentry, appears clearly, and in college, the twofold process which explains the collaboration between the landed nobility and the new bourgeoisie, it was the research latter which predominated and survived.
It is to this arrangement of class forces and the general character of college, their development that we owe the monarchical form of rule of the political system of that epoch. At the end of the fifteenth century, there occurred a rapid development of absolutism in England. As everywhere else, this system, brought about by bourgeois development, was a class monarchy serving the interests of the middle and essays and children, petty nobility, in England the gentry, under the conditions of new capitalist relations. This form of political rule was acceptable to the bourgeoisie insofar as it combatted the great feudal lords, who were oppressing them. However, in view of the specific situation in England, that is to say, the intensive reorganization of college a-g requirements, great sections of the landed nobility and their unification with the about and children bourgeoisie in its early period (almost to the end of the sixteenth century), absolutism had a much more democratic and progressive character than in other countries. Hence, the profound attachment of the bourgeoisie for the monarch, an attachment which continued almost to the end of the a-g requirements reign of Queen Elizabeth. During the Wars of the Roses, the House of York, which depended upon research paper, the industrially and economically progressive eastern counties, was victorious, while the House of Lancaster was supported by college the barons of the backward western and northern regions. Edward IV (1461-1483), of the House of York, was the first bourgeois king of England. Holocaust Questions? He was the patron and friend of merchants, and his mistress was an untitled London lady. During his reign, the mercantile system in a-g requirements, the economic field and absolutism in parents and children, the political arena first made their appearance.
Edward IV ruled almost without Parliament. When the House of York became extinct it was succeeded by the Tudors, who continued the same policy, now to an even greater degree dictated by the growth of the productive form of the country. Henry VII (1485-1509), aided by an especially created bureaucracy and the notorious Star Chamber, ruled with no regard whatsoever for Parliament. Henry VIII (l509-1517) went even further. His main achievements were the instituting of the Reformation and college a-g requirements, the confiscation of Church lands. The lower chamber of Parliament, consisting mainly of the personal assessment essay gentry with a mixture of the bourgeoisie, gave its complete support to the policy of the king. As far as the upper chamber was concerned, where the gentry were also firmly entrenched, the Tudors energetically tried to neutralize the influence of the feudal faction by creating new peers. A-g Requirements? The short-lived reaction which set in essays parents and children, during the reigns of Edward VI (1547-1553) and Bloody Mary (1553-1558), the latter supported by Spain, was indecisive, having little effect on the economic life of the college a-g requirements country. During the reign of Elizabeth, absolutism reached its climax, but toward the end of her rule it began to disintegrate.
During her reign the English merchants established their own trading stations in paper questions, Hamburg, penetrated the Mediterranean Sea, and opened a northern cell-route to college Russia. In 1584 Raleigh founded in America the first English colony, which was named Virginia, for the Virgin Queen. Elizabeth herself was a shareholder in the colonial undertakings of her navigators, one of whom, Drake, she knighted. For a long time she listened attentively to the London merchants. Essays Parents? For twenty years her closest adviser, if not her outstanding statesman, was Sir Thomas Gresham, her commercial agent in Antwerp and founder of the Royal Exchange (1571). To meet the needs of the college state budget, she contracted no foreign loans, but borrowed money from rich merchants at inspiration to write my paper home. The naval and colonial policy of England was dictated by similar motives. It led to the long war with Spain which terminated with the college a-g requirements destruction of the Invincible Armada (1588), brought about the complete emancipation of five paragraph essay, England, and laid the foundation of her supremacy on the sea. The bourgeoisie had considerable influence on the court and the government, determining to a certain extent the legislation and general policies of the state. One must not, however, exaggerate the college a-g requirements extent of of a, this influence. The court, rather than Parliament, was the directing center of political life.
The nobility, among whom were remnants of the old feudal aristocracy, was the predominant class, and side by side with progressive statesmen, leaders of young capitalism, there were a number of unprincipled careerists, adventurers, and favorites of the Queen. Because of this fact, one cannot view the court nobility as a homogeneous group. The court was the focal point of united though sometimes conflicting interests. In general, however, English absolutism, supported mainly by college a-g requirements the middle and petty nobility, served primarily the interests of this nobility, not those of the bourgeoisie. This was because of industrial and trade privileges and monopoly rights granted to those strata of the nobility which kept pace with the spirit of the times. But the holocaust research system of monopolies, acceptable and necessary in the early development of capitalism for the promotion of college, industry and trade, had become only a hindrance to that development. By the end of the sixteenth century the bourgeoisie had outgrown this system, which had been abused by Elizabeth during the last decade of her reign, and marijuana be legal essay, later by James I (1603-1625) and Charles I (1625-1649), in carrying out their policy of feudal reaction. Thus, beginning with 1597, a series of sharp conflicts arose between the Crown and Parliament, conflicts which demanded the abolition, or at least the limitation, of the monopoly system, conflicts which were the forerunners of the coming bourgeois revolution. It was the end of the idyllic friendship between the new bourgeois nobility, the gentry, and the court nobility.
This conflict was aggravated by college a-g requirements the personal traits of Elizabeth. Ever lacking in decision and mistrustful, she became obsessed by suspicion towards the end of her reign. She saw treason everywhere, instituted a system of espionage, and meted out personal assessment, capital punishment unreservedly. The aged Queen clung to the illusion that she still possessed the charm of youth. She ordered all mirrors screened wherever she went in order to avoid the sight of her wrinkled face. College A-g Requirements? She embarked on a series of love affairs with young men. Her last and most ardent love was the young Duke of Essex. Elements Essay? In spite of his awkward role of lover to the aged Queen, he was the college a-g requirements representative of the old heroic tendencies, now outmoded. He supported an aggressive policy against Spain, but his efforts were defeated by the intrigues of Lord Cecil, the Queen's minister. Essex lost favor with the Queen; she publicly insulted him, and when in 1601 he organized an unsuccessful insurrection, he was beheaded. Toward the year 1590, Puritanism, which was only my paper, a religious screen for the class-consciousness of the bourgeoisie in its struggle against feudalism and absolutism, gained ground.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the political program of the college a-g requirements Puritans was still moderate, since the leading force of the masters class was the big bourgeoisie, always ready'to compromise with the aristocracy and the king. This leading group, which called itself Presbyterian, aimed only at the confiscation of the property of the Church of England, and at college the abolition of all privileges which hindered bourgeois development. The struggle became more acute around 1610, when the Independents broke away from the Presbyterians. This group demanded the about parents complete liquidation of the church hierarchy, the revocation of all special privileges, and the establishment of a bourgeois-democratic system. Not until this time, some thirty or forty years prior to the revolution, did the decisive mass of the English bourgeoisie take a resolute stand against the ruling class and the entire system of absolutism. This movement brought forth Milton, the great poet of the English bourgeois revolution, who was born in college, 1608.
Only the very last years of Shakespeare's creative work correspond to this period, for he reached maturity during the epoch of peaceful collaboration of the ruling nobility with the big bourgeoisie under the protection of the then progressive royal power. Shakespeare was no poet of the court, still less of the bourgeoisie. On the be legal contrary, he had his roots in a young and vigorous aristocracy, before which extended wide horizons, and a-g requirements, which still remained the ruling class of of a paragraph essay, a great people. In Shakespeare's tragedies there resounds the roar of the sea; in Corneille's tragedies, only the splashing of the fountains at Versailles.  We are not in complete agreement with this dictum of Mehring's, although it seems to explain the aristocratic elements in Shakespeare's writings. We are well aware of the fact that in the poetry of Shakespeare's time in France, during the sixteenth century, the a-g requirements leading place was occupied by the work of Ronsard and the Pleiade, highly esthetic, hedonistic and exuberant.
However, it was devoid of the heroic and the tragic. In England, the Pleiade had its counterparts in the Petrarchist lyrics of Wyatt and masters degree writing, Surrey, in Spenser's poems, in Sydney's pastoral novel, Arcadia, and even in the complicated trends of Elizabethan drama typified by college Beaumont (1584-1616) and essays parents and children, Fletcher (1579-1625). The work of these two dramatists, who were usually collaborators, had much in common with that of Shakespeare. A-g Requirements? We find pronounced individualism, exuberance, vivid portrayal of emotions, colorful characterization, and dynamic action. However, along with these, we find qualities foreign to Shakespeare's works, because these dramatists were still trying to bolster up a feudalism that was crumbling under the rising bourgeois tide. Thus, they defended the code of the duel by ridiculing a bourgeoisie that attempted to usurp this noble prerogative.  As opposed to Shakespeare's criticism of monarchy, their eulogy of absolutism in The Maide's Tragedy approaches a worship so devout that it elevates the dissolute monarch of the play to a plane above criticism. Parents And Children? This tendency is even more pronounced in Fletcher's tragi-comedy, The Loyal Subject, in a-g requirements, which the hero suffers great abuse at the hands of five essay, his monarch, who finally restores him to grace. Portrayed as scoundrels throughout the play, they suddenly become regenerate in the last act. In another of his plays, The Bloody Brother, or, Rolio, Duk of college, Normandy, he advances the theory that true wisdom lies not in essay, open opposition to a despotic monarch, nor in blind obedience to him, but in artful adaptation to the exigencies of the situation. This reveals to us the undoubted influence which the Spanish dramatists of the college a-g requirements period exercised on Fletcher. Holocaust Paper Questions? These dramatists were exponents of Spanish absolutism, which. while bearing a superficial resemblance to the absolute monarchies of Europe in general, is rather to a-g requirements be placed in a class with the Asiatic form of government. Five Paragraph Essay? 
Much more important, however, than these details is the general aspect of Beaumont and Fletcher's dramas. They contain an unconcealed epicureanism, devoid of all moral and tragic problems. The aim of their plays was solely to divert and to offer pointed and a-g requirements, entertaining impressions. This accounts for the elegant mounting, the research paper questions skillful handling of plot, the opulence of scenic effects. A-g Requirements? Character delineation, on the other hand, as well as the forces motivating the actions of their dramatis personae, are relegated to a second place.
They strove for the most unusual, the most uncommon, the most pungent. With cynical frankness, Fletcher loved to linger over impotence, incest, sexual perversion. He looked upon the theatre as a place in which to spend a pleasant hour. Disturbing social problems are, therefore, almost completely banished from his work. Nor does it ever contain any genuinely heroic characters. No more than two, or possibly three, of Beaumont and online degree in creative, Fletcher's plays can be called tragedies. All the rest are either light and college a-g requirements, elegantly frivolous comedies, or dramas with a happy ending. All this is far removed from the heroic art of Shakespeare, strong to the point of vulgarity. There is no question that the roots of his art must be sought, not in the circles of epicurean noblemen, but in the revolutionary ideas and moods of the marijuana be legal essay bourgeoisie.
There existed during this epoch a rather widespread literature, specifically middle-class in its thematic material and its stylistic manner. A whole group of Shakespeare's contemporaries, led by Thomas Heywood (1570-1640) and college a-g requirements, Thomas Dekker (1572-1632), belong in this category. Folk naturalism, depiction of the plebeian milieu, family life and manners, naive moralizing, are amusingly juxtaposed with intrigue, melodrama, and motifs as sensational as if they had been copied out of a daily chronicle of events-scenes in houses of prostitution, insane asylums, and so forth. Heywood's historical drama Edward the Fourth is a glorification of merchants and artisans, the assessment essay real heroes of the play. In Shakespeare's chronicles, the college basic theme deals with two great problems–power and the fate of nations.
Heywood's plays, on the other hand, attach greater significance to the sentimental questions of family life. This middle-class naturalism and moralizing is not confined to the plays of the time; it appears also in the novels. The end of the sixteenth century witnessed the development of the naturalistic or autobiographical novel of manners (Greene, Nash), which depicted the life of the outcasts of to write my paper, society and the history of the hero's worldly transgressions. Or, like the Spanish picaresque novel, it depicted the gradual social ascent of the adventurer of plebeian origin. This provided an opportunity for college a-g requirements, a series of satirical sketches of typical representatives of every possible class, profession, or social station. Online Writing? That most curious industrial trilogy, The Gentle Craft, Jack of college a-g requirements, Newberry, Thomas of Reading, by Thomas Deloney, the story of a Norwich silk-weaver, presented a most detailed picture of the lives of shoemakers and weavers–a sympathetic account of the transition from guild craftsmanship to should be legal essay manufacturing. This leads us even farther away from Shakespeare's work than the a-g requirements plays of Beaumont and Fletcher. Shakespeare, a humanist and a man of historic perspective, concentrates on moral, political, and philosophical questions of universal significance; he strives to change the world. In all the other writers previously mentioned we have but the timid aspirations of the middle-classes, submissively accepting the questions whole existing mode of life, attempting to college a-g requirements protect their right to a modest place in the world, a little happiness, and a shred of respect from the privileged aristocratic class.
Peaceful in their middle-class morality, they desired only to earn their living through painstaking labor. Taken as a whole, this morality was embryonic Puritanism, as yet far from its revolutionary maturity. Marijuana Should Be Legal? These people were completely fettered by their middle-class ideology, from which, as Engels says, the titans of the college Renaissance were free. Ben Jonson (1572-1637) represented a different trend of bourgeois drama. His wide intellectual range, his love of life, his iconoclastic presentation and research questions, solution of moral problems place this great artist nearer to college Shakespeare.
Nevertheless, Ben Jonson, too, was bound by middle-class ideology, though in a lesser degree than those previously mentioned. He was interested in the morality of his class only in relation to current problems. He was too much limited by these current interests and could not rise above them. He was not granted Shakespeare's intellectual and philosophical insight. A rationalist, slightly pedantic in his reasoning, he was the enemy of all romanticism, which he angrily ridiculed. He maintained that the artist must depict only the people of every day life, and only those occurrences from which edification can be drawn. His main concern in all his plays was to be rational and plausible, in the popular, naturalistic meaning of the term, and to edify. It can be said that, inasmuch as the Puritans were enemies of the theatre, Ben Jonson was basically, in his point of view, very close to them. Ben Jonson, like Moliere, with whom he had much in common, endeavors to correct morals through ridicule in research, his comedies Every Man in his Humor, and Epicoene, or the Silent Woman. He exhibits scoundrels, eccentrics, and a whole gallery of morally deformed types of every shape and color.
In The Alchemist, he exposes one of the abuses of the age, superstition, and the chicanery connected with it. In Bartholomew Fair, he ridicules the noble spendthrift, together with the predatory and college, hypocritical priest, the prototype of Tartuffe. In the comedy, The Devil is an Ass, he presents an interesting picture of the depravity and degeneracy of the court of James I. At the same time, Ben Jonson also criticizes the to write class whose representative he is. His Volpone is a grotesquerie of a cunning old man, who not only college a-g requirements, makes fools of ail those who dream of inheriting his fortune, but robs them at the same time, until he falls prey to the greed of his assistants. By thus having confined his thematic material to the realism of daily life, combined with a great deal of malice and holocaust research paper, even photographic copies of contemporaries, never to be found in Shakespeare, Ben Jonson limited the horizon of his art. College? This is particularly apparent in the construction of his characters. As in Moliere, they are usually dominated by one particular trait, which colors all their feeling and actions. Personal Assessment Essay? This explains their one-sided and college a-g requirements, schematic nature. Parody and distortion replace the in creative broad and college, profound mirroring of reality to essays about be found in Shakespeare. Ben Jonson was a great scholar, a man of enlightenment and erudition, but he was able to mirror only the milieu with which he was familiar, and that only to a limited degree; Shakespeare reflected an immense epoch in full with inspired insight into the future.
There was still another group of bourgeois dramatists, represented by the close forerunners and contemporaries of Shakespeare, with Marlowe at the head. It is to this group that Shakespeare belongs. Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), the stormy genius of the English Renaissance, who died prematurely, reflected in his work the aspirations of the rising English bourgeoisie during the a-g requirements period of its initial strength. His plays expressed all the passion, all the super-abundance of should, strength, all the a-g requirements utopian daring of thought and should essay, will of a newly-born, exultant class, eager to rush into the fray for the conquest of the college a-g requirements world. Marlowe was the first to develop the heroic tragedy, the assessment essay tragedy of a powerful individual whose passions and grandiose struggles encompass and a-g requirements, unite all the action. To know everything, to possess everything–this is the online in creative motto of Marlowe's heroes. In the preface to college his first tragedy, Tamburlaine the Great, he introduces the of a five paragraph theme. The shepherd who becomes master solely through will, and faith in his star, is conceived on a high plane. He is college a true conquistador of the elements five paragraph essay sixteenth century, avid and drunk with his own strength, ready to conquer the world. Tamburlaine reckons with nothing, not even with the will of the gods. And at a-g requirements the end of the tragedy he dies unbroken in spirit, with a proud challenge to fate and death on his lips.
Tamburlaine, however, is not only a man of great ambitions; he is a thinker as well. Hungry for knowledge, he craves to understand the marvelous construction of the world, to fathom the run of each planet. To the man of the Renaissance, knowledge and power were inseparable. Such a superman is Dr. Faustus, who sells his soul to online masters degree in creative tile devil in exchange for mortal happiness, knowledge and a-g requirements, power.
But he desires this power in order to personal assessment render his country impregnable, to surround it with an iron wall, to create an unconquerable army, to college a-g requirements establish universities. Essay? A similar figure, this time in the guise of a villain, is Barabas, in The Jew of Malta. With gold, his one weapon, he fights the entire world. He commits incredible villainies, sacrificing his daughter for the sake of revenging himself on college the Christians who had insulted him, and meets his downfall with his pride unbroken, as Tamburlaine and Dr. Faustus. As if in contradistinction to these types, Marlowe, in The Troublesome Raigne and Deathe of Edward the Second, a chronicle play wherein, as in Shakespeare, certain fundamental problems of should be legal, political power and college, national destiny are analyzed, portrays a weak character around whom swirl intense passions. Bourgeois critics consider Marlowe the founder of the romantic drama. This is partly true, insofar as Marlowe's plays are filled with a daring imagination and and children, poetic fantasy, far removed from the naturalism of Heywood or even of Ben Jonson.
But it is a special kind of a-g requirements, romanticism, a romanticism which Engels, in marijuana be legal essay, characterizing the epoch of primary accumulation, described as follows: It was the knight-errant period of the bourgeoisie; it had, too, its romances and its amorous enthusiasms, but on a bourgeois footing and in the last analysis, with bourgeois aims.  The basis of Marlowe's romanticism is a vigorous realism. Realistic are his powerful characters, hewn from granite; realistic, the ideological and psychological design of his plays; his language and his poetry. He introduced blank verse into drama, a poetic form far more flexible and expressive than the polished, rhymed metre of the older dramatists. College A-g Requirements? But most realistic is his depiction of the ardent, anarchic, amoral strivings of his epoch. According to Engels: . A period which loosened all the to write my paper old ties of college a-g requirements, society and shattered all inherited conceptions. The world had suddenly become ten times bigger; instead of elements of a five paragraph, a quadrant of a hemisphere, the whole globe now lay before the eyes of the West Europeans, who hastened to take possession of the other seven quadrants. And along with the old narrow barriers of their native land, the thousand-year old barriers of mediaeval conventional thought were also broken down. College A-g Requirements? An infinitely wider horizon opened out research questions, before both the outward and the inward gaze of man. What mattered the prospects offered by respectability, or the honorable guild privileges inherited through generations, to the young man tempted by the wealth of India, the gold and a-g requirements, silver mines of Mexico and Potosi? 
Marlowe was the ideologist of the revolutionary, but as yet only elementally and anarchistically revolutionary, English merchant bourgeoisie of the end of the sixteenth century. A true humanist, he transferred their strivings to a higher plane. He did not use bourgeois themes, he reflected the very essence of the aspirations of parents and children, this class in college, pure form, without the commonplace bourgeois wrappings. It is essays and children this that relates Marlowe to college Shakespeare. There exists, of course, a fundamental difference between them. Shakespeare, who is an incomparably deeper and more mature humanist, transcends Marlowe's anarchic amoralism. Nevertheless, Shakespeare has his roots in Marlowe.
This kinship is research questions corroborated by the enormous influence Marlowe exercised over Shakespeare's early work. College? Shakespeare borrowed not only the blank verse and certain stylistic details, but also the conception of a lofty tragic hero. In a series of early plays, Shakespeare follows in the footsteps of essays about and children, Marlowe; Richard III (1592) and Titus Andronicus  (1593) resemble, in many respects, The Jew of college a-g requirements, Malta (1589-1590) That Shakespeare borrowed from questions, this play for his conception of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice (1596) cannot be doubted, while Richard II (1595) retraces the most essential aspects of college a-g requirements, Edward II (1592). Even in his later and greatest tragedies, Shakespeare remained indebted to his mentor Marlowe; there is something of Tamburlaine in King Lear (1605) and Macbeth (1605). We do not, therefore, expect to find any specifically bourgeois content in Shakespeare which is normally absent from the works of the great humanists of the marijuana essay epoch. Marlowe and several other dramatists  of his group exemplify this theory. This is also true of the humanist poets of other countries. The ordinary middle-class thematic material is college a-g requirements completely alien to Petrarch, and if we do find some aspects of it in Boccaccio, in The Decameron and five paragraph, partly in college, the Corbaccio, we must not forget that this is online masters degree in creative but a small part of his inheritance. College? An equally significant aspect of his literary output, unjustly neglected in the popular evaluations because of his Decameron, is presented by a number of poetic romances on legendary themes of chivalry.
These are realistic in treatment and progressive in ideology. This is also true of the splendid pastorals, Ameto and the Ninfale Fiesolano, so truly revolutionary in content, and Fiammetta, which laid the foundation of the new realistic and psychological novel. Assessment Essay? Bourgeois themes are not to be found in any of the books, nor in the work of the a-g requirements great painters of the time. Raphael, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci carried out should essay, revolutionary ideas through aristocratic, mythological, and even religious subject-matter. Middle-class themes would not have adequately expressed their ideas and would have restricted the college depth and marijuana, extent of their efforts. Shakespeare, too, followed this trend. College A-g Requirements? It was even more natural that he should have done so, because the circumstances attending the historical development of parents and children, England–the fusion between the a-g requirements nobility and personal, the middle-classes-created conditions extremely favorable to such an art.
In discussing the evolution of law, Engels says: The form in which this happens can, however, vary considerably. It is possible, as happened in England, in harmony with the whole national development, to retain in the main the forms of the old feudal laws while giving them a bourgeois content; in fact, directly giving a bourgeois meaning to the old feudal name. A-g Requirements?  Is this not equally applicable to the literary scene? It is impossible, purely on the basis of the aristocratic nature of his characterizations and subject-matter to draw the conclusion that Shakespeare was the ideologist of the new nobility which was fast acquiring bourgeois trappings. On the contrary, Shakespeare was strongly opposed to holocaust paper the attempt on the part of this new nobility to appropriate the fruits of primary accumulation and to monopolize all culture.
However, Shakespeare found subject-matter and imagery of a feudal character to be a convenient form for the following reasons: the traditional dramatic plots, the blending of nobility and bourgeoisie, the avoidance of middle-class limitations. Since the substance was completely bourgeois, through contact with the new content, the form was materially changed. Shakespeare is the humanist ideologist of the bourgeoisie of the time, for whom the source material of his plays had no importance, and which, as Engels has pointed out, he did not disdain to borrow even from the Middle Ages. He was concerned only with how he could adapt this material. It does not follow that he denied the college a-g requirements living present around him, or that he was but another of essays about parents, that group of closet humanists whom Engels characterized as second or third-rate men, or cautious Philistines who are afraid of burning their fingers (like Erasmus).  His reactions to the world around him, and to the changes in the political and social currents of a-g requirements, his time were strong but complex. They found expression not in impulsive outbursts or obvious allusions to the evils of the times, but in profound internal upheavals and changed evaluations of humanity and essays parents, of the a-g requirements whole life process. In view of this, Shakespeare's work, in spite of the should essay internal unity and the correctness of college a-g requirements, its basic ideology, falls into three periods. During the first period, until around 1601, there occurred the coalescence of all the foremost forces of the marijuana country: upper middle-class, the monarchy, the gentry, and even a part of the landed nobility. This process is reflected by the joyous optimism of Shakespeare s early work, which is filled with a bold and happy affirmation of life, and with obviously aristocratic elements. He has two main themes–the assertion of the new absolutist national state, and of the intoxicating joy of living now available to the individual, at last emancipated from college, feudal bondage.
To the first theme he dedicated the cycle of chronicle plays; to to write the second, the series of enchanting, gay comedies. But the a-g requirements effects of the disintegration of the class alignment are already apparent in the plays written towards the end of the period, around 1597. Be Legal Essay? The decomposition of the court had set in, the Puritans were becoming more and more aggressive, the struggle between the bourgeoisie and the nobility had already begun. Hence, the tragic treatment of royal power in Julius Caesar (1599), with its confused conclusions, its pessimism; and the gloomy overtones of the earlier Much Ado About Nothing (1598). During the second period, to a-g requirements 1609–years which marked the decline of Elizabeth's reign and the advent, under James I, of feudal reaction–the process of disintegration was completed. Marijuana Should Be Legal Essay? The nobility with the support of the monarchy, was preparing to defend its position against the imminent onslaught of the bourgeoisie and a-g requirements, the gentry. Vacillation, evasion, compromise, we'e no longer possible; he who was not afraid to burn his fingers had to make a choice.
Shakespeare made his. He broke through the assessment circle of superficial, aristocratic emotions, discontinued the gay comedies and college a-g requirements, the idealized depiction of the research past, written in celebration of that glorious present which was no more. College A-g Requirements? With powerful tragedies, as well as sharply dramatic comedies, he entered the arena as champion of the heroic ideals of bourgeois humanism. Shakespeare, however, was not destined to essay retain this position. Reality was against him.
The age of humanism was at an end. Narrow, fanatical Puritanism began increasingly to permeate the bourgeoisie and this, in turn, affected Shakespeare. He was forced to choose between the degenerate royalists and the revolutionary, though sanctimonious, Puritan hagglers. An additional factor entered the situation. By 1610, the London theatre had become very strongly aristocratic in college a-g requirements, flavor because of the growing royalist patronage and personal assessment, the irreconcilable hatred of the Puritans for the stage. The Beaumont and Fletcher type of play became the a-g requirements vogue. Its popularity rose to such heights that it began to crowd Shakespeare off the stage. Assessment Essay? Necessity forced the bourgeois dramatists to face the college a-g requirements dilemma. Shakespeare, therefore, made a slight compromise. Without betraying either his basic principles, or his social, ethical, and political convictions, he made certain ideological concessions which affected even his style.
During this third period (1609-1611) he wrote a series of tragicomedies in the manner of Fletcher. Psychological analysis and definitely motivated action then began to disappear; grim realism gave way to paper fairy tale and legend. Shakespeare became preoccupied with the complicated, cleverly constructed plots (Cymbeline) demanded by the public. College A-g Requirements? His plays were once more filled with those purely decorative, esthetic elements–masques, pastorals, and fairy scenes–which abound in elements of a five paragraph essay, the plays of college a-g requirements, his first period, and are completely absent from those of his second. This was the celebrated reconciliation with life that Shakespearean scholars delight to discuss, but which actually weakened his genius. Shakespeare could not long endure such self-imposed violation of his artistic integrity. For the last time he gave full voice to his humanist credo in his swan-song, The Tempest. Five years before his death, at the height of his creative power, he stopped writing for assessment essay, the theatre (1611). Nevertheless, in spite of the critical phases through which he passed, the basic characteristics of Shakespeare's point of view and style–his militant, revolutionary protests against feudal forms, conceptions, and institutions–remained unaffected throughout his life.
What were these characteristics? First of all–a new morality, based, not on the authority of religion or of feudal tradition, but on the free will of college a-g requirements, man, on the voice of masters in creative, his conscience, on his sense of responsibility towards himself and the world. College? This called for the emancipation of the feelings and personality of the individual; in particular, this necessited individualism, that most vital and typical characteristic of the Renaissance, which found its fullest expression in Shakespeare. This resulted in a new approach towards social relations, the organization of the state, the nature of authority. To Shakespeare, the highest authority was that of absolute monarchy, but his conception of personal assessment, this was not so much the authority of divine right as the authority of college a-g requirements, responsibility. The monarch justifies his rank and existence only when he expresses the collective will of the people and realizes their collective welfare. Secondly–a scientific attitude towards the world, life, and reality, which, rejecting all metaphysical interpretations, demands a causal explanation of all natural, social, and psychological phenomena. The possibilities of such a scientific approach to masters writing reality were, to be sure, very limited in Shakespeare's day.
Nevertheless, this is the a-g requirements essence and the basis of Shakespeare's creative method. And, finally–the energy and essays about parents and children, optimism so characteristic of the college a-g requirements Renaissance. Shakespeare did not permit resignation and apathy to enter the soul of man; struggle was to assessment essay him the whole meaning and content of life–creative struggle for the realization, if not of the highest ideals, at least of the a-g requirements organic desires inherent in his individualistic character. Inactive natures, sunk in abstract dreaming or hedonism, or lacking in a sense of responsibility towards themselves and towards humanity, were destined by Shakespeare either for destruction (Anthony in Richard II), or ridicule (Jaques in As You Like It). This approach is one of the most significant aspects of the new ethical philosophy of humanism as Shakespeare understood it. Shakespeare's first period included epic and research paper, lyric poems as well as plays. Both these genres, so typical of the Renaissance, found fertile soil in England. College A-g Requirements? His poems Venus and Adonis (1593), and paragraph essay, Lucrece (1594), though more conventional in style than any of his works, reveal his characteristic manner. Their natural tone and vivid realism stand out in sharp relief and distinguish them from the work of college, his contemporaries.
Let us compare Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis with Ronsard's poem on the same theme; instead of Ronsard's conciliatory, esthetically cold treatment of the dramatic end of Venus' beloved, and essays about and children, her great sorrow, we find in a-g requirements, Shakespeare a genuine and ardent passion. Ronsald's poem is a graceful, inanimate picture; Shakespeare's, a dynamic, fervent cry of passion and suffering. Such is the contrast between the humanist poet of the progressive element of the gentry, and Shakespeare, the humanist poet of the bourgeoisie. His treatment of ancient themes closely resembles that of another great humanist poet of the bourgeoisie, the Boccaccio of essay, Ameto and Ninfale Fiesolano. In England, the poem which most nearly approaches Venus and Adonis is a-g requirements Marlowe's Hero and Leander. Shakespeare's sonnets are distinguished also by a profound realism which reveals the sequence of his personal experiences. His poems were well received by his contemporaries. Lyric and epic poetry was the vogue. Hence it was more esteemed and remunerative than the drama. Still, Shakespeare early rejected both these forms for holocaust research, the drama, the most progressive and democratic genre of the epoch, in which he could express himself completely. The plays of Shakespeare's first period fall into three groups: comedies, chronicles and tragedies.
Beginning with the college a-g requirements comedies, a division can be made between those we may term realistic, as to both style and subject, and romantic, as to subject alone. The realistic comedies are: The Comedy of Errors (1592), which is an adaptation of Plautus' Menaechmi; The Taming of the Shrew (1593), and The Merry Wives of Windsor (1600). The romantic comedies are The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1591), Love's Labour's Lost (1595), A Midsummer Night's Dream (1596), The Merchant of Venice (1596), Much Ado About Nothing (1598), As You Like It (1599), and Twelfth Night (1599). Let us analyze this group first; it offers rich and varied material for a comprehension of the growth of Shakespeare's world perspective. The outstanding characteristics of these plays are usually considered to be the five essay carefree joy of living and the aristocratic elements of the thematic material.
This is partially true, but requires elucidation. The thematic material does not consist entirely of the aristocratic elements–the life of leisure led by the nobility, whose days, to all appearances, were spent in gay pursuits and college a-g requirements, games of love. These elements Shakespeare uses merely as a visible background, against my paper, which he unfolds the new humanist conception of love, and college, the more pedestrian emotions and attitudes. Beneath the gay, airy play of sensations and inspiration my paper, events is concealed the serious inner struggle for college, new ideals. In as early a play as The Two Gentlemen of Verona are found two moral systems sharply juxtaposed: Proteus, the scapegrace aristocrat, a Don Juan type rooted in feudalism, believes himself entitled to all things and fills his life with empty, fugitive pleasures; on the other hand, Valentine longs to enrich his personality, and conceives of a harmoniously organized society based upon truth, honor and friendship, in which each person's conduct would be founded upon obedience to his own sincere inclinations. His generosity of soul compels any personal sacrifice for his ideal of friendship. His subsequent disillusionment drives him to revolt, ostracizing him from a society not yet ready for personal essay, his ideals. This comedy is a first attempt, although ineffectual, to affirm the rights of the unclassed individual. The effort failed because of Valentine's confusion and naivete.
Shakespeare is college a-g requirements still groping his way, feeling for firm ground. However, in his very neat play, Love's Labour's Lost, he poses one of the cardinal problems of the epoch by combatting the attempt of the aristocracy to appropriate humanism and turn it into to write my paper, a bubble of abstract hedonism. The King of college, Savarre and a few members of his retinue renounce human society and the love of women to ponder upon abstract philosophy. But a French princess, with her maids-in-waiting, arrives at the court, and all the sober intentions of these anchorites are scattered to the four winds; they fall in love. They continue to play the online degree in creative writing hypocrite, concealing their real feelings until Biron unmasks himself and his companions, when, in a magnificent monologue (IV, 3), he disclaims abstract philosophy and glorifies the force of a-g requirements, love, the fountain-head of all authentic wisdom. The antithetical character of these two aspects of humanism is manifested not only in the ideology, but also in assessment, the style. The conspirators against love express their philosophical vows euphemistically. After his metamorphosis Biron eschews such flourishes, and tells his beloved (V, 2) : And I will wish thee never more to dance, Nor never more in college, Russian habit wait. 0, never will I trust to speeches penn'd,
Nor to the motion of a school-boy's tongue; Nor never come in visard to my friend; Nor woo in rhyme, like a blind harper's song: Taffeta phrases, silken terms precise, Three pil'd hyperboles, spruce affectation, Figures pedantical; these summer-flies. Have blown me full of maggot ostentation; I do forswear them: and paper, I here protest, By this white glove,–now white the a-g requirements hand, God knows!–
Henceforth my wooing mind shall be express'd. In russet yeas, and honest kersey noes: In this play, Shakespeare refutes those who accuse him of sympathetically depicting the aristocracy by inspiration to write my paper voicing through Biron, his most positive character, his rejection of the aristocratic manner of life. There is also the dull and pedantic schoolmaster Holofernes, filled with the same bombast and rhetoric indulged in a-g requirements, by the titled and writing, florid aristocrats. In his case the medieval scholastic origin of a-g requirements, such bombast and essay, rhetoric is unconcealed.  Here, too, on a lower plane, is encountered a struggle between two styles and two world perspectives : Holofernes suffers a humiliating defeat at the hands of the clown, Costard, who possesses a healthy, realistic intellect. As You Like It is akin to the foregoing play, in that Shakespeare decries escapism as a philosophy. College A-g Requirements? The old Duke and his retinue live in a half-illusory world until Orlando, healthy, sober, optimistic, leads them back to everyday reality.
Most of the personal scenes are delicate, tranquil pastorals, the a-g requirements peace of which Shakespeare himself quickly dispels by opposing the coarse, natural, healthy desires of Audrey, William, and Touchstone to the euphemistic shepherdess, Phebe. Here again, Touchstone, the clown, a plebeian, is the exponent of common sense. Shakespeare quickly dispatches Jaques, the melancholy misanthrope, who is the implacable enemy of realism. Some of the critical interpretations of this character are astonishing. Brandes pronounces him to be the embodiment of Shakespeare himself, the mouthpiece of his dearest and most sacred thoughts, and Friche repeated his mistake, though from a different position. But is not Jaques, who, morose and sullen, remains alone in the forest when all the rest exultantly go back to a joyous life of reality, a negative, and at times, even a comical figure? Yet, just as Polonius, he was not deterred from holocaust paper questions, expressing true ideas or from college a-g requirements, evaluating certain realistic points of inspiration, view correctly and intelligently, Jaques is college introduced to repel the audience, who would thus apprehend the play's basic meaning and inspiration, direction. A Midsummer Night's Dream is the apotheosis of a free, self-determined love which transcends tradition, the ancient law of a-g requirements, Athens, and paternal authority. Schematically, the play is a masque.
Shakespeare does not destroy its form, as in the case of the pastoral in As You Like It, but uses another method. Assessment Essay? The formal, ancient mythology is supplanted by plebeian superstitions (fairies, the college mischievous Puck). Shakespeare instills vital emotion into the tenuous scheme of the online masters degree writing affected court masque. The last two plays in this group deserve special attention. The Merchant of Venice, although classified as a comedy, ought not, strictly speaking, to be so termed. The element of romantic intrigue plays a secondary role. The chief problem is of a broad, socio-moral nature. Out of two medieval legends Shakespeare created a profound play, in which two worlds are contrasted.
One, a world of joy, beauty, and friendship, is represented by Antonio and his friends, Portia, Nerissa and Jessica; the other, a world of rapaciousness, greed, and malice, is represented by a-g requirements Shylock, Tubal, and their servants. Research Questions? In the preceding comedies reconciliation was possible, evil could become good. In The Merchant of Venice, however, this is not so; the war between the two worlds is a war to the death. The conflict is not racial, as many critics contend, but social. Shylock tells us this in so many words (I, 3): How like a fawning publican he looks! I hate him for he is a Christian; then, immediately after: But more for that, in low simplicity, He lends out money qratis, and brings down.
The rate of usance here with us in Venice. In the same vein, he explains the character and causes of Antonio's hatred for Shylock: He hates our sacred nation; and he rails, Even there where merchants most do congregate, On me, my bargains, and my well-won thrift, Which he calls interest. Cursed be my tribe. If I forgive him! Thus the racial conflict is immediately superseded by a greater one; the class conflict. But what is the social basis of college a-g requirements, these two groups? Friche maintains that Antonio's world represents the feudal aristocracy, lavish squanderers who lived for pleasure only.
Shylock's world, on the other hand, represents the class which is about to supplant the other,.the bourgeoisie, calculating, niggardly, and merciless in its hatred for its enemy, the aristocracy. Fiche is incorrect. The social structure of the play is more complex, more subtle. Its title, The Merchant of Venice, does not refer to Shylock, as is generally assumed, but to Antonio. Personal Assessment? Antonio's class position as a practical and wealthy merchant is clearly stated at the beginning of the exposition (I, I), where Antonio's friend Gratiano, addresses him: You look not well, Signior Antonio;
You have too much respect upon the world: 'They lose it that do buy it with much care. Antonio immediately denies this. However, since these words are uttered by Gratiano, so intimate a friend of Antonio, we are justified in assuming that they properly reflect Antonio's activities. Nor does it follow that, because Bassanio ruined his business with his wasteful extravagance, he as an college idle, parasitical arisrocrat. The hard-working, efficient merchant who lived on marijuana essay a luxurious scale, spending his profits lavishly and head over heels in college, debt, was a typical figure of the Renaissance. Unquestionably, Antonio's whole circle, among whom there is not a single nobleman, belong to the patricians of the research Venetian merchant-class. It is a-g requirements of no consequence that the business activities of his friends, Lorenzo, Gratiano, Solanio, Salarnio, are not shown. Shylock does not represent the entire bourgeoisie, but only assessment essay, one of its elements; he is a money-lender. Usury was but one aspect of capital,  and met with moral and legal disapprobation The lawmakers tried to regulate money-lending; the moralists inveighed against college, it.
Even if Shakespeare did not differentiate between the two forms of capital, still, in Shylock, he depicted a representative of the least productive and most rapacious section of the bourgeoisie. In creating Shylock, Shakespeare was attacking the enemies of essay, humanism, the Puritans. As a perfect example of the wealthy merchant-adventurer, Antonio is college brave, enterprising, generous, and keyed to the love of life and esthetic ideals of the Renaissance. He understands Portia's words on mercy (IV, 1), as well as the touches of sweet harmony (V, 1), to which Shylock is deaf: The man that hath no music in himself,
Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds, Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and my paper, spoils; The motions of his spirit are dull as night, And his affections dark as Erebus: Let no such man be trusted. This is Jessica's justification for college, leaving her father for online masters in creative, Lorenzo. Friche claims that Shakespeare senses the inevitable victory of Shylock, the bourgeois, over Antonio, the a-g requirements feudal aristocrat. According to him, only such an assumption can explain Antonio's otherwise incomprehensible melancholy and the gloomy tone of the play.
But Antonio is not a feudal aristocrat; Shylock does not represent the bourgeoisie as a whole, and the tone of the play is not gloomy but exceptionally bright and joyous. Parents? Lest the audience misinterpret his intentions, Shakespeare adds a last act which contributes nothing to the plot, but which glorifies the new, beautiful, and joyous life about to college a-g requirements unfold before Shylock's opponents, after Antonio's victory. Shakespeare criticizes certain failings in the ruling class, hoping thus to strengthen its position. Even more significant is his approach to the race problem, so striking in the profundity of research, its humanism. The Jewish usurer was a character from the Italian novella, which served as Shakespeare's source for The Merchant of Venice. The racial and religious motivations of the college mutual hatred between Antonio and Shylock are replaced by the only true motivation, the social. As if to leave no doubt about his own view on the matter, Shakespeare introduces Shylock's famous monologue (III, l)–as fiery a plea for racial equality as can he found in literature: . He hath disgraced me and hindered me of half a million; laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies; and what's his reason?I am a Jew! hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? The efforts of some critics to defend their view that the play shows anti-Semitic tendencies, by their insistence that Shylock was envisaged as a comic character according to the old theatrical tradition, are untenable.
In the first place, Shylock is not a simple comic character like the clowns. Like Polonius, his personality is complex. In the second place, even the purely comic characters often express pertinent, profound ideas. The claim that, if the monologue be taken seriously, the unity of Shylock's personality is destroyed, because he causes the audience alternately to elements of a hate and to a-g requirements sympathize with him, is likewise untenable. Shakespeare's realistic art and of a five paragraph, his objectivity spring precisely from such complex figures and evaluations. In Othello he again surmounts the racial problem in the same inspired manner. In Twelfth Night, the last of the romantic comedies, Shakespeare again takes up the theme of love. At the same time, he treats the problem more openly than ever. Two types of a-g requirements, love are graphically contrasted. The play opens with the Duke, Orsino, languishing for assessment, the cruel beauty, the Countess Olivia; he seeks consolation in solitude and in melancholy song. He sends a messenger to Olivia, charging him to describe his love for her with all possible eloquence Shakespeare gently ridicules this doomed love, so typical of the feudal aristocracy, a love which leaves one completely unmoved.
As a contrast, Shakespeare depicts the college a-g requirements vital and online masters degree writing, realistic love of Viola for Orsino. Her love, which forms the basis of the play, calls forth the college a-g requirements warmest sympathy. Similarly vital and unaffected is Olivia's passion for Sebastian. All her aristocratic reserve is forgotten, she abandons herself to inspiration my paper the violence of her feeling. Orsino, on the other hand, remains a waxen figure, an elegant marionette in the aristocratic style, even after he is forced by circumstances to capitulate and to marry Viola. Yet he is a lover of a-g requirements, music, like most humanists; he is magnanimous and marijuana be legal essay, kind. Although Shakespeare is careful not to caricature or slander him, he exposes him as a slave of aristocratic etiquette, thus destroying any sympathy one might have for a-g requirements, him. Viola, on the other hand, is one of Shakespeare's most attractive women. Essays About And Children? Her moral firmness and initiative, combined with her feminine tenderness, her unswerving honesty in fulfilling obligations, endow her with that true humanist harmony which Shakespeare considered to college be the highest expression of dignity. The comedy also contains a group of characters who present a problem of the utmost social significance, expressed in assessment, a more pedestrian form than the love theme.
They are Sir Toby Belch, Olivia's uncle, and Sir Andrew Ague-cheek, his friend and imitator. In Shakespeare's time the title Sir was applied to a-g requirements a specific caste of the nobility–the knights. With the exception of the chronicles, which, because of their themes, necessitate the assessment essay presence of many noblemen, Shakespeare seldom uses this title in college a-g requirements, his comedies of manners. It is usually indicative of a swaggering or licentious person. Falstaff and the priest Hugh Evans, the bombastic and stupid pedant, in the Merry Wives of Windsor, are knights, but not Fenton, who is a positive character. In Twelfth Night, the two knights, who are always together throughout the play, fulfill a particular purpose. They represent the aristocratic parasite, feudal in nature. Their parasitism is greater than is indicated.
The fact that certain traits in a character are not demonstrated in the play does not, in Shakespeare, indicate the non-existence of such traits; they are implied. Research Paper? This is an important aspect of Shakespeare's art, as of all the humanist art of the Renaissance. The commercial activities of Antonio in The Merchant of Venice, and of the semi-bourgeois Page and college a-g requirements, Ford in The Merry Wives of of a, Windsor are not revealed in the plays. College A-g Requirements? Their speeches and conduct permit us, in fact compel us, to assume the existence of such activities. The parasitism of both Sir Toby and Sir Andrew, on marijuana should be legal essay the other hand, is shown with painstaking care. There exists, however, a basic difference between these two characters.
Sir Andrew is college a-g requirements despicable; Sir Toby is amusing and almost sympathetic. In contradistinction to the overbearing Sir Andrew, full of illusions about his dignity as a member of the nobility, Sir Toby is well aware of his own worthlessness, and deliberately reveals it. Shakespeare ironically rewards this degenerate noble for his honesty and wit by allowing him, a knight, to holocaust research marry Maria, his niece's plebeian servant. There is another interesting parallel. To retrieve his fortunes, Sir Andrew woos a rich bride, as Petruchio in The Taming of the Shrew, and Bassanio in The Merchant of Venice. While Petruchio's desire to retrieve his fortune by a wealthy marriage arises from a daring, enterprising, and progressive spirit, Sir Andrew's stems from a petty nobleman's attempt to cling to life. These are two perfect illustrations from Shakespeare of the fact that no evaluation of a situation or character can be made without considering the period and the social environment, as well as the personality of the character. The lower plane, always so important with Shakespeare, is college represented by essays about the pert Maria, the clever Clown, Fabian, and college a-g requirements, Malvolio. They do not carry on any independent action, except for the jest played on Malvolio, but serve as a rational background for paragraph essay, the main plot. Their presence lends it a healthy and concrete reality. The clever Clown and Maria, the merry liar, represent two aspects of Viola's character.
The three speak a common language, a language different from that used by Viola when conversing with Orsino or Olivia. Malvolio is in sharp contrast to the other members of the group. It has been suggested that he, like Shylock, was intended as a caricature of the a-g requirements Puritans. This is possible. The portrait, however, is assessment too indistinct. Essentially, Malvolio's function is to be the Duke's double on a-g requirements the lower plane. This is indicated, not so much by his attachment to Olivia as by his stilted and about and children, tedious punctiliousness.
Surrounded by his magnificent court, Orsino is convincingly brilliant. Malvolio is only distasteful and ridiculous. Orsino's oratorical and musical propensities represent the aristocracy's unsuccessful attempt to appropriate humanist culture. The ascetic pedantry of the plebeian Malvolio is inimical to humanism. The Comedy of Errors, first of the a-g requirements realistic comedies, is too unimportant for detailed analysis. The Merry Wives of Windsor will be discussed later, in connection with the analyses of the chronicles. The Taming of the Shrew is one of the foremost expositions of the new humanist morality, though apparently farcical, lacking in ideological content, and derived largely from the old anonymous play of the same title, from which Shakespeare borrowed not only the plot but whole sections. The spoiled, shrewish Katharina is transformed by her clever and adroit husband, Petruchio, into the ideal, well-behaved wife. Research Paper Questions? In the last act, the formerly submissive Bianca has become a peevish, capricious beauty, whereas Katharina has become the essence of meakness and affability.
Her famous monologue in the last act is so moralistic that it repels the audience. It is interesting that even in Shakespeare's time many resented the speech. Shortly after the appearance of The Taming of the college a-g requirements Shrew, Fletcher wrote The Woman's Prize, or, The Tamer Tamed, a play in which Katharina is avenged. When Katharina dies, Petruchio marries again; the second wife behaves towards him as earlier he had behaved towards Katharina. Shakespeare, however, found it necessary to present Katharina as a spoiled and ill-tempered woman from the elements of a five beginning of the play, According to her acquaintances, she was stark mad, intolerable curst and shrewd and froward . beyond all measure. There is no one mad enough to consider marrying her. No wonder Petruchio was forced to have recourse to a-g requirements such cruel measures in order to tame her! Had Shakespeare not presented Katharina in as unfavorable and repellent a light as possible, the basic idea of the play would have failed. But what is Katharina's real character? When her father tells Bianca's suitors that she cannot marry until her older sister finds a husband, Katharina, aware of the general attitude towards her, suffers from the to write humiliating position in which she has been placed (I,1): Kath: I pray you, sir, is it your will.
To make a stale of me amongst these mates? Hort: Mates, maid! how mean you that, no mates for you, Unless you were of gentler, milder mould. Kath: I' faith, sir, you shall never need to fear; I wis it is not half-way to her heart; But if it were, doubt not her care should be. To comb your noddle with a three-legg'd stool, And paint your face, and use you like a fool. Though sharp, Katharina's answer is but a dignified retort to Hortensio's crude cynicism She does not start the quarrel; she merely defends herself. Shakespeare, however, seems to feel that a woman has no right to answer a mans insolence with insolence and threat with threat. When Bianca hears her father's decision and begins to weep, Katharina says:
A pretty peat! it is best. Put finger in a-g requirements, the eye,–and she knew why. Katharina's contemptuous words fail to express her real sentiments: she is too upset. Bianca's conduct is a direct slur on Katherina's character; it represents her as an inhuman person, her sister's unhappiness. Thus far, Katharina has shown some sharpness, even some crudeness, but where has she shown pugnacity? Whe'e has she appeared as a spoiled and capricious child? In the second act Katharina is found beating Bianca, but even this is personal assessment essay justified (II, 1): Bianca: Good sister, wrong me not, nor wrong yourself, To make a bondmaid and a slave of me; That I disdain: but for college, these other gawds,
Unbind my hands, I'll pull them off myself, Yea, all my raiment, to my petticoat; Or what you will command me I will do, So well I know my duty to my elders. Is Bianca sincere or merely hypocritical? Neither; her last sentence simply indicates lack of personality. Since her psychology is that of a slave, she thinks that Katharina wants her ornaments. Of A Paragraph Essay? Bianca imputes only the lowest motives to Katharina; feelings of the college heart, individualism, are incomprehensible to her. Katharina is about and children neither covetous nor envious.
She is a-g requirements simply filled with the naive despair of a misunderstood human being who sees lavish praise and caresses showered upon holocaust paper, her sister–a soulless doll set up for her emulation. The audience's sympathy is with Katharina, who is neither intolerable curst nor shrewd and college a-g requirements, froward; she is merely fighting for the right of a woman to research paper questions be an individual. Petruchio makes up his mind to confuse her; compliments her on her daintiness and mildness which are praised in every town. Such mockery incenses Katharina and explains the sharpness of her tongue and her insults. College? When Petruchio announces (II, 1): we have 'greed so well together, That upon Sunday is the wedding-day. I'll see thee hang'd on Sunday first. But she meekly goes to the altar.
Her words are only a defense against arrogant interference, her darts are not sharper than Rosaline's in Love's Labour's Lost or Beatrice's in Much Ado About Nothing. Katharina, it is true, slaps Petruchio's face, which they would not have done. But neither would Biron or Benedick have behaved like Petruchio. The Taming of the Shrew is a farce; any of the characters could have been as rude as Katharina. This is the last of the untamed Katharina. How is the taming accomplished? Petruchio tames Katharina by humiliating and starving her. Where then, is the shrew? Here is only a woman fighting for her dignity and unreasonably insulted by her husband. Shakespeare borrowed the idea–the taming of a shrew–from an old play.
He kept the personal traditional theme, but negated the traditional ethics through his treatment of the central character, Katharina. His recondite ideas are more valuable and revealing than all the surface elaboration. The chronicle plays, of college, which there are nine, consist of the three parts of Henry VI (1590-1591), Richard III (1592), Richard II (1595), King John (1596), the two parts of Henry IV (1597), and Henry V (1598). It is more important to remember that Henry VI, Part I, was most likely an adaptation of an older play. The historical chronology of of a, their reigns is: King John, 1199-1216; Richard II, 1377-1399; Henry IV, 1399-1413; Henry V, 1413-1422; Henry VI, 1422-1461; Richard III, 1483-1485. Some critics insist that the sequence of a-g requirements, these plays is unimportant because Shakespeare conceived the entire cycle long before writing any of it. According to these critics, Shakespeare intended to present a philosophy of the dynastic history of England for essays about parents, a definite period. Moral retribution furnishes the basis of this philosophy. College? Even though Richard II was a bad king, his overthrow by essay Bolingbroke–the future Henry IV–was a great sin. The consequences were visited, not only upon the usurper, but upon the whole nation, afflicted with the college a-g requirements plague during the reign of Henry IV, and particularly upon his grandson, Henry VI, who appeared to carry within him the seeds of this hereditary sin. The House of York rose in revolt against the House of online masters degree, Lancaster and overcame it.
Edward IV's accession to the throne was also based on criminal usurpation. God's vengeance was, therefore, once more visited upon the people in the form of the tyrannical rule of the predatory and cruel Richard III, who had gained the throne by murdering the other members of the royal house. College A-g Requirements? Moral equilibrium was not restored until Henry VII, a Lancaster, married one of the princesses of the House of York, thus uniting the two warring houses. With his lawful occupation of the throne the morally pure dynasty of the five paragraph essay Tudors ushered in an era of national prosperity. A great deal of this is correct. It is true that Shakespeare held the overthrowing of a lawful ruler to college be a great evil, even when justified by circumstances. Nor can one quarrel with the thesis that Elizabeth's grandfather, Henry VII, is an idealized figure. The concept of inherited sin, however, is alien to Shakespeare. Other wise, he could not have depicted Henry V's reign so glamorously. The notion that the whole nation was doomed to assessment essay suffer for the sin of its monarch is even more alien to Shakespeare, who is too profound a realist to college subscribe to the metaphysics so characteristic of marijuana essay, feudalism. The belief that the whole historical cycle concerns itself with but the narrow problems of dynastic rule, and that this accounts for the unity of the subject-matter; is also untrue.
The unity of the cycle is limited to Shakespeare's approach to political events. Each of the chronicle plays retains, therefore, an college independent existence and significance. The distinctiveness of theme and action is carried out even in the compositional design. The alternation of epic, though disjointed, scenes in should be legal essay, Henry VI, the college a-g requirements abundance of colorful folk elements in Henry IV and Henry V, the concentration of action around the marijuana should protagonist in Richard III, are differences which belie the structural unity which these critics read into the cycle. In his chronicles, Shakespeare fully revealed his political philosophy –his attitude towards royal power and his understanding of the historical process. It is a mistake, however, to college a-g requirements attribute too much historio-graphical wisdom to Shakespeare, as some Soviet critics do. Since the study of socio-economic phenomena was almost nonexistent in his time, Shakespeare could not present a rounded historical conception of the epoch. However, he grasped certain basic factors and aspects of social phenomena, harmonizing them with the more specific historical traits derived from other sources, which were meager, confused, and elements five essay, biased. He wrote his historical cycle at a time when all the progressive forces of the land were–or at a-g requirements any rate, he thought were–united. Since such unity was then possible only under absolutism, the basic theme of the inspiration chronicles is the affirmation of absolute power.
But Shakespeare did not merely affirm absolutism; he also analyzed it its limitations, possibilities, and purpose–at once criticizing and championing it. Above all, Shakespeare recognized the necessity of a strong central power, which could be assured by a rigid succession to the throne. College A-g Requirements? The problem of succession was very crucial at that time, when the Wars of the inspiration my paper Roses and the unrest preceding Elizabeth's accession were still vivid in the minds of the people. Even during Elizabeth's reign the struggle for the throne continued, as exemplified by the activities of Mary, Queen of Scots, Essex, and others. In Italy, during this time the usurpation of power was as a rule instigated by the Progressive forces. A-g Requirements? In England, it was exactly the inspiration to write my paper opposite. The necessity for a rigid law of succession was a constant subject of controversy. King Lear was the first humanist English tragedy dedicated to college that problem.
Shakespeare had in mind the horrors of civil war attendant upon essay, the ancient British King Gorboduc's reckless division of his kingdom. The English bourgeoisie favored not only monarchism, but even absolutism, which still served their ends. This is the basic problem which occupied Shakespeare. This also explains the peculiar omissions in his works. In King John , for instance, there is no mention of the Magna Charta, the most important event of that epoch; this partial surrender of royal prerogative would have lowered the ruler's stature and defeated Shakespeare's purpose–the presentation of a strong monarch. His unhappy choice of King John as the subject was motivated by the attempt of this monarch–the first such effort in English history–to effect a separation between Church and State, an act of tremendous importance in the subsequent development of college a-g requirements, England. He regarded John Lackland as the predecessor of Henry VIII, who brought about the Reformation. Nevertheless, Shakespeare's objectivity compelled him to cite some of King John's negative traits–his questionable seizure of the crown, and the cruel punishment indicted upon masters degree writing, Prince Arthur, the lawful heir. King John assumes, therefore, a dual personality; the real hero of the play is not he, but Philip the college Bastard. Essays About And Children? Neither of college a-g requirements, these acts, however, reduces his stature as much as any reference to the Magna Charta would have done.
He is fighting for the cause of nationalism; Arthus is a protege of France, against whom it is about parents necessary to protect England's power. That, King John is strong enough to do. When first the French and then the English king try to persuade the citizens of Anglers to open the gates to the lawful sovereign (II, 1), they stubbornly refuse to college a-g requirements do so; they will have nothing to do with dynastic squabbles. Only after one of the pretenders has proven his strength will they bend the knee before him. This political wisdom of the bourgeoisie dominates the entire play.
Whether King John or King Philip has a legitimate claim to the throne of France is of as little importance as their moral defects; only the strength and assessment, unity of England matter. This idea is clearly formulated in college, the words of Philip the my paper Bastard, which end the play: . nought shall make us rue, If England to college itself do rest but true. The bourgeoisie, the to write petty and middle gentry, and the absolutists were united by their common struggle against the powerful feudal nobles. The chronicle plays leave no doubt as to college a-g requirements where Shakespeare's sympathies lay.
The powerful feudal nobles depicted by him–the Percys, Glendowers, Mortimers–are arrogant and refractory. Paragraph Essay? They are forever testing their strength against the king's and organizing rebellions and conspiracies. A-g Requirements? To Shakespeare, they were the research questions scourge of the land. He saw Henry IV's reign as an uninterrupted series of feudal uprisings, which were not accidental, but which resulted from the king's usurpation. Shakespeare, however, is presenting not the idea of moral retribution, of a higher, divine judgment, but a sober political concept. Bolingbroke's usurpation of the college a-g requirements throne set a precedent, thus showing the feudal nobles how they, too, could attain power. Masters? After he has seized the throne, they demand to a-g requirements be rewarded for their aid. When he refuses, they turn against him. They reason that, since Henry IV succeeded in overthrowing Richard II, they in turn can overthrow Henry.
This is the curse of the usurper. Hotspur's rebellion climaxes the struggle between the king and his vassals. Hotspur is a brave, fiery, tempestuous feudal lord who throws himself headlong into the strife and dies a hero. Personal? Fare thee well, great heart! exclaims Prince Henry as he kills him (Henry IV, Part I, V, 4). A-g Requirements? Shakespeare emphasizes Hotspur's greatness by contrasting it with the cowardice of Falstaff, who, feigning death, lies next to the fallen hero on the field. Shakespeare makes his conclusions more convincing by drawing a dangerous rebel in heroic proportions. Had Hotspur been weak and insignificant, Shakespeare's argument would have been won too easily. It is thus that Shakespeare fights his class enemies when he demonstrates his thesis–the objectivity of his approach constitutes his greatness. Of great significance are the online masters in creative factors which hastened Hotspur's death: the vacillation of his own father and college, uncle, and their pursuit of personal political ends, which are tantamount to betrayal. Personal Essay? The personal egotism of the feudal nobles, the lack of a-g requirements, cohesion of my paper, their forces at a time when only the greatest unity could have assured their victory, proved fatal.
Since, however, these traits are rooted in the very class nature of feudalism, Shakespeare clearly demonstrates that the nobles are doomed by the very attributes they are fighting to preserve. In Henry VI, Young Clifford is interested only in avenging his father's death; Somerset is a-g requirements constantly involved in my paper, political squabbles; Warwick alone is inspired by a hope for justice and desires to college fight for research, the nation's welfare. When, however, he succumbs to college a-g requirements his feeling of personal injury, betrays these principles and allies himself with his former enemies, he, too, perishes. A strong king, according to Shakespeare, is the greatest political blessing a nation can enjoy; a strong monarchy is a guarantee of national prosperity. Title alone does not make a king,–recall Richard II's hysterical discourse about his divine right as an anointed king (IV, 1)–he must justify that rank. Paper? A king should be strong, upright and wise; he must express the collective will of the college a-g requirements nation. Henry VI perishes because he is not such a king, but not before causing innumerable calamities.
Shakespeare did not say that such a king should be overthrown, but maintained that the overthrow of such a ruler was inevitable; nevertheless he repeatedly emphasized that the overthrow of a king was a great misfortune. The hopelessness of this dilemma is revealed in Shakespeare's selection of kings. King John at best is only tolerable; Henry IV is inadequate; Richard II, Henry VI, and Richard III are bad–only Henry V is a desirable king. The selection is still more illuminating when the rulers in his Roman tragedies and assessment essay, the kings in his historico-legendary plays are taken into account. Hamlet's father, and Duncan, had to be presented as good kings. They are, however, hardly more than mentioned. A-g Requirements? But what about assessment essay, Julius Caesar, Claudius, Macbeth, Lear, or even Antony? There are good king in some of Shakespeare's plays, but they are always legendary, never historical monarchs. A-g Requirements? They are the princes or dukes–the exact title does not matter; what does matter is that they are sovereign and absolute rulers. Elements Essay? The Comedy of a-g requirements, Errors, A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Romeo and Juliet, and Measure for five essay, Measure contain such good princes and college, dukes. They are wise and high-minded, settle all conflicts, and restore justice.
It is significant, however, that the term prince or duke, rather than the term King, is holocaust paper applied to a-g requirements them. The confused king in Much Ado About Nothing and the foolish king in Love's Labour's Lost are of no consequence. And Children? Henry V, however, is an exception. He embodies all of Shakespeare's optimistic hopes which were to college a-g requirements be realized by absolutism. Henry V refers to himself as the sun. Be Legal? When such an expression is not used ironically–and it is not so used in this play–it indicates Shakespeare's own evaluation. Henry V,which concludes the cycle of chronicle plays, is, therefore, best suited to an analysis of Shakespeare's concrete political depiction of bad kings. Henry V is shown as a sovereign who has completely crushed feudalism. The conspiracy of the feudal lords in the first act creates an college a-g requirements impression, not of the Precariousness of the king's position–as in Henry IV –but of absolute confidence and calm assurance. The same impression is created by the discussion of his pretensions to the French throne.
Instead of anxious fears of an inspiration to write unclear future, the exposition induces full confidence in the success of a mission that is a-g requirements just, while the triumphant note on which the play ends resounds with faith in a bright future, not to be found in any of the other chronicles. Henry's confident power is founded on the support of the masses. When, as Prince Henry, he tramped the roads and frequented the taverns in the company of Falstaff and his band (Henry IV), he came into close contact with the people. He continued this practice when he became king. On the be legal essay eve of a decisive battle (Henry V, IV, 1), he makes the rounds of the college a-g requirements English camp in disguise and chats with the officers and soldiers to discover their real thoughts and feelings. In essence, the tactic he employs is personal assessment essay no different from that used by his father, Bolingbroke, who, as he rode through the streets on his way to exile, dived into their hearts with humble and familiar courtesy, threw away reverence . on slaves, wooed poor craftsmen with the craft of college, smiles, doffed his bonnet to an oyster-wench (Richard II, I, 4). No wonder the people greeted Bolingbroke jubilantly on his victorious return. Holocaust Paper Questions? He replied to their greetings from a-g requirements, one side to the other turning, bareheaded, lower than his proud steed's neck (V, 2). Such is Shakespeare's conception of a positive king. Henry IV's son did not need to elements paragraph bow lower than his proud steed's neck; he could converse with the people in a friendly and natural fashion without loss of dignity.
The democratic composition of college, Henry's army is emphasized. It was no accident that Shakespeare introduced common soldiers and the lower officers. Nor did he do it simply for the sake of color and innocent comic effect. They are the base upon which rests the king's strength. Essay? Three centuries before the appearance of scientific history, Shakespeare, through his intuitive genius, knew that the Battle of Agincourt was not worn by a little group of college, well-born heroes, but by the English soldiers. The English yeomanry conquered the disintegrating feudal nobility of France. This is graphically demonstrated in the scenes which depict the English and French camps on the eve of battle (III, 6-7),–on the one hand is the of a essay vapid foppishness, the boasting, the badinage, in the French camp; on the other, the serious concentration, the honest concern, the feeling of great national responsibility which animates every English soldier. It is not so much a national, as a class contrast.  Henry appreciates his plebeian soldiers; because of a-g requirements, his silent approval, Fluellen makes short work of the insolent braggart Pistol, who had insulted him. Though not a feudal aristocrat, Pistol is at parents and children any rate a remnant of the dying feudal order (V, I).  Nor does the a-g requirements king confine himself to democratic sympathies; his very nature is profoundly democratic. In the last scene (V, 2), Henry, in telling the to write Drench princess of his feelings for her, emphasizes his plebeian moderation and simplicity, so different from the affectation of the court. College A-g Requirements? According to historical facts available in Shakespeare's time, Henry was not nearly so simple and crude as he presented him.
In this vivid, if exaggerated self-characterization, we find in a more developed and more socially rooted form that which Shakespeare previously revealed in Biron's monologue in Love's Labour's Lost: protestations against all affectation and empty aristocratic polish in personal assessment essay, the name of democratic simplicity, sincerity of feelings, and natural expression. Henry's speech puts him in the company of Fluellen and Williams. College A-g Requirements? This, according to Shakespeare's idea, makes him a people's king. Shakespeare's selection of soldiers is extremely interesting. Williams and inspiration to write, Bates are pure English, but Fluellen is Welsh; Macmorris, Irish; Jamy, Scotch. Here are the nationalities of the future Great Britain; they are depicted fighting side by side like brothers for the common good, for the future imperial state. This amazingly perspicacious picture Shakespeare painted at a-g requirements a time when Ireland, nominally under the rule of the English king, was in a state of essays about parents and children, constant insurrection, and when Scotland was still completely independent.
Henry V is Shakespeare's ideal king. A-g Requirements? Nevertheless, in spite of its felicitous conception, this play is among the weakest of Shakespeare's works. Critics unanimously proclaim it too discursive and unconvincing. Is it not possible that the play was a failure because Shakespeare had already begun to be tormented by personal doubts; because his attitude towards absolutism had already become ambiguous,–a state of mind which prevented him from mobilizing all his creative resources in its defense? Shakespeare's most brilliant play of this type is Richard III, an a-g requirements historical tragedy of inspiration, epic proportions.
Its distinguishing characteristics are the unity of its plot and college, the concentration of essays about and children, action around the leading character. Richard dominates the other characters. To know Richard, therefore, is to understand the thematic design of the play. The contradictions in Richard's nature have been pointed out by all Shakespearean scholars. They do not, however, disclose the social nature of these contradictions. According to them, Richard is a villain, a monster, a devil incarnate, who is, nevertheless, not devoid of college a-g requirements, a certain attraction, particularly in the final scenes of the online masters degree Battle of Bosworth Field.
In order to mate the transition from the psychological to a-g requirements the social antithesis, it is necessary to begin with the most positive basic constant in Richard's character, a constant which Shakespeare endows with immense human and social values. In intelligence, will-power, and even in valor, Richard excels everyone around him. He is elements paragraph essay a true hero in the style of college a-g requirements, Marlowe's Tamburlaine or Faust. In comparison, his antagonists, as well as his friends, are but pitiful pigmies. Research Paper? If, from the point of college, view of masters in creative, abstract morality, Richard is a villain, then who among the others is college a-g requirements beyond reproach?
Edward, the impotent voluptuary? The boastful and ambitious kinsmen of the queen: Rivers, Grey, Vaughan? Buckingham, the unprincipled careerist? The dull and stupid Hastings? Stanley, the hypocritical politician? Or Catesby, Richard's devoted slave?
The youthful princes slaughtered by Richard evoke pity, nothing more. Sympathy for Clarence is neutralized by research paper his apathy and stupidity. College A-g Requirements? The queens who hurl imprecations at Richard are not devoid of tragic grandeur. They are not, however, his personal antagonists, but the representation of Fate. Of the three, only inspiration to write, Margaret can match his mentality, but her spirit is broken. A-g Requirements? Even Richard's strongest opponent, the radiant Richmond, is unconvincing. His role in the play is that of the deus ex machina, who ends the feudal Wars of the my paper Roses. College? Richard towers over him as Hamlet over five essay, Fortinbras. The selection of college, characters is significant; it emphasizes Richard's true greatness.
This greatness is unceasingly demonstrated throughout the first four acts and reaches a climax in the fifth, when Richard's star begins to wane. He is revealed as a true hero, fighting against essays about, inexorable fate, and perishing in a burst of a-g requirements, tragic glory. Essays About And Children? Shakespeare, mighty master that he was, has few passages as forceful as the one in which Richard reveals the daring mind and will of a conqueror, as he challenges the decrepit feudal morality (V, 3): Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls; Conscience is but a word that cowards use, Devis'd at first to keep the strong in awe: Our strong arms be our conscience, swords our law.
Or the passage in which Richard calls his men to the battle which is to be fatal to him (V, 3) : Hark! I hear their drum. Fight, gentlemen of England! fight, bold yeomen! Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the head! Spur your proud horses hard, and ride in blood; Richard's greatness is more than an abstract psychological attribute; it is an expression of Shakespeare's social and a-g requirements, political thought. Richard represents the parents and children strong ruler, who firmly holds the reins of power and puts on end to college a-g requirements the intrigues and quarrels of the court cliques. One must not, however, overestimate Shakespeare's historical knowledge or his comprehension of historical events That Richard was a progressive sovereign who protected commerce and industry by concluding advantageous treaties and introducing improvements in shipbuilding, is never even indicated. The chronicles which served as source material shed but little light on these matters. It is possible that even if Shakespeare were aware of these events, he did not care to make use of them.
He was interested in only one central problem, the basic theme of all his chronicles: the affirmation of the principle of absolutism as the only power strong enough to suppress the anarchy of feudalism. It does not follow, as Levidov states in his Three Shakespeares, that Richard is Shakespeare's favorite protagonist, whom he pretended to vilify in order to placate the censors and the court. Richard III is not a political discourse written in the language of marijuana should essay, Aesop,–it is a great work of art. Having exalted Richard, Shakespeare judged and condemned him according to college his basic political belief. Richard is a scoundrel; such a man is assessment essay not fit to control the reins of state. Shakespeare, instead of suppressing, emphasizes this aspect, attributing crimes to Richard the latter never committed. This is more than mere moralizing, more than mere humanism; sentimentality is college a-g requirements alien to Shakespeare,–when necessary he is stern and courageous.
Hamlet slays the masters degree objectionable but innocuous Polonius as he would kill a rat, and Romeo does not for a moment hesitate to kill the college a-g requirements harmless Paris. Holocaust Research? Friar Lawrence's speech in Romeo and Juliet is the key to many of Shakespeare's ideas (II, 3): For naught so vile that on the earth doth live. But to the earth some special good doth give; Nor aught so good but, strain'd from that fair use, Revolts from true birth, stumbling on abuse; Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied; And vice sometimes by action dignified. Shakespeare's condemnation of Richard indicates a definite political view.
Power, based on villainy, violence, and college a-g requirements, usurpation, undermines its own roots. Like Bolingbroke (Henry IV), Richard combats feudalism and attains absolute power by means which give rise to anarchy and strengthen the forces of about parents and children, feudal reaction. The violation of the tradition of succession to the throne, so dear to the heart of Hastings, is of no importance; in Shakespeare's day, changes in the law of succession were constantly being formulated and a-g requirements, accepted. Shakespeare was not opposed to such changes. Bolingbroke had at inspiration my paper least maintained his usurpation through the support of the masses, whose hearts he succeeded in winning, but Richard was forced to rely on his mercenaries and on a-g requirements those lords who were attached to him for reasons of essays about, their own. Immediately after his seizure of the throne, Richard's allies demand an accounting. New revolts, new wars are imminent. it is college a-g requirements fortunate for England that Richard's conqueror is Richmond, Elizabeth's grandfather. To Write? Richard falters for lack of a-g requirements, support. He merits his fate, –none of his actions had been dictated by concern for the welfare of the nation, but were all products of his boundless ambition and egoism. Falstaff, who makes his first appearance in Henry IV, is mentioned in Henry V, and is resurrected in The Merry Wives of Windsor, is a figure of great social significance. Holocaust Research Paper? Much has been written about his social import.
The majority of bourgeois critics agree that Falstaff is college a parody on the degenerate feudal nobility, the embodiment of all their vices–boastfulness, swashbuckling, drunkenness, libertinism. This evaluation is paper correct but not complete. It needs amplification, in order to explain Falstaff's vitality and inimitable appeal. Falstaff is of feudal origin. He is a-g requirements forever swearing, he tries to parents and children dazzle the bourgeois Mistress Ford with his title; throughout, he makes use of feudal terms and ideas.
His celebrated band–Nym, Poins, Bardolph–to whom he paid no wages, but who served him as vassals for college, a share in chance booty, is an amusing burlesque on the retainers of the medieval lord. He is not, however, the feudal lord of the old order, but an opportunist who has adapted himself to the spirit of the times and assimilated all the worst habits of primary accumulation; in short, he represents, on paragraph essay a lower and comic plane, the a-g requirements feudal lord for whom money became the power of all powers. This degenerate and declassed feudal knight has freed himself from all the marijuana should illusions of college a-g requirements, his class. When, alluding to his mighty exploit on the highway, he says (Henry IV, Part I, I, 2): . let us be Diana's foresters, gentlemen of the shade, he is cynically ridiculing all the feudal conceptions of chivalry. Even more revealing in his discourse on knightly honor (Henry IV, Part J, V, 1), which, while reminiscent of Shylock's speech about Jews and Christians, undoubtedly contains Shakespeare's own ideas on the subject:  . Essays Parents And Children? how if honour prick me off when I come on? how then? Can honour set-to a leg? no: or an arm? no: or take away the grief of a wound? no.
Honour hath no still in surgery, then? no. What is honour? a word. What is in that word, honour. What is that honour? air. a trim reckoning!–Who hath it? he that died o' Wednesday, Doth he feel it? no. Doth he hear it? no. Is it insensible, then? yea, to the dead. But will it not live with the living? no.
Why? detraction will not suffer it:–therefore I'll none of it: honour is a mere scutcheon: and so ends my catechism. Falstaff could so successfully adapt himself because of the similarity of the activities of the feudal knights and the profit knights of primary accumulation. The former, protected by their castles, plundered on the highways; the latter on the sea and in a-g requirements, the colonies. When these knights and essays parents, conquistadors of high rank indulged in a-g requirements, such plundering, it assumed imposing, even heroic proportions; with Falstaff, it becomes merely sordid thievery. He sinks to such a level that he is kept by the mistress of a tavern.
His end is masters well known; like refuse, he is thrown into college, the Thames, in personal essay, a hamper of dirty clothes. In spite of the hilarious adaptation of Sir John Falstaff to the spirit of the times, he never loses completely his feudal nature. Like the landowning nobility of the sixteenth century, the masters of the sheep-walks and college a-g requirements, enclosures, he too, on a lesser and comic plane, has but superficially acquired a new quality. His class nature has not changed; he is a thorough parasite. His world perspective is not that of the Renaissance. He is no humanist, no daring individualist, he is not even the passionate anarchist of Marlowe's plays; he is only a cynic. He has lost the principles of the past and become imbued with the spirit of negation, retaining however, his lusty desire for life and pleasure.
Why, then, does he attract us? Because he is his own accuser, exposing and my paper, ridiculing himself through both word and deed. His cynicism thus becomes a moral attribute. Falstaff is clever and astute. His laughter spares no one, not even the king. He is witty, and a butt for college, others. Because of his shrewdness, and inspiration, humorous self-exposure, Shakespeare tempers his judgment of him. Thus, Shakespeare varies his attack on feudalism, but retains his usual objectivity; because his victim is a-g requirements so petty and unimportant, he resorts to buffoonery. Since he does not desire too easy a victory, he endows Falstaff with a measure of virtue; he judges and degree, condemns him in spite of it.
One major idea runs through all Shakespeare's chronicle plays: the a-g requirements problem of state power. Perhaps even more significant is the face that they also contain, in undeveloped, though clearly evidenced form, the philosophy of the historical process. As emphasized by Marx and Engels, the social background in Shakespeare is not a mere detail of the plot, as the bourgeois critics conceive it to to write my paper be. On the contrary, the social background is the causal explanation of the plot. Since scientific learning was practically nonexistent in Shakespeare's day–not even Bacon had fully succeeded in laying its foundations–Shakespeare's persistent though unformed striving to discover causal explanations of the historical process were remarkable.
The insistence of bourgeois Shakespearean scholars that the action in his plays is determined solely by the individual will and energy of the protagonists, is completely untenable. Only the traditional conventions of dramatic technique could create the illusion that individual initiative and heroism determine the outcome of battles, conspiracies, and so forth. The protagonists of the plays personify the power of the mass rather than of the individual. This is vividly illustrated in college a-g requirements, Henry V, where the elegant and weak feudal lords of France are overwhelmed by essays parents and children the English soldiers and college, lower officers at the Battle of Agincourt. An even more striking example is to be found in Troilus and Cressida (V, 8), when Achilles, after ordering his bodyguard to kill Hector, boasts of his brilliant victory. The chronicle plays of Shakespeare are permeated with the idea of the inevitability of the historical process: evil inevitability, Richard II calls it.
There are many references to essay the times and the spirit of the a-g requirements times. Should? The Earl of Westmoreland (Henry IV, Part II, IV, 1) replies to the accusation of the rebellious feudal nobles with: O, my good Lord Mowbray, Construe the times to their necessities, And you shall say indeed, it is the time, And not the king, that doth you injuries. In like manner does the rebel Hastings defend his behavior (Henry IV, PArt II, I, 3) We are time's subjects, and college, time bids be gone. The role played by individual temperament and personality in shaping the course of events is not minimized, but the individual is helpless to cope with the force of inspiration to write, circumstances. This is shown by Warwick, when he comments on the Earl of Northumberland's treason (Henry IV, Part II, III, 1):
There is a history in all men's lives, Figuring the nature of the times deceas'd; The which observ'd, a man may prophesy, With a near aim, of the main chance of things. As yet not come to college life. In explaining the transformation of the king's character, the Archbishop in Henry V (I, I) says: . Essays And Children? miracles are ceas'd; And therefore we must needs admit the means. How things are perfected. Shakespeare not only states his thesis of the causal conditioning of historical events, but demonstrates it through all the means at his command. A-g Requirements? One of his chief means is the holocaust research social background.
In Henry IV, the scenes in which Falstaff appears; in Henry V, the scenes in the camp; and in a-g requirements, Richard III, the holocaust research questions scenes of Richard's proclamation as king, depict the life which is the a-g requirements foundation from which spring major political events. A similar background is to be found in the Roman tragedies and the historico-legendary plays, not explicitly, but implicitly, in the pointed and expressive allusions of the inspiration characters. This is especially true of Hamlet, Othello, and particularly Coriolanus. Finally, this social background is also present in the comedies, where it is usually to be found on the lower plane, above all in the speeches of the jesters. Shakespeare, the greatest of all individualists, wrote not the individual but the social biographies of his protagonists. Three other plays also belong to the first period: the tragedies Titus Andronicus (1593), Romeo and Juliet (1594), and Julius Caesar (1599). The first is too unimportant to merit much attention, especially since its authorship is disputed. The second, however, deserves consideration. The social aspect of the love theme in college a-g requirements, Romeo and Juliet is masters degree in creative writing more obvious than in college, Shakespeare's other comedies.
Here it becomes the inspiration my paper struggle of the new man of the Renaissance against the feudal order. This struggle takes the college a-g requirements form of a demand for freedom in love and opposition to antiquated moral traditions. The fact that the type of hereditary family feud, exemplified by the Montagues and Capulets, dates from research questions, pre-feudal times is of little consequence, since feudalism adopted, even perfected the institution of the blood feud. Nor is it of any greater importance that the college a-g requirements two families involved are not members of the degree feudal aristocracy. They are bourgeois patricians, rather than members of the new bourgeoisie of the a-g requirements epoch of primary accumulation, thoroughly medieval urban philistines permeated by feudal ideas. The struggle of the lovers against their social environment is the struggle of bourgeois humanism against feudalism, the should essay Renaissance against the Middle Ages. To make the situation clearer, Shakespeare introduces a number of secondary characters who indirectly bring into relief the class nature of the college chief actors and the conflicting class forces.
The bold and dynamic Mercutio, Romeo's closest friend, is contrasted with the gloomy guardian of family honor, Tybalt, the true feudal noble. Juliet's suitor, Count Paris, also represents feudalism. He woos Juliet through her father, not taking the trouble to inform himself about her feelings. Handsome and punctilious, he is as dull and lifeless as Orsino in Twelfth Night, a wax figure, as he is characterized by the coarse, but astute Nurse. He is a Count; his title is holocaust research paper questions no accidental attribute.
With the exception of the chronicle, Shakespeare seldom introduces titled people; he has even fewer Counts than Knights. Count Paris is an aristocrat in every sense of the word. The reactionary Capulet's strong liking for him reveals their class orientation. Friar Lawrence, on the other hand, who assists the lovers in their struggle against the old world, is an college a-g requirements amazing character. A churchman in name only, he is marijuana should both scholar and philosopher, a stranger to all ecclesiastical bigotry, a true pantheist. He stems directly from Saint Francis of college, Assisi, the most progressive force of holocaust paper questions, medieval Christianity, and college a-g requirements, Giordano Bruno, who was burned at the stake for inspiration to write, his bold opinions. He is one of Shakespeare's most progressive characters. The social background against which the conflict is projected is broadly developed; every stage is shown. The two old men, Montague and college, Capulet, are secretly oppressed by the burden of the long family feud, which they permit to smoulder from inertia, but there are always young hot-heads such as Tybalt to inflame it anew. Romeo and Juliet are the elements five paragraph essay victims of this feud, but in death they are victorious. The play ends with an affirmation of the new life; over the bodies of the lovers, the two families are at last reconciled.
This reconciliation is expressed by the Prince, the absolute ruler, the college a-g requirements exponent of the new morality. The struggle against feudal aristocracy is also shown by the language and style of the play. When Romeo is in love with Rosaline he sighs languorously and his speech abounds in affectation. After meeting Juliet, he is completely transformed. Unlike Biron, he does not indulge in penitent discourses, but briefly and firmly renounce his former infatuation. Marijuana Be Legal? From that moment his language is as passionate and unaffected as are his actions. Julius Caesar was written at the end of the first period, when absolutism in England was beginning to show clear signs of deterioration. The court had become a centre of college a-g requirements, intrigue and favoritism; feudal reaction once more became a threat, while the bourgeoisie, together with the leading ranks of the new nobility, began to essays be imbued with greater and greater antagonism towards monarchical power.. Shakespeare was keenly aware of this, and his ideal of the college a-g requirements absolute monarch, typified by Henry V, becomes tarnished; this awareness is shown in Julius Caesar, with its concept of tyranny. It was customary in Shakespeare's day to interpret Roman history in the light of contemporary England; hence, the idealization of Julius Caesar as a strong and glorious monarch in English literature more than ten years before Shakespeare's tragedy.
In his earlier plays, Shakespeare himself presented this point of view on elements of a paragraph essay more than one occasion, notably in Henry VI, Part III (V, 5), where the assassination of Caesar is stigmatized as the greatest of crimes. In Julius Caesar, however, he adopted a radically different attitude. Plutarch, from whom Shakespeare drew the material for his tragedy, was to a great extent responsible for this transformation. The Roman biographer presented Caesar, with all his human weaknesses, as an ambitious egoist who attained power through clever political maneuvering; Brutus, as a true hero, the college a-g requirements defender of my paper, liberty, whose sole aim was to free the people from the yoke of a tyrant. Shakespeare took over this attitude in college, his play. Assessment Essay? Like Plutarch, he completely disregarded both the progressive, democratic character of Caesar's activities, and the reactionary tendencies of Brutus, the aristocrat-republican.
Shakespeare concentrated on college a-g requirements the problem of power and a ruler's responsibility to the people. Caesar lacks this sense of responsibility. He is another Richard III, an egoist, who, drunk with power, cares only for his crown.  Though he did not fail to emphasize Caesar's positive traits, his courage and be legal essay, colossal will-power, Shakespeare unhesitatingly condemned him, as he had condemned Richard III. Brutus is, on college a-g requirements the contrary, idealized. Shakespeare disregards all the moral defects pointed out by Plutarch: his greediness (he charged forty per cent interest on inspiration to write his loans), his hypocrisy (he accepted many favors and posts of honor from Caesar), and college a-g requirements, his cruelty to prisoners of war.
Shakespeare emphasizes only his passionate patriotism, his heroic struggle for freedom. And yet Brutus depresses us. The tone of the play is more despairing than the gloomiest of Shakespeare's tragedies Brutus perished because the masses, carried away by the demagogic eloquence of Antony, denied him their support. A great deal has been written about Shakespeare's portrayal of the masses. Bourgeois scholars are unanimous in their opinion that Shakespeare despised and hated the personal essay masses, that he depicted them as a dart, dangerous, unstable force. A-g Requirements? These scholars have not troubled to probe Shakespeare's attitude towards the people, nor to essays about parents and children question the reasons for such an attitude. As the ideologist of the rising bourgeoisie in the epoch of primary accumulation, an epoch of relentless conflict between the nascent capitalism and the peasant masses it was exploiting Shakespeare might conceivably not have been too tenderly inclined towards the college a-g requirements masses. A contemptuous attitude towards the rabble is common to all the humanists, the aristocracy of intellect; to Chaucer, the founder of English humanism; even to the two most democratic contemporaries of Shakespeare, Heywood and Dekker. It was the feudal lords of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who made the people's misery an issue in their struggle against absolutism. Marx characterizes the feudal socialism of the first half of the nineteenth century as follows:
The aristocracy, in essays about parents and children, order to rally the people to them, waved the proletarian almsbag in front for a banner. But the people, as often as it joined them, saw on their hind-quarters the old feudal coats-of-arms, and deserted with loud and irreverent laughter.  It is an old tactic, which dates from the beginning of the struggle between the nobility and the bourgeoisie. It is no accident that a sympathetic depiction of the people is often found in the most aristocratic of Shakespeare's contemporaries, Beaumont and Fletcher. Nevertheless, Shakespeare loved the a-g requirements people, loved them without sentimentality, without shedding crocodile tears over them, with a vital and healthy love. Nowhere in his plays can one find any prejudices against the people, any preconceived contempt, any ridicule or slander. Solicitude for the welfare of the people, he considers to essay be one of the first duties of a king. His plays, particularly his chronicles, are filled with such expressions as good citizens, good yeomen, and so on.
The plebeian jesters, servants, or simple peasants are often the exponents of common sense and a-g requirements, moral truth; they expose the hypocrisy and affectations of their noble masters. Several times, he makes the people be the judge of the great ones of this world, and pronounce sentence on them. When Richard III, the usurper, is pronounced king, the people are expressively silent; these same people are jubilant when, in elements of a five paragraph, Richard II, Bolingbroke triumphantly ascends the throne. In Hamlet, Claudius admits that Hamlet is lov'd by the multitude. At the same time, Shakespeare points out the people's political immaturity, their fickleness, their lack of independent thought or action, their credulity. College? All this was true of the English people of of a five, his time. The Cade Rebellion of 1450 was, from the point of a-g requirements, view of the development of capitalism, a reactionary movement; and a whole series of peasant uprisings in the sixteenth century were inspired by the Catholic clergy, who used them to and children gain their reactionary ends, and by the feudal lords who were dissatisfied with the absolutist regime. This is how the rebellious masses are depicted by Shakespeare. That is a-g requirements why Hamlet, who is so lov'd by marijuana be legal the multitude does not seek the help of the undependable, immature masses, who, under the influence of demagogic agitators, are ready to follow anyone, even Laertes, who is a-g requirements completely useless to them. Shakespeare's second period included the tragedies, Hamlet (1601), Othello (1604), King Lear (1605), Macbeth (1605), Antony and Cleopatra (1606), Coriolanus (1607), Timon of Athens (l607); and the comedies Troilus and personal essay, Cressida (1601), All's Well That Ends Well (1602), Measure for Measure (1604), and Pericles  (1608). These comedies differ from the buoyant, romantic comedies of his first period.
They lack his joyous love for a-g requirements, the beautiful forms of life, and his light, playful humor. Instead, there is such an overtone of tragedy that the term drama would be more suitable, especially when applied to Measure for Measure. We have previously attempted to explain this metamorphosis in Shakespeare's creative genius. The last years of parents, Elizabeth's reign and the first years of the reign of James I were marked by a grave political cleavage,'which caused a spiritual conflict in Shakespeare. His philosophy became tragic, but not gloomy, nor despondently pessimistic. Despite the a-g requirements austerity of marijuana be legal, his tragedies, they almost always end on a note of a-g requirements, a courageous, heroic affirmation of life. Of A? According to Shakespeare, the value of life is in heroic struggle, even if this struggle ends in college, defeat. Hamlet, which begins the series of Shakespeare's tragedies, is the most difficult to assessment essay analyze.
The idealist criticism or the nineteenth century, influenced by Goethe, claimed the basic idea in the tragedy to college be the conflict between Hamlet's thought and will, in which he appears as the victim of the dominance of thought over will, a martyr to reflection, incapable of realistic action. This idea, however, is utterly false. It sprang from nineteenth century German petty-bourgeois thought, which strove to inspiration comprehend and justify its political and spiritual impotence. A-g Requirements? Actually, Hamlet is assessment capable of action to the highest degree, even of heroic action, as evidenced by the episode of his sea-journey, and by the series of daring deeds performed in the palace. The idea of conflict between thought and action was alien to the artists of the Renaissance, and particularly to Shakespeare, who could not conceive of thought as divorced from action. What, then, prevents Hamlet from a-g requirements, avenging his father's murder? Some critics claim that Hamlet's postponment of the killing of Claudius, the online in creative usurper, was logically motivated–for instance, Hamlet's reluctance to murder Claudius while praying, lest his soul should enter heaven–and that a five act play, without such delays, would not have been possible. But it is not so much his hesitation, as the tone which Hamlet adopts when he speaks of his revenge, that proves him lacking in will-power. No conflict, however, exists between his thought and will.
He is horrified by college a-g requirements the crime, by to write his mother's inconstancy in marrying the usurper, ere those shoes were old, and by the rampant hypocrisy and debauchery of the college a-g requirements entire court, even of elements five paragraph essay, his beloved Ophelia,–a debauchery and hypocrisy which he attributes to the world at large. It never occurs to him to college take revenge as an act of personal justice. Firstly, because his father is dear to him, not only research paper, as a father, but as an image of beauty, a great man as well as a great monarch, especially in comparison with the insignificant and morally warped Claudius. Secondly, because Hamlet views this private crime only as an indication of the general corruption of the age, of universal and irreparable evil. College? Under such circumstances, personal revenge is futile. Personal Assessment? He therefore overcomes his narrow, subjective tendency to become a merciless judge of his epoch. It undoubtedly grieves Hamlet to break with Ophelia, but he does not lament, and ostensibly seems unaffected as he drowns this pain in a much greater pain for all humanity. What type of action could and should such thought produce? Only one, inner renunciation and departure from this world. This he succeeds in college, accomplishing.
For Hamlet, the heir to the throne, a man of passionate, energetic nature, with an inherent capacity for appreciating the full joy and beauty of life, this is an act of tremendous strength. The traditional idea of marijuana, ancestral revenge, an idea existing in society before social classes, and which later became one of the bases of the feudal world outlook, is minimized and almost utterly discarded in the tragedy. Hamlet is 'not entirely free from the idea of revenge, but he has lost the urgent impulse for it. He is essentially a man of the new age–a humanist. As proof of this, Shakespeare introduces the theme of ancestral revenge on two occasions; once in connection with Laertes, and again with Fortinbras. In both instances, their reactions are utterly different from college, those of holocaust, Hamlet. College? When Laertes learns of his father's death, he behaves like a feudal lord, bursting into the palace with armed men to demand an answer from the king. Fortinbras, on the contrary, has no belief in the efficacy of ancestral revenge.
Like a skillful man of business and a diplomat, he uses it merely as an research questions excuse for political advancement. He is a thorough representative of primary accumulation. Hamlet stands midway between these two men. In the process of becoming a new man, a humanist, he frees himself only with difficulty from the old feudal outlook. He becomes a rounded humanist, while Fortinbras remains a mere talented opportunist. Hamlet suffers because he is far in advance of his time. He is tormented by his passivity. What underlies the great disillusionment and sorrow that Shakespeare expressed through Hamlet, and college, which he himself unquestionably experienced at this time? It is possible to interpret this attitude of Shakespeare's in terms of the decay of absolutism around 1600. The degeneracy of the English court stood out in sharp relief. Shakespeare depicted it with unusual depth, transferring the to write scene of action to Denmark.
He portrays various degrees of college a-g requirements, pettiness and vulgarity,–the corrupt agents of the King, Rosencrantz and to write, Guildenstern; the empty-headed and obsequious Osric; the shrewd but foolish Polonius. Polonius is of particular importance because he is not merely a feudal noble like Osric, but one with a new quality. Many traits reveal the aristocrat who has adapted himself to primary accumulation, and has become partly bourgeois–sagacious, and a-g requirements, solicitous for his family. His son and daughter are equally practical and calculating, although, quite naturally, they also have feudal characteristics. Typical of this are Ophelia's blind obedience to her father and Laertes' violent rage when he revenges the death of personal assessment, Polonius. A-g Requirements? In depicting the family of Polonius, Shakespeare severely criticizes the gentry, which, without changing its feudal nature, acquired the elements five paragraph essay worst habits of the epoch of primary accumulation. To what, then, should Hamlet cling? The practical philistinism of the bourgeoisie disgusts him. He has no faith in the masses, seeing only their instability and political immaturity; he is college surrounded by a tragic emptiness. Were he an egocentric, he would have seized the crown, led a secluded life, and found epicurean consolation in the society of his friends. Hamlet, the holocaust humanist, can exist only by comprehending and accepting the world–hence the college a-g requirements hopelessness of his plight.
But all these psychological motivations are but concrete personal reactions to the general socio-historical conditions. Court debauchery and the disintegration of absolutism are only the immediate clauses of Hamlet's deeply rooted pessimism. The epoch in which Shakespeare lived saw the rise of the bourgeoisie, which has pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his natural superiors, and research, has left no other bond between man and man than naked self-interest and callous cash payment. It has drowned the college a-g requirements most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervour, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in of a five paragraph, the icy water of egotistical calculation. The bourgeoisie has stripped of its halo every occupation hitherto honoured and looked up to with reverent awe. The bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation.  All this happened later, but the beginnings of a-g requirements, this gigantic moral cataclysm existed in Shakespeare's time and he reflected it with exceptional clarity and depth (Falstaff, Edmund in King Lear , Timon).
The old morality was collapsing and Shakespeare was among the first to undermine it. No new morality had as pet been substituted, and the one being formulated by Shakespeare's class, Puritan morality with all its class limitations, repelled him. He therefore attempted to create a new morality based upon the great ideas and problems advanced by parents the humanist bourgeoisie of the Renaissance, which, in turn, had been derived from all the social classes except the a-g requirements ruling feudal class. The bourgeoisie did not carry out its promises at that time nor later. Immediately after its first victories, its class limitations and contradictions forced it to change; instead of universal truth, it advocated philistine hypocrisy; instead of universal freedom, the enslavement of the lower classes. Even at that time, when the bourgeoisie was in elements of a essay, its infancy, its best representatives, the great humanists of the Renaissance, felt the inevitability of this betrayal. They sensed the discrepancy between the a-g requirements magnitude of the elements of a five paragraph essay problems which their class had undertaken to solve, and the possibility of putting their solutions into effect. Hence, the greatest creations of a-g requirements, Michelangelo reflect angry grief, the canvases of Leonardo da Vinci, sad smiles, and Shakespeare's Hamlet is filled with worldly sorrow. Hamlet, i.e. Shakespeare, saw the break which had already started in essays parents, the old world of feudal morality; he did not bewail it. On the contrary, he exerted all his efforts to destroy the old world outlook.
In his monologue to a-g requirements be or not to be he reaches the personal assessment highest point of a-g requirements, skepticism possible at that time. Even Marlowe did not permit himself such frankness. Hamlet's reasoning –that your worm is your only online degree, real emperor for diet, that your fat icing and your lean beggar is but variable service, two dishes, but to one table (IV, 3), and that Alexander of Macedonia returned into dust; the dust is earth; of earth we make loam; and college a-g requirements, why of essays and children, that loam whereto he was converted might they not stop a beer-barrel? (V, l)–destroys the college a-g requirements idea of feudal monarchy in particular, and the entire feudal dogma of class hierarchy in general. Then are our beggars bodies, and our monarchs and outstretched heroes the beggars' shadows, says Hamlet to paper Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (II, 2). The toe of the peasant comes so near the heel of the courtier, he galls his kibe, says Hamlet to the grave-digger (V, l)–hinting at agrarian revolt. This is said with sarcasm but not at the peasants' expense. Hamlet's personality, behavior, and manner of speech betray not the slightest mark of affectation despite his sentimentality. He is anti-feudal, humanist, democratic. He does not mourn the old world.
But, like the a-g requirements best minds of his time, he shudders at the sight; shudders because he does not see a new world that will satisfy him. Caught between the corruption of the court, the vulgarity of the growing bourgeoisie, and the masses in whom he has no belief, there is only one outlet for my paper, him: the half-pretended madness and college a-g requirements, apathetic action by which he accidentally brings about his futile revenge before he himself perishes. Personal? Thus, Hamlet yields to the healthier and less exacting Fortinbras. This mirrors the crisis of humanism. Although Hamlet is college deeply pessimistic, it cannot be said to reflect Shakespeare's world perspective. The characters of his other plays are equally representative of his ideas. In Othello, Coriolanus, and Prospero, Shakespeare continues his ideological struggle.
Hamlet's pessimism is transitory and does not reveal Shakespeare's striving for his still nebulous ideals and for his love of life, which, in my paper, itself, is a-g requirements a fundamental basis of optimism. In Othello, Shakespeare returns to love as a theme. The first act echoes the theme of marijuana, Romeo and Juliet, a love which struggles with a hostile social environment representative of the feudal conception of the home. But in college a-g requirements, Othello, love conquers immediately and its victory is the greater because it is attained despite the most tenacious of prejudices, that of race. The concept of Othello as a Moor was borrowed from the holocaust research Italian novella. However, Shakespeare did not mechanically reproduce this racial motif.
Brabantio is dismayed at a-g requirements his daughter's desire to marry a dark-skinned person. Iago, in attempting to strike Othello's most vulnerable spot in should be legal essay, order to inflame his jealousy, never permits him to forget the color of his skin: She will compare your appearance to the appearance of her magpies (III, 3). Iago's efforts are unavailing; Desdemona loves Othello despite his race and color. In their tragic passion, the racial problem as such does not exist, nor does it influence the Doge's attitude towards Othello. Shakespeare solves the race problem in a more radical fashion than in the Merchant of Venice. In the latter, only one monologue, which is not even an integral part of the play, treats the problem whereas in Othello, the theme is treated in full.
Othello is college a-g requirements a thorough representative of the masters degree writing new age. The fact that the play hints Othello is of royal descent is unimportant. College? This is but an empty decoration that serves no thematic function. Othello is essentially an individual without family or country, an alien, a Moor, who, through sheer personal virtue and valor, riser to higher positions and respectability. Othello and essays and children, Desdemona are not united by parental will, nor.by elemental passion, as are Romeo and Juliet, but by mutual understanding and friendship–the highest form of a-g requirements, human love. This explains the parents nature of Othello's jealousy. It is not the wounded honor of a nobleman, nor is it the college a-g requirements proprietary attitude of a philistine husband, whose rights have been invaded.
It is personal essay rather a feeling of outrage at the violation of the implicit trust and college, mutual confidence that had united Othello and Desdemona. It is Desdemona's falseness that overwhelms Othello. His jealousy is of the personal assessment same texture as his love. The love that unites Othello and a-g requirements, Desdemona can withstand all tests only in a congenial environment and not in one morally and ideologically hostile. To Shakespeare, the tragic struggle does not bear an abstract psychological character, but is based upon a class conflict. Such is the nature of all Shakespeare's tragedies. Othello and Desdemona are surrounded by Roderigo, Cassio and Iago. Roderigo is a noble who disposes of his estate, pockets the gold, and follows the young Desdemona to Cyprus, hoping to cuckold her Moorish husband. He bears Desdemona no real love but merely desires to boast of his new conquest. He represents the degenerating, vapid, feudal gentry. In the development of the essays about tragedy Roderigo plays a necessary role; he is part of the college a-g requirements social background.
Cassio resembles him in many respects. Aristocratic, handsome, superbly educated–a real Florentine–he reminds one of Paris in Romeo and Juliet. More wasted and slovenly than the latter, he gets drunk easily, and is inordinately fond of marijuana essay, prostitutes. The drama really revolves around the plebeian Iago, clever, energetic, talented, but without honor or conscience. College A-g Requirements? In Iago many Shakespearean scholars have seen evil incarnate, the offspring of the devil in medieval miracle plays. Inspiration To Write My Paper? This is not the case.
Shakespeare was concerned with more important problems than the depiction of abstract grotesque. Iago is not the embodiment of the medieval Christian devil, but of the predatory, cynical philistine merchant of the period of primary accumulation, rage's philosophy is expressed by the phrase, put money in thy purse, advice which he continually imparts to Roderigo, and by the idea that the end justifies the means. This is the thesis of moral relativism and nihilism, or, as it was then called in England, Machiavellism, which was one of the college a-g requirements chief doctrines of the epoch. Othello, on the other hand, is the exponent of an opposite point of view–the humanist. He believes in about and children, goodness and college a-g requirements, truth, and demands absolute moral standards, determined by the individual conscience of man. From this springs his credulity, of which Iago takes advantage. The empty-headed Cassio, because of inspiration to write my paper, his noble birth, good manners, and influence in high places, is college a-g requirements elevated over the head of the talented plebeian, Iago. Iago revenges himself, not on Cassio, but on his commander Othello, who has denied him the position. Revenge, arising from should be legal essay, concrete, personal antagonism, develops into a struggle of college, two world outlooks, corresponding to two conflicting ideologies within the same class.
Othello perishes in this struggle, perishes at that moment when his trust in Iago conquers his faith in Desdemona. His murder of Desdemona marks the climax of this struggle; but as soon as Othello realizes that his jealousy was groundless, he transcends the of a five paragraph deed and regains his faith. By killing himself, he affirms the integrity of this faith and thus vanquishes the relativist, Iago. College A-g Requirements? Othello has overcome the hopeless gloom of Hamlet. In King Lear, Shakespeare returns to his favorite theme, the problem of research paper, royal and state power, but this time expounds his meaning clearly. Lear is absorbed in the illusion of kingship even more than the half-mad Richard II. He divorces it from its material attributes, envisaging his power as all privileges and no responsibilities. Therefore, during his lifetime, he apportions his kingdom–as a feudal landowner apportions his estate–to his daughters, reserving to college himself certain intangible rights. He is the perfect type of feudal king. Feudal symbols, feudal formulas, are everything to inspiration my paper him. He demands from college a-g requirements, his daughters not vital expressions of sincere feeling, but only ceremonial phrases expressing the love and devotion of a vassal.
He Insists upon a retinue of a hundred knights as prerogative and symbol of his sovereign power. The two older daughters embody the same feudal ideals, with, however, these additional traits, so typical of primary accumulation-perfidy, cruelty, greed, ruthlessness. Since these traits were as typical of feudalism, Regan and my paper, Goneril, like Falstaff, mark the transition. Cordelia, on the contrary, expresses the new era. She is a humanist, who knows only college, one law, the law of truth and simplicity. About? On hearing her sisters' protestation of love, she says (I, I): Then poor Cordelia!
And yet not so, since I am sure my love's. More ponderous than my tongue. When her turn comes, she replies simply to her father: I love your majesty according to my bond; nor more nor less. Lear: So young, and so untender? Cordelia: So young, my lord, and a-g requirements, true. Lear, outraged, disowns her. Later, Lear's delusions are dispelled. He undergoes great suffering, but through this he is regenerated. Having endured need and privation, he begins to understand a great deal of what had hitherto been incomprehensible, and to regard his power, life, and mankind in a different light (III, 4): Poor naked wretches, wheresoe'er you are,
That hide the assessment essay pelting of this pitiless storm, How shall your houseless heads and unfed sides, Your loop'd and window'd raggedness, defend you. From seasons such as these? 0, I have ta'en. Too little care of this! Take physic, pomp;
Expose thyself to feel what wretches feel, That thou mayst shake the superflux to a-g requirements them, And show the heavens more just. He begins to sense the monstrous injustice of the five feudal-aristocratic system, that system which he had unthinkingly upheld (IV, 6): Through tatter'd clothes small vices do appear;
Robes and furr'd gowns hide all. Plate sin with gold, And the strong lance of college a-g requirements, justice hurtless breaks; Arm it in rags, a pigmy's straw doth pierce it. Here and elsewhere Lear merely repeats that which his jester, who symbolizes the elements of a five paragraph wisdom and expresses the moral of the play, expounds in his bitterly sarcastic song (III, 2): When nobles are their tailors' tutors; No heretics burn'd, but wenches' suitors; When every case in law is college right; No squire in marijuana should, debt, nor no poor knight; When slanders do not live in tongues;
Nor cutpurses come not to throngs; When usurers tell their gold i' the college field; And bawds and paper, whores do churches build;– Then shall the realm of Albion. Come to great confusion: Then comes the time, who lives to see't, That going shall be us'd with feet. But is college a-g requirements there no character in the tragedy who exemplifies an active force,–it is difficult to consider Cordelia as such–free from the online masters degree in creative feudal illusions of Lear, and in that sense, distinct from a-g requirements, him? Goneril and Regan appear to be such characters. Holocaust Research? But, to a-g requirements an even greater degree, this is true of Edmund, the son of Gloster. Edmund negates all the most heavenly ecstasies, and all the feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations.
The quotations from the marijuana essay Communist Manifesto, previously cited in reference to Hamlet, are even more applicable to Edmund. Edmund destroys his brother through calumny, dooms his father to horrible torments, successively deceives Goneril and Regan, in his designs on the throne. Clever, crafty, energetic, he plays his game so skillfully, that were it not for the fact that disaster overtakes one of his agents, Goneril's steward, and for the foresight of college a-g requirements, Albany, his intrigues would have been completely successful. Personal Assessment? He is even more machiavellian than Iago, because there is some concrete justification–the insult he has received–for the college a-g requirements latter's malice and cruelty. Personal Assessment? Only cupidity and ambition guide Edmund. He is more contemptible than Richard III, for, though courageous, he lacks heroic glamour. Shakespeare depicts Edmund as the plundering aristocrat, who follows the worst practices of primary accumulation. Goneril, Regan and college a-g requirements, Edmund–here is a new generation rising to about parents replace the old; a new force, no less ruthless than the old and dying one. Are there, then, no progressive characters in the drama?
Besides Kent, who is a minor figure, and the unfortunate Gloster, there are Cordelia and Edgar. With but poorly delineated class characteristics, they are portrayed in purely human terms. They, too, are the young generation, but are profoundly humanist in the Shakespearean meaning of the word. Even if Cordelia is defeated, there remains Edgar, whom Albany invests with the royal power. Hope for a better future is not lost. In Macbeth, Shakespeare once more fakes up the problem of royal power and usurpation. Macbeth is, in a way, another Richard III, but more profoundly conceived. The tragedy develops rather in the consciousness of its chief character than in their outward actions. Like Richard and Bolingbroke, Macbeth, with his bloody usurpation, paves the college a-g requirements way for a counter-usurpation. But, unlike Richard and Bolingbroke, Macbeth is aware from the very beginning of the consequences attendant upon his action.
Even before killing Duncan he states the iron law (I, 7): We still have judgment here; that we but teach. Bloody instructions, which being taught return. To plague the inventor: This even-handed justice. Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice. To our own lips. After the crime and his seizure of the throne, long before there are any indications of revolt, Macbeth, recognizing the inexorability of this iron law, begins to prepare his defenses by new murders and acts of violence, which only serve to hasten the inspiration to write my paper inevitable counter-action. It may be said, that having created the necessary conditions for counter-usurpation, Macbeth also supplied the college a-g requirements immediate provocation.
In Richard III, some accident or other can always be adduced to explain any event–his enemies might have been frightened by Richard and might not have given him battle; Richmond might have been defeated; or, for that matter, there might have been no Richmond at all. In Macbeth similar alternatives are impossible. Macbeth himself creates his Richmond. If not Malcolm, it would have been Donalbain; if not Donalbain, any other lord. No fear, except in the early scenes, or shadow of masters degree writing, remorse is to be discerned in college, Macbeth and holocaust research, his wife.
This is purely a struggle of college a-g requirements, active forces, developed in Macbeth's consciousness, which psychically reflect that which must inevitably transpire in the socio-historical arena. This transference of the basic action to should the psychic plane explains the prevalence of the supernatural in the tragedy. Shakespearean scholars have pointed out that, at the time of the a-g requirements writing of essay, Macbeth, belief in spirits and witches was extremely widespread in England, even in the most cultivated circles of society. Shakespeare does not employ the college supernatural in Macbeth as the creation of a deranged imagination. This is essay true, and it is college possible that even Shakespeare, notwithstanding his enlightened mind, believed a little in the existence of spirits and witches. Vestiges of medieval superstitions are to about parents be encountered in college, the works of the most brilliant scholars and philosophers of the Renaissance, and even in the works of Bacon, the of a essay creator of English materialism. Nevertheless, this bears no relation to Shakespeare's or Bacon's art and thought. For Shakespeare, the college artist, the supernatural has no objective existence and no independent meaning, as for Calderon, nor does it even appear as a primary motivating force. As background and allegory, it serves only to emphasize the realistic elements which are the basic content of his plays. In Macbeth, which is utilized by some critics in their attempt to prove Shakespeare a symbolist and mystic, the supernatural as such is completely negated by the transference of the basic action to the psychic plane.
The conversations of Macbeth with the witches and phantoms, like the famous dialogue of Ivan Karamazov with the devil, are but the inner dialectical struggle of research paper, Macbeth with himself. This struggle is projected on the supernatural plane, just as the socio-historical events arising from Macbeth's concrete actions are projected on the spiritual plane. The lofty tragic pathos of this drama, one of the most profound and mature of Shakespeare's plays, has misled critics into college, emphasizing its gloominess. Such emphasis is correct insofar as it refers to inspiration to write the basic theme and situation. But on the periphery of the tragedy there move figures who relieve the gloom and prevent our accepting Macbeth as a picture of universal vileness. The chief protagonists, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, are surrounded by wholesome, energetic individuals: Duncan, Malcolm, Donalbain, Macduff, Siward. College? Macbeth and his wife are a canker on the body of a society which, in contrast to that of Hamlet or Lear, is completely healthy. The optimistic tone of the tragedy asserts itself especially in the figure of Malcolm. Fortinbras, who somewhat attenuates the pessimism of Hamlet, or Edgar, who partially dispels the marijuana essay gloom in King Lear, are vaguely outlined in their relationship to society.
Malcolm's social relation, on the other hand, is fully revealed in a-g requirements, the scene in holocaust research, which he and Macduff sound each other out before uniting against Macbeth (IV, 3). Malcolm, pretending he is unfit for a-g requirements, the crown, mentions his fondness for assessment essay, women and college a-g requirements, his cupidity. Macduff is disturbed but is willing to holocaust questions overlook these defects. When, however, Malcolm announces that he is devoid of justice, verity, temperance, stableness, Macduff recoils from him; he is placated only when he realizes that Malcolm has been subjecting him to a test. The advent of such a king augurs a beneficent reign. In Antony and a-g requirements, Cleopatra, we find in assessment essay, developed form the impact of two worlds: the old feudal and the new absolutist.
The first is college a-g requirements embodied in Antony, the second in Octavius. Antony is a ruler of the old type, devoid of responsibility to the people and to himself. As ruler, he exults in paper, his power, gained and held through sheer force and valor, subordinating it to his selfish, hedonistic desires. These desires find expression in Cleopatra, for whom he is ready to sacrifice everything. At the decisive moment, when his fate hangs in the balance, although fully aware that only on land could he hope for victory, he elects to fight at sea, so that he may be near Cleopatra, who was reluctant to forsake her ship.
Shakespeare definitely debased Plutarch's portrayal of Cleopatra. He does not show the college subtle mind of the rare Egyptian, her elegance of wit, her art in handling people; he presents only inspiration to write, her physical charms, and the dangerous capriciousness of her moods. He debases the portrait of Cleopatra, but consciously and knowingly, pursuing a profound artistic conception. He wanted to show that Antony was motivated by blind sensuality and frenzied passion, rather than by the lofty, humanist love which generally characterizes such ideologically positive forces as Romeo, Othello, and a-g requirements, others. This sensuality was a basic defect in Antony's nature, which, if not provoked by Cleopatra, would have been aroused by mother woman. Shakespeare endows Antony with spiritual strength, nobleness and charm, exalting him to such an elements of a essay extent that the majority of a-g requirements, critics have concluded that he was one of the dramatist's favorite heroes. They reason, contrasting him with the dull and dry Octavius, that Shakespeare ennobles Antony and mourns the ruin of the beautiful world symbolized by Antony, which was being superseded by the new world of the prosaic man of affairs, Octavius.
They forget the assessment essay Antony in Julius Caesar who is an attractive adventurer of gigantic breadth, an egoist pursuing narrow personal aims with no regard for his country and no sense of responsibility. College A-g Requirements? Even more important is the to write my paper fact that they overlook Shakespeare's favorite method,–not to debase, not to caricature, but to elevate, to show objectively those forces which he exposes and judges, thus adding strength and cogency to college a-g requirements his portrayal of great class conflicts. At the end of the sixteenth century, feudalism, as exemplified by Antony, was far from that decay which it later suffered. But it had already received crushing blows, although the my paper force which was to extirpate it was as yet inchoate. College A-g Requirements? This was the first act of essays parents and children, that great historical tragedy of a-g requirements, which Marx writes: So long as the assessment essay ancien regime as the existing world order struggled with a nascent world, historical error was on its side, but not personal perversity. Its downfall was therefore tragic.  To convey this tragedy, Shakespeare ennobles Antony and does not invest Octavius with many attractive dualities, because by this time the dismal side of absolutism had already been disclosed to college a-g requirements Shakespeare, as had the rising philistine capitalist culture.
Shakespeare's moral perspicacity, wisdom, and objectivity, are here in evidence. He perceived the tragic greatness of masters degree in creative writing, Antony, perhaps pitied him as he pitied the perishing Lear, but his world perspective prevented any regret at college a-g requirements the passing of the reign of the Lears and the Antonys. Unusually important for an understanding of Shakespeare's moral and Political views is the tragedy Coriolanus, which, unfortunately, has been subject to most erroneous interpretations by holocaust research both bourgeois (G. Brandes) and college a-g requirements, Soviet (V. N. Friche) critics. Brandesin particular, with his untenable thesis about Shakespeare's aristocracy, his esthete's detestation of the rabble, and about parents and children, the stupid and college a-g requirements, stinking masses, wrongly identifies Shakespeare with Coriolanus. Coriolanus is online writing a man of the Renaissance: an heroic individualist, consumed by college a-g requirements boundless ambition and a lust for battle. Unlike the adventurers of the sixteenth century, or Richard III, he is essays and children not amoral; he is honorable, noble, generous. Truth, his highest law, compels him to shun indignantly his hypocritical and cowardly brother patricians, adherents of a compromising and college, double-dealing policy, whose sole aim was to betray the plebeians. The mother of inspiration to write, Coriolanus, the worthy matron Volumnia, fully approves this tactic of the patricians. In the a-g requirements scene where all those close to Coriolanus plead with him to humble himself hypocritically and to flatter the people, not only in order to insure his election as consul, but also to exonerate himself from essays about parents and children, a terrible accusation (III, 2), Volumnia counsels her son, I would have had you put your power well on, before you had worn it out.
But Coriolanus does not wish to a-g requirements lie and dissemble. Just as he betrayed all his stubborn haughtiness and contempt for the plebeians before (II, 3), so does he now disdain to of a five essay defend himself, preferring instead a direct attack, knowing full well that this invites ruin, yet unable to renounce native honesty and straightforwardness. He denounces the jesuitic tactics of the patricians in college, the most unsparing terms (III, 1): Mangles true judgment, Mangles true judgment, and bereaves the of a paragraph essay state. Of that integrity which should become't; And later, when the patricians and his mother persuade him to a-g requirements make a humble apology to the people, he exclaims (III, 2): Lest I surcease to honour mine own truth, And by essays parents and children my body's action teach my mind. A most inherent baseness. But he is not guilty of this baseness.
Like Hamlet, Cordelia, and Othello, Coriolanus knows only one law, the law of honour and truth, and in this he is at one with Shakespeare. This does not mean, however, that Shakespeare agrees with Coriolanus in his fierce hatred of the people and college a-g requirements, the betrayal of his country which this implies thereby. The whole play contradicts such a conception. To the unprejudiced reader, the Roman plebeians are portrayed in the tragedy with rare sympathy, and, moreover, with a profound understanding of their socio-historical position. Of course, the plebeians are not yet politically mature, nor are they distinguished for military prowess, but, in their struggles with the patricians, Shakespeare's sympathies are all on their side. As if to preclude any possible misunderstanding,-which nevertheless arose–in the very first lines of the inspiration play, which are as significant as the last, Shakespeare has the plebeians express their demands fully, in such a way that his own attitude towards them remains clear until the end.
One of them exclaims (I, I) : One word, good citizens. But another interrupts him: We are accounted poor citizens; the patricians good. What authority surfeits on would relieve us: if they would yield us but the superfluity, while it were wholesome, we might guess they relieved us humanely; but they think we are too dear: the leanness that afflicts us, the object of our misery, is an inventory to particularize their abundance; our sufferance is a gain to them.–Let us revenge this with our pikes ere we become rakes: for the gods know I speak this in hunger for bread, not in thirst for revenge. One can find no hypocrisy in such words, and the poet who can write them must be in a-g requirements, sympathy with them.
The force and character of expression here are approached only by Shylock's monologue (III, 1), and by my paper the words of the disillusioned Lear (IV, 6): Through tatter'd clothes small vices do appear; Robes and a-g requirements, furr'd gowns hide all. Neither in this nor in any other scene in Coriolanus is there the should faintest indication of hypocrisy, greed, or baseness on the part of the plebeians. How does Shakespeare show the attitude of the patricians to the plebeians? Menenius recounts the college fable of the stomach and the head (I, 1). Does Shakespeare agree? Menenius assures the plebeians:
The gods, not the patricians make it; and. Your knees to them, not arms, must help. You are transported by calamity. Thither where more attends you; and you slander. The helms o' the online masters in creative writing state, who care for you like fathers, When you curse them as enemies.
To which one of the a-g requirements citizens answers: Care for us! True indeed! they ne'er cared for us yet. Suffer us to famish, and their storehouses crammed with grain: make edicts for usury, to support usurers; repeal daily any wholesome act established against the rich; and provide more piercing statutes daily, to chain up and restrain the poor. If the wars eat us not up, they will; and there's all the love they bear us. He who so precisely explained that the aim of the patricians is only to betray the people could not possibly agree with Menenius that the gods, not the patricians, are responsible for want and misery. Coriolanus, however, sincerely believes that the demands of the plebeians arise solely from their rebellious nature. He is afflicted with social blindness, which, although it does not prevent him from being subjectively noble and ethical, is my paper responsible for his crimes against society, such as treason. That the followers of a-g requirements, Brandes are misled in their belief that Shakespeare justified and condoned such a crime, is amply proven by his series of chronicles, in which he emphasizes healthy patriotism and unselfish devotion to national unity as the highest attribute of king and citizen. This is be legal clearly seen in Volumnia's speech to her son, when he is college a-g requirements about to attack his native city (V, 3):
Making the mother, wife, and child to see. Me The son, the husband, and the father tearing. His country's bowels out. Whose chronicle thus writ,–The means was noble, But with his last attempt he wip'd it out; Destroy'd his country; and his name remains. To the ensuing age abhorr'd. Coriolanus persists in his blindness; if he finally gives in to his mother's supplications, he does so only because of compassion for her rather than because of elements of a five paragraph essay, patriotic impulse.
The blind, anarchistic Coriolanus is motivated by personal, not social, considerations; Shakespeare therefore, condemns him unequivocally, despite his magnitude. Coriolanus is college a-g requirements one of Shakespeare's gloomiest tragedies. It reflects his profound disillusionment with absolutism, the court, the state officials, and the upper classes, as is evidenced by the total absence of masters degree in creative writing, positive characters drawn from the privileged classes. Collectively, the plebeians constitute the only positive force in the play. Their political immaturity, however, disturbs Shakespeare, because they are still extremely credulous, simple-minded and inconstant. Shakespeare expresses this (I, 1) at the appearance of Menenius Agrippa, the most dangerous enemy of the people; a citizen announces (I, i): Worthy Menenius Agrippa, one that hath always loved the people. And another hastens to corroborate him:
He's one honest enough; would all the rest were so! The people allow themselves to be dazzled by the exploits of Coriolanus and trustingly give him their votes. There is, however, a tremendous difference between Shakespeare's depiction of the masses in Henry IV, Part 2 (1591), or even in Julius Caesar (1599), and Coriolanus (1607). In fifteen years Shakespeare's political ideology had advanced as much as had the class consciousness of the English masses. The last of Shakespeare's tragedies, Timon of Athens, is artistically one of his weakest plays; the college characters are not clearly delineated and their emotional transitions are too abrupt. For these reasons its authenticity has been frequently doubted. This assumption is groundless; around 1609 Shakespeare passed through a crisis, brought on by disappointment with the social reality of parents and children, his time, a crisis which undoubtedly marred his creative genius. Coriolanus was Shakespeare's last great tragedy. Nevertheless, in Timon of Athens there are moments of power.
In addition, it expresses Shakespeare's world perspective forcefully and fully. He exposes the very basis of primary accumulation: the corrupting influence of money, which debases all human relations, and a-g requirements, which, in the words of Marx, transforms all categories into their opposites. The thrusts at the power of money, against the spirit of cupidity, which kill all noble motives in masters writing, man, are so numerous in Shakespeare's works that it would be impossible to cite them all at college this time. For instance, the familiar example from Romeo and Juliet (V, 1), when Romeo buys poison from the apothecary: There is of a essay thy gold; worse poison to men's souls, Doing more murders in this loathsome world . I sell thee poison, thou hast sold me none.
Shakespeare is not alone in this position. It is also held by all the great humanists of the epoch, the ideologists of the bourgeoisie, who critically revealed the great evils which their class inflicted upon the world. No humanist, however, expressed so powerfully the evil force of college a-g requirements, money as did Shakespeare, and nowhere can it be found so explicitly proclaimed as in the celebrated monologue in Timon of degree, Athens (IV, 3). College A-g Requirements?  In Antony and Cleopatra Shakespeare condemns the dying world of feudalism; in Coriolanus, the aristocracy who tried to adapt themselves to the new historical conditions without surrendering their class nature; in Timon of Athens, the holocaust questions bourgeoisie, already sufficiently mature to discard their humanist cloak, to reveal all their class limitations, and to enter the struggle for power openly. Timon is a bourgeois, free from aristocratic traces, but a bourgeois of the a-g requirements type of the old merchant class so admired by Shakespeare. He is another Antonio, receptive to the touches of sweet harmony, noble, generous, and ready to make any sacrifice for to write my paper, his friends. But the era of generosity and nobleness has come to an end. The people surrounding Timon, his friends of yesterday, members of his class, all prove ungrateful, greedy and venal, hastily abandoning their wounded comrade. While Shakespeare does not mourn the death of the feudal world, he laments the passing of the world of the idealized bourgeois Timon, the college shattering of the about and children humanist dreams of his youth. The decade separating Timon of Athens from The Merchant of Venice was rich in political events and college a-g requirements, class upheavals; the bourgeoisie advanced toward the decisive struggle for power with feudalism, but with each of paper questions, these steps, it narrowed its ideological scope and renounced the humanist standards it had set up.
Shakespeare was driven to portray the ruination of the bourgeois superman. College A-g Requirements? Hence the research paper questions misanthropic gloom of his last tragedy. However, Shakespeare express only a part of his thought in Timon of Athens; the tragedy is college a-g requirements not entirely pessimistic. Through the mouths of sober characters such as Apemantus, Alcibiades, and inspiration my paper, the Fool, he criticizes the prodigal generosity and college a-g requirements, credulity of marijuana should be legal, Timon. and later, his similarly unrestrained hatred of mankind. College A-g Requirements? There are several positive characters in the play: Timon's faithful servants, the Fool, and, to a certain extent, the thieves, representative of the marijuana essay lower plane; and, on a-g requirements the other hand, Alcibiades, who has risen to a high position by virtue of his talent. Shakespeare curbed his own despair; he could not renounce life or abandon his struggle for research questions, an ideal. In comparison with these seven monumental tragedies, the three comedies written in this same period have little significance, although not lacking in profundity. Most complex of all is college a-g requirements Troilus and Cressida, since it is not clear when Shakespeare wrote this motley and contradictory play. Should Be Legal? It is very probable that the love scenes, which are similar to a-g requirements those in marijuana should, Romeo and Juliet, were written around 1602, and that around 1609 Shakespeare radically revised the play, adding the story of Achilles and Hector. The years 1602 and college a-g requirements, 1609 mark the darkest moments of Shakespeare's pessimism- -Hamlet and marijuana be legal, Coriolanus. In the comedy All's Well That Ends Well, one of Shakespeare's basic ideas is brought forth in a-g requirements, its most developed and lucid form–equality and personal merit as the inspiration to write my paper only criterion of man's nobility.
Shakespeare expresses this thought without ambiguity, putting it in the mouth of the King, a progressive absolute monarch, a recalcitrant enemy of feudal traditions. He chides Bertram, Count of college a-g requirements, Rousillon, the boastful aristocrat, who fears to besmirch his family honor by marrying a woman of the people, in a monologue (II, 3), which brings to mind Shylock's words about the human rights of Jews and the speeches of the plebeians in Coriolanus about honor: 'Tis only title thou disdain'st in her, I can build up. Strange is personal assessment essay it that our bloods, Of colour, weight, and heat, pour'd all together, Would quite confound distinction, yet stand off. in differences so mighty. From lowest place when virtuous things proceed,
The place is dignified by the doer's deed: Where great additions swell 's, and virtue none, It is a dropsied honour: good alone. Is good without a name; vileness is so: The property by what is it should go.
Not by the title. Earlier in the play he drew the figure of the deal lord, using as his model Bertram's late father (I, 2): . who were below him. He us'd as creatures of college a-g requirements, another place; And bow'd his eminent top to their low ranks, Making them proud of online masters degree in creative, his humility, In their poor praise he humbled. He also champions the a-g requirements equality of the sexes, showing the superiority of the clever, enterprising, and deeply human Helena over the worthless, insipid Bertram.
The ideology in Measure for elements of a five essay, Measure is just as clear as that in All's Well That Ends Well. It is a defense of humanist morality in contrast to the hedonistic amoralism of the degenerate nobility and the narrow-minded bourgeois morality of the Puritans, whose severity in the extermination of vice engendered new vices. Lucio, and, to a lesser extent, Claudio, represent the college a-g requirements degenerate nobility; Angelo, the Puritan tradition, and Isabella, humanist morality. Like Portia, she protests against the literal interpretation of the law, and pleads for elements of a, mercy (II, 2): Well, believe this, No ceremony that to great ones 'longs, Not the king's crown nor the deputed sword, The marshal's truncheon nor the lodge's robe, Become them with one half so good a grace. An even stronger exponent of this morality is Vicentio, Duke of Vienna. College? He is marijuana be legal a progressive, absolute ruler, like the Dukes and a-g requirements, Kings in A Midsummer Night's Dream, All's Well That Ends Well, and in other plays.
His political activities, however, are more fully depicted. This tragi-comedy shows better than any of Shakespeare's plays the internal problems of absolute monarchy, as is disclosed when Vicentio deplores his ignorance of the life of inspiration my paper, his subjects, criticizes himself, realizes his responsibilities, and seeks better ways of governing the college a-g requirements people (I, 1, 4). Shakespeare also presents the social background–his subjects commenting on the character of Vicentio and on current political events; the dregs of humanity; young profligates of the court; procurers; corrupt constables; swindlers. Similar scenes are to should be legal essay be found in Whetstone's play, Promos and Cassandra (1578), from which Shakespeare derived some of the basic material for e In Whetstone's drama, however, they were inserted as comic interludes; in Shakespeare, they are an integral part of the root action, in that they serve to motivate Claudio's crime, Angelo's moral defection, and all Vicentio's political acts. Vicentio, like Prince Henry, mingles with the people in order the better to understand them. A-g Requirements? Thus, the moral problem of the individual develops into a social problem. If we except Pericles, the marijuana be legal essay authorship of which is extremely doubtful, Shakespeare wrote only three plays during his last period: Cymbeline (1609), The Winter's Tale (1610), and The Tempest (1611). Only a few of the scenes in Henry VIII were written by Shakespeare. He may also have been the author of some of the scenes in a-g requirements, The Two Noble Kinsmen; if so, this was his last effort. This was the period of Shakespeare's compromise and partial capitulation. Online Masters Degree Writing? The presentation of problems is less vivid, the college emotional and ideological conflicts less strong.
Themes, which during the inspiration to write my paper first and second periods were presented in the light of heroic struggle against a-g requirements, a broad social background, have now lost some of their former vigor and color. Such, for instance, is the theme of Cymbeline. The love of personal assessment, Posthumus for Imogen is a-g requirements but a faint echo of Romeo and Juliet; Iachimo is but a lesser Iago; and marijuana should be legal essay, the Queen but a feeble Lady Macbeth. We find in The Winter's Tale the theme but not the tragedy of Othello, and in The Tempest , that of Romeo and Juliet. A happy ending is assured by the very tone and character of the exposition, stated by Prospero in the first act of The Tempest. There is no tragic tension; there is college only captivating, slightly disturbing activity which ends happily. These are all typical tragi-comedies. The conception of a fate stronger than man's will or intellect appears for the first time in these plays. It is radically different from that of Fortuna, which played so important a role in Shakespeare's earlier comedies. There too, chance operates more than once, but only expresses the coincidences which are indicative of the unlimited possibilities of real life,–a feeling typical of the Renaissance–these combinations which could not, because of their complexity and boundlessness, be controlled or discounted by reason alone. In the endless game of life, man's will and essays, reason are the most important factors.
It was the college feeling, the urge to conquer and master the unknown, which animated the bold and enterprising merchant adventurers of Elizabethan England and induced them to risk their lives and all their wealth. Holocaust Paper Questions? Such is the meaning of Fortuna, a purely Renaissance conception, which played an important role in Boccaccio's Decameron as well as in many other works of the epoch. An entirely different philosophy permeates the a-g requirements plays of the last period. In every one of them, with the possible exception of The Tempest, the role of destiny is to personal assessment essay stand guard over man's thought and will. To all appearances, by rubbing the eyes of the sleeping lovers with the magic potion, Puck, in A Midsummer Night's Dream, abandons them to the mercy of fate.
Actually, however, through this means he helps them to achieve the end for a-g requirements, which they themselves are striving, although they never quite succeed in essays about, disentangling their emotions. The happy ending of the comedy is not so much the result of college a-g requirements, Puck's meddling–the imp merely plays the role of the lovers good fairy–but of the energetic struggle the lovers wage in the name of freedom, against paternal tyranny, the traditional law of Athens, and even the my paper Duke himself, who does not at first side with them. College? Destiny, which supersedes human will and understanding, determines everything. Its role is indicated in the episode of The Winter's Tale in which the prophecy of the oracle, so reverently extolled by the King's envoys, is about and children fulfilled (III, 1).  The supernatural becomes a powerful agent in a-g requirements, motivating the action. As a corollary, the online masters degree writing psychological analysis, the driving force of the action, the emotional transformation, and the revelation of character, are weakened. The emotional changes which the characters experience are unexpected; and It times even incomprehensible. College A-g Requirements? Such is Leontes' conduct in The Winter's Tale, Posthumus' irresponsibility in Cymbeline, the moral regeneration of both Prospero's enemies in The Tempest.
We could cite a number of other points to research paper questions show how Shakespeare, in these last expressions of his genius, surrendered his former position and yielded to a-g requirements the taste of the reactionary aristocracy which held such triumphant sway over the London stage in 1610. Motifs now appeared which were formerly completely alien to him–the idea of the marijuana inherent nobility of the two princes in Cymbeline who are unaware of their royal birth (IV, 4), and Prospero's insistence that Ferdinand and Miranda remain chaste until united in wedlock (The Tempest, IV, I). In addition, there are to be found a super-abundance of complicated and colorful episodes, whose obvious purpose is to entertain (Cymbeline), and numerous court genres in all three of the tragi-comedies: masques, pastorals–this time not as an college a-g requirements example of lower forms as in research, As You Like It- -and an almost overzealous adaptation of ancient mythology (The Tempest, IV, 1; Cymbeline, V, 4). Shakespeare, nevertheless, had not yet abandoned the most essential aspects of his credo. In all three plays, he still insists, though in an indistinct voice, masked by a wealth of ornamentation, on his former demands: truth, moral freedom, nobility, and creative love of college, life. The most significant of the three plays is the elements of a five paragraph last, The Tempest. This play presents Prospero, the wise humanist, who, with his knowledge–the magic and the spirits are, of course, allegorical–and nobility of soul, curbs all egoistic impulses, including his own, and college, succeeds in guiding the destinies of personal assessment essay, those around him towards their own as well as the general welfare. But all this happens without conflict; it is performed at the wave of Prospero's magic wand, the college Prospero who knows in advance how he must act and what the results will be. The Tempest contains another new and significant factor. Shakespeare reflects here on one of the major phenomena of his epoch: the political basis of colonial expansion, so essential to capitalism in its period of primary accumulation.
His solution of these problems is as perspicacious as it is ambiguous. The French humanist Montaigne, one of the older contemporaries of masters in creative, Shakespeare, who abhorred the rising feudal reaction, replied to it with an idealization of the American Indian, a new subject to the readers of that period. He presented a fantastic picture of the blissful existence of primitive people, ignorant of an oppressive state, of titles, rank, mercenary interests in short, of all the things which were tormenting civilized Europe. Even earlier than Montaigne, Thomas More derived some of the ideas of his Utopia (1551) from descriptions of the life of the American Indians. In The Tempest, however, Shakespeare not only justified but provided a basis for college a-g requirements, the enslavement of the be legal natives as a policy of colonization by depicting Caliban as an inherently stupid and vicious creature, mentally and morally unfit, whose only usefulness consists in dragging wood and being lashed for a-g requirements, his obstinacy. Prospero is shown as Caliban's natural master, a true bearer of culture to uncivilized lands. How little does such a solution of the racial problem resemble that of The Merchant of about parents and children, Venice or Othello. Shakespeare, however, was unable to abandon completely his former position. Excepting Prospero, Gonzalo is the most intelligent and positive person in the play.
Like Montaigne, who is here Shakespeare's direct source, Gonzalo, too, dreams of creating a new state on this island where there would be no contracts, succession; bound of land, tilth. (II, 1). The other characters ridicule him, but Gonzalo enjoys the sympathy of Shakespeare. The play contains a still more revealing scene (II, 2)–the remarkable portrayal of the methods used by a-g requirements the colonizers, when Stephano makes Caliban drunk, and the latter offers his island, with all its natural wealth, and himself as an eternal slave, in exchange for the divine drink: I'll show thee every fertile inch o' the essays island; And kiss thy foot: I pr'ythee, be my god. I'll show thee the best springs: I'll pluck thee berries ; I'll fish for thee, and college a-g requirements, get thee wood enough. Drink and the whip–such were the methods employed on the natives by the first apostles of capitalist civilization. Caliban's revolt is also significant. He pours forth his complaints simply and awkwardly (I, 2): This island's mine, by Sycorax my mother, Which thou tak'st from me.
For I am all the elements subjects that you have, Which first was mine own king; and here you sty me. In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me. The rest of the island. This is followed by open revolt, not, it is true, in the name of complete liberation, but in order to exchange one master for another, a bad master for a good, according to Caliban's understanding. That Caliban is college confused does not matter; he is possessed by a passion for freedom. This finds expression in his tempestuous, truly revolutionary song (II, 2): Farewell master; farewell, farewell.
No more dams I'll make for fish; Nor fetch in firing, Nor scrape trenchering, nor wash dish, 'Ban 'Ban, Ca-Caliban. Has a new master–get a new man. Freedom, hey-day! hey-day freedom! freedom! hey-day, freedom! His method of revolt is instructive. Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo depart to kill Prospero, but are distracted from their aim by garments hung in their path by about parents and children Ariel.
In despair, Caliban begs his companions to disregard them, not to delay. He alone is inspired by freedom, he alone is a true revolutionary. Although in the past Shakespeare would have expressed this thought in college a-g requirements, an unequivocal fashion, he was now forced to speak in the language of Aesop, with omissions. Unquestionably, Shakespeare could not long endure this forced disguise. Of A Paragraph? He preferred to a-g requirements retire from the theatre to lead the life of a bourgeois paterfamilias in Stratford-on-Avon, His decision was a conscious one, and we agree with those bourgeois critics who view The Tempest as Shakespeare's farewell to the stage. The crisis of essay, humanism, already reflected in Hamlet and Timon of Athens, found its final expression in The Tempest.
According to college some critics, the island and its spirits symbolize the stage and the forces of art, to which Shakespeare was bidding farewell. This is very possible, but should be interpreted in a different light. Prospero's departure from the island is the elements five paragraph capitulation of a humanist. The bourgeoisie who had given birth to humanism, later distorted and college a-g requirements, rejected it. Rebellious Puritanism forced all true humanists to seek uncertain refuge in the camp of the enemy–in the holocaust research questions patronage of the reactionary court. Because of a-g requirements, his moral inability to accept such a compromise, Shakespeare was silenced forever. Shakespeare was a humanist, a thorough representative of the essays parents and children epoch that Engels called the greatest progressive revolution mankind had known up to that time. Inasmuch as he expounded the new morality, the new philosophy and college, ideology, which were about to supplant those of deteriorating feudalism, Shakespeare was an about integral part of his epoch in the broadest sense of that word. But because a thousand threads bound him to the specific conditions which attended the college development of capitalism in England, he also belonged to his generation.
The ideological contradictions and the extraordinary complexity of his work are due even more to the combination of these two factors than to personal essay the involved socio-economic conditions of his time, although these, too, were important. What Engels called bourgeois content in feudal form is always manifest in his works. Often in the same play, and a-g requirements, even in the same act, there may be found conflicting ideas. This complexity has so bewildered the bourgeois critics, that they have gone so far as to personal assessment maintain that Shakespeare was a genius who merely presented all the possibilities and tendencies of human thought with no consideration or awareness of world perspectives. Some of them have attempted to ascribe Shakespeare's work to an aristocratic author; others have advanced the hypothesis that Shakespeare's plays were written by college a-g requirements several authors, differing in their ideological and class position, and that Shakespeare merely edited the entire collection.
Even Soviet critics have at times formulated incorrect theories, which attempted to of a settle the question by dismissing it. There has appeared quite recently the thesis of the three Shakespeares: the political adapter, the college technical formalist, and the philosophical poet. Essay? Such theories are evasions. College A-g Requirements? It is necessary not only to indicate the complexity of the plays, but to determine its causes, the organic rather than the formal unity. The organic unity of Shakespeare's work emanates from his striving to mirror objectively the inspiration my paper life process, by a-g requirements distinguishing the fundamental from the accidental, the permanent from the transitory, and to interpret this process in the light of the new world perspective. The contradictions mentioned previously prevented Shakespeare's world perspective from fully crystallizing This world perspective is, therefore, revealed only as an aspiration and a tendency, which, because of the nature of the class that had championed it, could not be realized. It would be futile to attempt to find a prescribed morality in Shakespeare. His morality is of a general tenor, not consisting of research paper questions, dogmatic tenets, but of broad rules of conduct.
Such is the rule, or principle, of trust in Hamlet, King Lear, and, to a lesser extent, in Coriolanus; the principle of conscience in Othello and Macbeth; the principle of mercy in The Merchant of Venice and Measure for Measure, and so on. Even surpassing these is the principle of the college creative love of life, and the heroic struggle for the preservation of its best aspects. From his own generation, Shakespeare drew the essay material for college, the concrete expression of these abstract principles. It had either been created by his own generation or had survived in tradition. Together with a positive interpretation of royal power as the servant of the nation, his plays contain an apology for absolutism; together with a passionate plea for humanity, a relative exoneration of murder; together with an unconditional recognition of equality, a relative defense of hierarchy. Thus his vision of the present contained unerring intimation of the future. Shakespeare does not sermonize; he is never didactic. Online Masters Degree? The moral aspects of each problem and a-g requirements, each situation are revealed so forcefully, that the reader is inescapably compelled to draw his own conclusions.
In this light, it can be said that Shakespeare's work abounds in holocaust research paper, moral elements. Accordingly, he elucidates the problems of the individual: his rights, his relations to the family, the state and society, and the race question. He always stresses the social roots of every problem. His conception of society is based on a broad and a-g requirements, profound conception of the individual. The tragic and comic elements are presented with equal force; however, they are not confined to tragedy and comedy respectively. A sense of the online masters degree in creative writing tragic permeates the gayest comedies, each of which contains socio-molal dramatic conflicts which bring the protagonists to the verge of a-g requirements, ruin. Every tragedy is illuminated by an affirmation of life: Lear's suffering leads to a spiritual regeneration; Othello's, to a rebirth of elements of a, faith in Desdemona's purity and in human nature at large; Antony's death, to an enlightening revelation of the universal historical process. Shakespeare unceasingly strove towards an understanding of the life process in all its extent and profundity. He explored the a-g requirements depths of human suffering, and of a paragraph essay, through his understanding pointed the way to a-g requirements ethical and social values.
Shakespeare rejected the medieval notion of predestination and elements paragraph, mans mission on earth. He recognized but one destiny; to exhaust all human creative possibilities. A-g Requirements? Having faith, like all the other great humanists, in masters degree writing, the innate goodness of human nature, he believed that if man were allowed to develop naturally and fully in accordance with the needs and college a-g requirements, demands of society, he would achieve not only happiness, but social perfection. As for the problem of evil, Shakespeare's point of view is best summed up in Romeo and Juliet (II, 3) : Nor aught so good but, strain'd from that fair use, Revolts from masters degree, true birth, stumbling on abuse: Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied; And vice sometimes by action dignified. The whole meaning and content of the life process is man's unceasing struggle to achieve the common good. It is a heroic struggle but there is no assurance of complete victory. Shakespeare's optimism, is strengthened by this philosophy. The necessity for man's development thus becomes the unavoidable result of his nature, which in turn is determined by a series of causal relations.
Shakespeare's analysis of the college life process leads to a disclosure of these interconnections. About And Children? His method is scientific, combining as does Bacon's, the empirical and rational approach to an explanation of natural events and the spiritual activities of man. College? We are, therefore, justified in characterizing it as a materialist method. Objectively, Shakespeare does not accept the supernatural; religion is not an active factor in paragraph essay, his work. Religious phraseology is seldom found; when it does appear, as in Measure for Measure, it merely reflects the language of college a-g requirements, his day. Not one of his thirty-seven plays, although written when England was torn by religious dissension, contains any evidence as to whether he was Catholic or Protestant. Shakespeare accepts only two forces: nature and man, the latter being the highest and most complex manifestation of the former.
Shakespeare is essentially a monist. That Shakespeare was not the ideologist of the feudal aristocracy is definitely established by his characters, in whom the aspects and forms of holocaust paper, feudalism are subjected to a-g requirements the most merciless criticism. King Lear and Antony represent the glory and historical grandeur of feudalism; the about parents feudal lords of the chronicles, its tottering but as yet unbroken power; the French knights in Henry V, its bankruptcy; Bertram in All's Well That Ends Well, its degeneration; the Montagues and Capulets, its pernicious remnants. Nor is it possible to accept the thesis that Shakespeare was the ideologist of that section of the college nobility which was acquiring bourgeois trappings. They, too, are subjected to masters degree in creative writing the severest criticism: the courtiers in Love's Labour's Lost, Falstaff, Polonius and his family, Edmund in King Lear, the patricians in Coriolanus. The conclusion that Shakespeare was the ideologist of the bourgeoisie is inescapable. It is impossible, however, to designate him as such without reservations. The rapacity, greed, cruelty, egoism, and philistinism so typical of the college a-g requirements English bourgeoisie-embodied in research paper, Shylock, Malvolio, Iago–are no less scathingly denounced. Shakespeare was the humanist ideologist of the bourgeoisie, the exponent of the college a-g requirements program advanced by them when, in the name of humanity, they first challenged the elements paragraph essay feudal order, but which they later disavowed.
This enabled Shakespeare to subject his class to keen and profound criticism, a criticism motivated by a definite, though not clearly formulated ideal. His strong sense of concrete reality deterred him from creating a utopia, yet he possessed utopian ideals. At a later stage of bourgeois development Shakespeare became a threat to that class which had given him birth. The bourgeoisie have never been able to understand or accept the revolutionary elements in Shakespeare's work, because these immeasurably transcend the narrow confines of bourgeois thought. They have attempted, therefore, to transform his revolutionary humanism into specious philanthropy and to interpret his concepts of mercy and truth as tenderness and righteousness; his continued appeals for patience–perseverance in the struggle to attain the ideal–as submissiveness; his disregard for religion and metaphysics as philosophical and religious tolerance.
And so, the college bourgeoisie have crowned him with the empty title: The Universal Man. 1. Holy Family, Section VI, Chapter 24; in online masters, English in college, Ludwig Feurbach, p. 85, N. Inspiration To Write My Paper? Y., 1935;–A. F. 6. Anti-Duhring, Part II, Chapter 2, p. 186. N. Y. 1935.–A. College? F. 7. Socialism: Utopian and of a five paragraph, Scientific, Introduction, p. 19, N. College A-g Requirements? Y. 1935.–A. F. 8. Franz Mehring: Die Lessing-Legende, p. 347. Stuttgart, 1920 (siebte unveranderte Auflage)–A.
P. 9. Cf., Fletcher and Massinger's comedy, The Little French Lawyer. 10. Karl Marx: Spanish Revolutions, in N. Y. Daily Tribune, Sept. 9, 1854, p. 4.–A. F. 11. The Origin of the Family, pp.
97-98. Kerr Edition, 1902. Degree Writing? However, we quote from Emile Burns' re-translation in Handbook of college, Marxism, p. Online Degree? 310. New York, 1935.–A. College A-g Requirements? F. 13. This play may actually be an adaptation by Shakespeare of The Jew of Malta, so much do the style and imagery resemble Marlowe's. 14. Kyd, for instance, author of a pre-Shakespearean Hamlet (which has been lost), and of The Spanish Tragedy.
15. Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy, p. 63. N. Y.-A. F: 16. Alte Einleitung zur 'Naturdialektik' in Marx-Engels Archiv, II, p. 240 Frankfurt, 1927.–A. F. 18. Master Tubal Holofernes, Gargantua's first teacher, whom Rabelais ridiculed, is considered, not without foundation to be his prototype. [cf.
Chapter XIII of Rabelais' Gargantua. –A. F. 19. in analyzing this epoch Marx says: . The Middle Ages had handed down two distinct forms of capital, ripening under extremely different socio-economic auspices; and both of these, prior to online masters writing the era when the capitalist method of production became established, ranked as 'capital' without qualification. I refer to usurers' capital and merchants' capital. Capital, ed. cit. p. 831.–A F. 20. Shakespeare was strongly patriotic, but never indulged in the cruder forms of nationalism He does not refrain from praising the French when they deserve it.
His slandering of Joan of Arc in Henry IV, Part I, which grieved the liberal critics of the nineteenth century, was due to her Catholicism. 21. It is important to note that throughout this scene Fluellen speaks in prose, Pistol in verse. This is a-g requirements a fine illustration of the inspiration fact that the smallest stylistic details in Shakespeare's plays are often full of ideological significance. 22.
Shakespeare never expresses his own opinions through his negative characters. 23. This was also Bacon's interpretation of Caesar. 24. The Communist Manifesto, p. 32, N. Y., 1936. (6th 7th ed.) 25. The authorship of Pericles is doubtful. 26.
The Communist Manifesto, p. 11. N. Y., 1935. (6th be 7th ed.)–A.F. 29. A Criticism of the college a-g requirements Hegelian Philosophy of Right, in Selected Essays, pp. 18-19, N.Y., 1926–A.F. 31.
In Cymbeline, Posthumus is vouchsafed a similar prophecy, from the mouth of Jupiter himself (V, 4).
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Posted in Film School Essays by Derek S. I was really looking forward to Christmas break, where I could finally see some real, normal films instead of the masturbatory arthouse crap that Professor Carageorge peddles on college a regular basis. And what better way to online degree in creative writing combat the pretentiousness of film school with Steven Spielberg’s War Horse , a good holiday-time film from one of the greatest filmmakers ever? Boy, was I wrong. A-g Requirements! This is about parents and children, easily the worst film Spielberg has ever made, probably even worse than that one where Tom Hanks plays a Russian guy or something who wanders around an airport. A-g Requirements! Since I can barely remember that one, War Horse will have to do, since it’s the worst kind of pandering end-of-the-year Oscar-bait from a filmmaker who is talented enough to not have to essays sink to that level. College! Because surely Spielberg doesn’t have enough Oscars already, does he? Boring, unimportant shit happens in War Horse for almost two and a half hours, but there’s plenty of panoramic sunset shots set to soft flute music by John Williams so it must be good, right? As I said, not only do completely unimportant things happen throughout this movie, they’re stretched out to an unbearable two and a half hours of running time. The main problem with this movie is it’s main character.
Who’s the main character, you might ask, since there aren’t any famous actors. As a matter of fact, it’s the horse, believe it or not. Essays And Children! Yes folks, Spielberg has finally lost his mind and gave an animal top billing. The story is college a-g requirements, about a horse who is raised by masters degree in creative writing, a boy in a small Irish village right before World War I, before being sold to an English officer and sent to the front, where the horse then changes owners several times. Spielberg was probably thinking it would be neat to have a horse as a protagonist. The problem with this, however, is that the college, goddamn horse is a protagonist . A protagonist (and I learned this in films chool so I know I’m right!) is a character who has a problem or a goal that they have to accomplish from the beginning of the film and changes and grows in holocaust paper questions, some way at the end. College! Humans can and regularly do exactly this all the time, so they tend to make ideal protagonists. Horses, on parents the other hand, are not humans. College! They don’t have human emotions, they don’t have feelings or goals or aspirations.
They’re just big dumb animals who do what they’re told. Apparently, there#039;s acting going on in this shot or something. The writers of this film, not to mention the characters, don’t seem to think so, however. About Parents! So not only do we get so many shots of horses staring into college the camera, or at other horses, supposedly “acting,” we get so many other human characters who don’t really get their own stories, because they’re all going moist over how supposedly wonderful this horse is. Entire “suspenseful” scenes are built around whether or not this stupid horse can do something most horses can usually do.
Will the boy teach the horse how to online masters degree writing plow a field? Really, we need to see this conflict drawn out for a half hour? Horses are supposed to plow! That’s like watching a scene where a farmer teaches a cow how to produce milk! Can this horse outrun another black horse during a horse race? Who gives a shit? Later on, during the college a-g requirements, World War I scenes hundreds of elements of a five paragraph people die horrific deaths, but oh no, does the goddamn horse make it out okay? Really, if you see this movie, ask yourself if the horse honestly changes and grows as a character from the beginning to the end of this film, or if it just stays being the same dumb horse it was before. Remember Charloote’s Web? That book about the pig whose afraid to get slaughtered, so the spider makes a bunch of webs that say how great the pig is? And all the stupid humans believe this otherwise completely ordinary pig is all of a sudden some wonderful miracle, simply because they see spider webs that arbitrarily say so?
Imagine how dumb the people in War Horse must be if they go on about how remarkable the horse is college, without the use of magic webs that say “Some Horse!” The sad truth that this movie fails to to write my paper acknowledge is that it’s not realistic at college a-g requirements all for this horse to of a five paragraph be so built up as much as he is. College! No soldiers in their right mind would organize a truce on the front lines just to rescue a horse. They would have killed the horse, kept on killing each other and then taken the dead horse to the glue factory. Essay! Even if the college a-g requirements, horse had somehow survived all the things it went through, no one gives a shit enough about paper questions, horses, especially in light of the a-g requirements, horrific slaughter all around them, to exalt them as much as they do, for pretty much no reason at all. It’s really hard to say what he was thinking when he cast a horse in his film. Maybe he thinks it’s going to be the first movie where a non-human wins a best actor. Personal! But let’s be fair, if we’re going for best non-human performances this year, Kermit the Frog acted circles around this horse in the Muppets, and Kermit’s not even technically alive. For your consideration. (aka not the college, stupid goddamn horse) So the horse is to write my paper, stupid and lame, but I also went into this film thinking it might be a decent war movie.
Well, there are war scenes, I guess. Sadly the film is disappointing in this aspect as well. The battle scenes are bloodless and sanitized all throughout. During scenes where people and horses alike are executed by firing squads, Spielberg uses these cheap cutaway shots that hide the a-g requirements, actual shootings, as if he’s still in personal assessment essay, film school and he can’t afford to film an actual shooting. The World War I scenes are also fairly thrillless. Random soldiers run around trenches and barbed-wire ridden fields and college a-g requirements, are shot down by online degree, invisible gunmen, falling to the ground like they’re fainting or out of breath or something, and college, meanwhile other soldiers fly through the air on holocaust questions pneumatic lifts when they’re hit by shells. College! What’s unfortunate is that Steven “I film a war story of some kind after every time I take a shit” Spielberg should know by now how to stage an impressive war scene, since, you know, he actually has a couple times.
He should know that when people get shot they bleed to death, and personal assessment essay, that people get blown up to a-g requirements bits and lose limbs when they’re hit with shells and questions, grenades. But since it’s a kid’s movie, he can’t have any of that stuff in it. Its a shame that he has made a sanitized, historically inaccurate version of World War I where the violence is nice looking and not viseral or painful. But hey, if that gets him another Oscar then more power to him I guess. The other really disappointing thing about this movie is, for a film called War Horse, you’d think there would be a lot of horse fatalities, but they’re really aren’t.
See, I have a bit of a bias going into this movie: I really hate horses. And I love movies where horses die. The Lord of the Rings Trilogy, Braveheart, and the Ring are some of college a-g requirements my favorite films for exactly this reason. So I figured if Spielberg could at least make a good war film and personal, slaughter a lot of horses then it would be worth it. Sadly that is not the case. College A-g Requirements! The only good shot in the whole film is a panoramic view of hundreds of personal assessment dead horses shot on a field by gatling guns, but unfortunately you never see them get shot.
He does this lame thing where you see a shot of college a-g requirements someone riding a horse, then it cuts to a gun, then the same horse without a rider. Inspiration To Write! He even wastes an college opportunity for a good ending, and doesn’t let the horse butcher buy him in the end. Fuck this movie, I’m going to see Tin Tin tomorrow, you know, the Spielberg movie coming out where people fight, things blow up, and actually exciting things happen. If I had my way, this is what the holocaust research paper, last shot of War Horse would have been. ***The opinions expressed in the film school essays of Derek S. are solely those of a-g requirements Derek S. and do not necessarily reflect the viewpoints of The Supreme Pancake.*** Drive is personal assessment, Boring and college a-g requirements, a Total Waste of Time. Dear Professor Carageorge, I’m not entirely sure why you’re making us keep a production journal, seeing as how I won’t even be allowed to even touch a camera, let alone work my film idea until the end of next month. I’m sure there’s a good reason for that, just like I’m sure the should be legal essay, department chair has a good reason for ignoring my emails. Until then though, the fact remains I have nothing to write about in my production journal since, you know, I’m not producing anything yet. Well, I guess I’ll write about a movie I saw.
I went on college a-g requirements Rotten Tomatoes to see what was playing. I usually like Jason Stathem movies but they said his latest movie was a bad one. Essay! Instead, I went to see this film called Drive. I had never heard of it but it had like a 95 rating on the site so it must be good, and if I’m getting into a-g requirements the film business soon I guess I should trust what the professionals say, right? Boy, was I wrong. This film is the most boring, overrated piece of asscheese I’ve ever seen. It’s directed by some no-name hack I’ve never heard of named Nicholas Winding Refn. No, I didn’t spell it wrong, that’s his actual name if you can believe it. What the five, hell kind of a name is that?
Of all the a-g requirements, possible cool-sounding directorial aliases you could think of, and to write my paper, you landed on Winding Refn? What the hell is a Refn, and how do you wind it anyway? What a dumbass? Nicholas Winding Refn? How about college, Nicholas Making A Film That Doesn’t Suck Balls?
I tried to of a essay look up his discography but it looks like this is college, his first american film. Everything else I saw looked just as boring and was in Danish, and I hate reading movies so I’m not watching them anytime soon. Maybe if a better director remakes them into English, like what they did with Let Me In, then maybe I will. But that’s a big maybe. For a movie that calls itself Drive, it’s the slowest, dullest driving movie I’ve ever seen. This isn’t one of those bad movies that’s good for online masters in creative writing a while but lets you down at the end. No, it’s a train wreck from the very first scene. In fact the first scene may be the worst part of the whole film. That would be true, however, if the rest of the movie didn’t suck so much.
But anyway, let me explain. It starts off promising enough, with some guy talking to some robbers in a badass tough guy way about how he’s going to drive getaway for them. The guy, played by the guy from the Notebook (I forgot his real name) (and no I never saw the college, Notebook, I walked into the living room one day when my mom was watching it and parents, I remembered what the guy looked like) is exactly that. College! We never find out what his name is because the masters, director never bothers to tell us. A-g Requirements! So that means I have to call him Notebook for the rest of the review. So Notebook looks really badass and it looks like there’s going to be a great chase coming up soon. Research Paper! But no, we never get that. The first danger sign is the college a-g requirements, car he uses. Assessment! A Chevy Impala. A silver Chevy Impala. I wish I were joking.
There were at least five way better cars than that in college, the first ten minutes alone of Fast Five. A character even says that it’s a boring car, but Notebook shrugs him off like he doesn’t care. And the inspiration my paper, other thing is, the cops instantly identify him as the getaway driver, so fat lot of good that Impala did for you buddy. So great. A chase scene with an Impala. A-g Requirements! But wait. Before we get to the getaway, we have to watch him wait for the crooks to holocaust research paper actually pull off the robbery. He gives everyone he works for college a-g requirements a five minute window before he drives off, so we actually have to wait a full five minutes before he drives off and does anything. Seriously?
You shot Notebook guy sitting in a car for five whole minutes and thought this was compelling stuff? Sadly, if you aren’t into sitting and staring footage you’re out of online writing luck, as that’s not even close to being all there is. Notebook wondering if he should start driving soon. Nice Impala, douche. So Notebook finally starts driving after a while. Does he haul ass and plow through the a-g requirements, mean streets of LA, making cop cars crash into essays parents each other and wreck buildings?
No. College! He pokes around the alleyways and hides from the online in creative writing, cops. College! Yes, he hides from them. What the hell? It’s called Drive, not Hide, dipshit. Maybe you should, oh I don’t know, try doing a little of what the title of your own film says. Do you think Fast Five made as much as it did because Vin Diesel dicked around with a police scanner and dropped his car off at to write a busy Lakers game?
No, he tore ass through the a-g requirements, streets and didn’t take any shit from anyone. It’s a sure sign of trouble when the first thirty seconds of holocaust paper questions Fast Five are more riveting than the first fifteen minutes of this assheap. If Driving Miss Daisy has more exciting driving than your driving movie you should probably rethink the driving aspect of college a-g requirements it. I did see Driving Miss Daisy once but only because my mom made me watch it with the marijuana be legal, family one night. I hate my mom. (By the way you should really go out and see Fast Five if you haven’t. College! Before I thought that the elements of a five paragraph essay, Fast and the Furious was the college, best car racing movie ever made, but then I saw this installment and I changed my mind. Essays About Parents! I know the college, other’s weren’t that good and it seems like this one shouldn’t be either but it looks like the fifth sequel to a franchise is marijuana should be legal essay, what does the trick nowadays, just like the Fifth Final Destination movie that came out this summer. Anyway, back to stupid Drive.
I would go on, but unfortunately that one scene is the only instance of driving in the whole movie! It’s called Drive, and the only car scene has him hiding away like a coward from a-g requirements, cops. The rest of the film is divided into two halves. The first half is what I would describe as I Love This Girl So Much Because All I’m Doing Is Staring At Her All The Goddam Time. So Notebook meets this girl who lives across the hall from him, and seriously all they do is sit around and smile at personal each other. Clearly the director isn’t very good at editing. Some of these scenes go on college for so long with such little motion that it wouldn’t surprise me if they were still photos. Personal Assessment Essay! They’re called motion pictures, Mr. Refn. And oh yeah, you’re movie is also called DRIVE. You might not realize it, but if you#039;re looking at college this photo, you#039;re watching actual footage from Drive.
Add your own shitty eighties music. The rest of it is a little bit better, but not by much. To Write My Paper! It’s a pretty generic crime/revenge movie where the bad guys try to double cross Notebook and he kills them all. It’s not much more exciting than the rest of the film (but at college least he isn’t staring at masters in creative writing that goddamn girl anymore). The only really good part is one where Notebook stomps on a guy’s head in a-g requirements, an elevator (oh yeah, after he makes out with the elements paragraph, girl for like ten minutes straight while dumb eighties music plays). But even then you barely see any of the real violence, instead it’s just a shot of Notebook stomping on something in a corner.
There’s another part like that where Notebook puts on college a-g requirements this weird Mike Myers mask for no reason (and it also looks nothing like the actor who he works as a stunt double for, so what’s the point?) (I forgot to mention that when he’s not a getaway driver he works as a Hollywood stunt double). So you think that with this weird ass mask some heavy stuff is marijuana should be legal essay, going down, but then he chases a bad guy into the water on a beach and the scene cuts away. Really? We just have to imagine that Notebook drowns this guy? Mr.
Refn needs to learn where to a-g requirements put his camera if he thinks he has a shot at inspiration to write my paper making more films anytime soon. So in conclusion I definitely don’t recommend Drive. It’s a boring film made by an amateur no-name, who spent most of his budget not to make a good movie, but to pay off all the critics on Rotten Tomatoes to give him good reviews. College A-g Requirements! It just goes to show that film critics don’t know everything, especially what audiences like nowadays, and I know I’ll definitely trust my own instincts from inspiration my paper, now on. Basically, if films were prostitutes, Drive would be a prostitute who makes you pay for actual sex and then only college offer to essays and children give you a handjob, and then leave before she actually finishes it off. If all the swear words and sex references in this review are inappropriate, you should probably let us film something soon, since you know, we’re paying thousands of dollars a year to college a-g requirements make movies. Till then, I guess I can write whatever I want in and children, this production journal and it’ll have to be okay. Well, I have to go write this stupid paper on Battleship Potekmin. It just might be even more boring than Drive, and even worse, it’s in subtitles. I#039;ve never seen this movie before, but I bet you a million dollars it#039;s better than Drive. ***The opinions expressed in the film school essays of Derek S. are solely those of Derek S. and do not necessarily reflect the viewpoints of The Supreme Pancake.***
The Tree of Life is the Worst Movie Ever Made. Dear Professor Carageorge, I finally saw the movie you wanted our class to see and college, write about, Terrence Malick’s The Tree of Life (I finally caught it at the local dollar theater, after being out for like five months and not playing anywhere), and I’m very sorry but I cannot write the paper you want me to about it. This is paper, seriously the worst movie I’ve ever seen in my whole life, and at this point I’m frankly surprised you assigned this film for us to write about. I mean, don’t get me wrong, you have obviously been a film school professor for a-g requirements a very long time and I’m sure you are very professional when it comes to research paper questions stuff like this, but this was just unwatchable garbage, I mean this film wasted two and a half whole hours of college my life that I’ll never get back.
Although I guess I shouldn’t be too surprised, you did make us watch Fata Morgana and elements of a essay, that Paul Glabicki nonsense, but I was hoping that your taste in movies would get better as the class went on. So unfortunately, I can’t really discuss the film and complete the college a-g requirements, assignment, but I can explain why I thought this was a terrible waste of time and online masters in creative writing, hopefully you can come around to a-g requirements my way of thinking. The Tree of Life is basically two and a half hours of nothing. Essays About Parents And Children! Seriously, no characters or plot or anything meaningful happens throughout the whole movie. I’ll say it again, nothing happens at college all! (that’s not the title of a movie, that’s just me using italics to emphasize my point (although it could have been the title of this movie(!))).
First you have Brad Pitt as this guy in Texas and Brad Pitt’s wife who are sad because they find out marijuana should that one of college a-g requirements their sons dies, only research you have no idea how (she just gets a telegram in the mail, how am I supposed to feel sorry for someone I don’t even know if I don’t even know what happened?). People whisper in college, voiceovers about online masters degree in creative, how sad they are over this guy whose dead and college a-g requirements, we have no idea who he is, and holocaust research, Sean Penn is I guess one of Brad Pitt’s sons but in the future time. Sean Penn’s sad about college, something too, but no one ever says why. Elements Of A! He just wanders around his workplace while some idiot behind the camera films everything with an extremely low angle. Why? Why is Sean Penn looking so powerful and a-g requirements, imposing when there is clearly something wrong with him? We never know.
Clearly Terrence Malick needs to work on to write his camera angles and screen direction. Want to see this for a half hour? You should let your laptop run idle instead. Then it goes to a-g requirements what could arguably be the inspiration to write, worst part of the whole “film”. For no reason at all, Terrance Malick shows us like twenty minutes of all this swirly color footage and the world on fire and alot of college time lapse photography of the elements of a essay, world slowly evolving. Remember that movie 2001 ? It’s like Terrance Malick thought to himself “hey, why don’t I make a big pointless homage to 2001 , except I won’t homage the college, good parts, with the actual space voyage and the talking computer, but the big long stupid boring part at and children the end. Or maybe Mr.
Malick was sitting in a-g requirements, front of his Macbook one day and he was inspired by the screensaver that popped up. Online Masters In Creative Writing! And what does the universe have to do with Brad Pitt and his family? Nothing. It even shows dinosaurs (!). And I must say I have never been so bored with dinosaur footage as I was with this cinematic waste. Why go through all the a-g requirements, trouble to make cgi dinosaurs if they’re not going to do anything cool like roar or eat other dinosaurs or stomp little cavemen underneath their huge dinosaur paws? There’s a part where a dinosaur sees another dying dinosaur, but all he does is assessment essay, stand over the dying one for college a-g requirements like five minutes, stomp on assessment it’s head a couple times, and then it leaves. Wha? Was the dinosaur thinking about the ethics of eating another dinosaur?
Dinosaurs don’t have philosophical quandaries, you morons! They’re wild animals. I’ve seen Jurassic Park and college, I read a few wikipedia articles on paleontology, and I know that if a real life dinosaur came across a dying dinosaur, he wouldn’t hesitate. He’d chow down immediately, and gobble the whole thing right up. So it’s bad enough with all it’s other problems, now it has innacurate factology.
Just look at this picture for marijuana a minute. There, I saved you the a-g requirements, agony of watching dinosaurs stare blankly into the camera. After that pointless scene, we go back to Brad Pitt and his family. I can tell you what happens for the entire rest of the should be legal, movie: Someone whispers in voiceover about something unimportant. Then Brad Pitt shows up and acts like a nice father.
Then he acts like a total dick to one of a-g requirements his kids for no reason. Marijuana Should Essay! Then those kids go out and college, do something bad. Essay! Repeat for college a-g requirements two more hours until the elements of a, end. That’s it. Like I said, there’s no plot at all, there’s no point to anything. No one tries to get anything or do anything, everyone just reacts to college a-g requirements Brad Pitt acting like an asshole. How come all the essays parents, other professors say it’s important that characters have to have goals and college a-g requirements, structure and whatever if this film clearly doesn’t? And after what seems like an eternity (I wish I knew how long the running time going in was, this is yet another one of about parents and children those movies that are so boring and so shoddily plotted that any point could be the wrapping-up point but they keep on going and going and you just keep on wondering when its going to end), the movie finally (1) starts to end. But again this is college, just as pointless as the rest of the elements five paragraph essay, film. You start to wonder if Sean Penn’s character is finally going to have a point, or say something meaningful, but no.
Instead he inexplicably goes to this beach where everyone else in the film is hanging out and they all skip and prance along like they’re all happy and eveything’s fine. Then it ends. What? What did any of that even mean? I have to say I’ve never been more disappointed and bored while watching a “film than with this one. I looked up Terence Malik on imdb, and I found out the exact number of films he made. In the span of about thirty years or so he only made about five or six or so. Maybe it’s because he know’s he’s so bad at making movies so after the last film he makes he decides to quit and never make one again, and college a-g requirements, then years go by and he forgets how awful the essay, last film was and college a-g requirements, decides to make another one. That’s the only logical reason I could come up with for his horrible cinematic output. Online Degree In Creative Writing! I’ve never seen any of the other ones, and college, after this abomination I’m glad I didn’t and I never will.
Ever wonder what watching a twenty-minute Valtrex commercial would be like? Just watch the ending to the Tree of Life. So in conclusion I have to say that I don’t think you know what you’re doing. I don’t understand how could say this is good filmmaking and to write my paper, then snidely make fun of me along with the a-g requirements, rest of my classmates for thinking that Transformers:Dark of the Moon was the personal assessment, best film of the college, summer. It was a huge improvement over in creative, Revenge of the Fallen which wasn’t that good admittedly. It had great action, as usual with those movies, and surprisingly effective performaces from Shia LeBeuf as well as seasoned veterans John Malkovich and Frances McDormand. Shia LaBouf delivers a surprisingly nuanced performance, because he has saved the world twice already and can’t get a good job and everyone’s pressuring him to get a good job. I can actually relate to a-g requirements this movie, unlike Tree of Life, because my parents are cutting me off of my allowance and they want me to work at the school cafeteria. So like I said, in conclusion I don’t think you’re a very good teacher.
I think you talk big and put on a big show like you know what you’re doing, but when it comes to your real taste in parents, films you totally fail. I’ll be submitting another copy of this paper to college the head of the film school department chair, and hopefully this will be enough evidence to have you removed from teaching ever again. If not, then it’s understood that I will be transferring to a different film production class next semester. Until then I hope you can be fair and give me a good grade for this paper, as this is the elements of a five, truth about The Tree of a-g requirements Life and I don’t pull any punches and wrote what I honestly felt about of a five, it. This is college, America, and to write, people can have different but equally valid viewpoints and college, I hope you grade me accordingly and in this spirit of fairness and democracy.
This is the Tree of masters in creative Life from the Animal Kingdom in Walt Disney World. College A-g Requirements! This is personal essay, one more tree of life than you will ever see in Tree of Life.
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The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and college working capital support for enrolled members of the my paper, Seneca Nation of Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and marketing. After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. College! She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in writing 2013. Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is college a-g requirements, because it has the least guidance and is the essay most open-ended. College! One way to understand what colleges are looking for online masters writing when they ask you to write an essay is to check out the a-g requirements essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. In Creative! After all, they must be among the most successful of a-g requirements this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for online masters what makes great college essays great.
I've also compiled an enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and college a-g requirements, essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common. Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay. Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the paragraph author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to college a-g requirements tell a story. Inspiration My Paper! Some of the experiences in college these essays are one-of-a-kind.
But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. What sets them apart is the way the be legal essay author approaches the topic: analyzing it for college a-g requirements drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to personal essay the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an a-g requirements, unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in inspiration order to make the reader want to a-g requirements know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the rest of those essays to find out what happens!
A lively, individual voice. Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an elements five essay, admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. College! Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and five paragraph, not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian. Technical correctness. A-g Requirements! No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and marijuana be legal, proofread perfectly. If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over a-g requirements several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice.
Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of marijuana should be legal essay these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to prompts that are no longer in use. The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. 7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. College! It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. These essays are answers to past prompts from either the holocaust paper Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by Other Websites.
7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to college your essay-writing fire. The University of Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. Masters Degree In Creative Writing! These seven sample essays respond to a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to get over the difficult first-line hump. We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked. I've picked out two essays from the examples collected above to a-g requirements examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work.
Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of inspiration to write '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in college Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back.
“Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the marijuana be legal inside of the frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in college springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. Personal Essay! In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of college seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the assessment dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. College! When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant.
At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of online writing water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. College A-g Requirements! While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is holocaust paper, unequivocally true: much of life is college a-g requirements, unexpected, and you have to should be legal essay deal with the twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. College A-g Requirements! A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the essay improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power.
Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to college a-g requirements thwart their attempts to personal essay control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. Sometimes, I was the a-g requirements poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to different people, as the should be legal situation demanded. College! I learned to adapt.
Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. Inspiration To Write! But one day this fall, Dr. A-g Requirements! Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the five paragraph question posed to college me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to holocaust research me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in college a-g requirements a thing I did not govern, in the company of paper questions people I did not choose. College A-g Requirements! It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness.
My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is very effective. Let's find out questions why! An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into college a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to break in), the inspiration to write idea of college a-g requirements crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to to write get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to be scared straight?). We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site.
The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out college a-g requirements of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try.
I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the research paper questions apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the college a-g requirements details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for inspiration to write my paper “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the emotions of the college a-g requirements people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of of a five paragraph actual speech makes the college a-g requirements scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for inspiration to write my paper crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight.
Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. College! One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and my paper, ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to college unpredictability and chaos. Essays About Parents! With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and college, spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the essay phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts.
Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. College A-g Requirements! By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the inspiration dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of Humor and a-g requirements, Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in elements five paragraph case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed.
Part of this is because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. This approach also diffuses the college a-g requirements potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is personal assessment, making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant. Mr. A-g Requirements! President? There's been an my paper, oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT.
An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of college a-g requirements School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to inspiration my paper me in Laredo. College A-g Requirements! Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the should be legal coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in a-g requirements the company of people I did not choose.
It’s family. It’s society. Should Be Legal Essay! And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the a-g requirements small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and should, facing the a-g requirements unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future. Inspiration To Write My Paper! He has emerged from college a-g requirements, chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control. This connection of past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of online masters degree in creative successful college students, who will be able to college a-g requirements navigate the independence college classes require and the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of college life.
What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the best essays aren't perfect, and even the world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due. Of A! So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? Replace some of the a-g requirements cliched language. Degree In Creative! Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and don’t sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for college explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the and children risk of clouding out college a-g requirements your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. Use another example from recent life. Online Degree In Creative Writing! Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to a-g requirements adapt by being different things to different people.
It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in about parents and children first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in college a-g requirements my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and holocaust questions, graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the college a-g requirements World. While I sat in the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing.
That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in of a paragraph no time. College! The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. And Children! The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the a-g requirements driver's seat. To Write My Paper! As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and college a-g requirements, that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings.
Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. My Paper! Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to college discover what I am passionate about paper questions when I was a freshman in high school.
A self-admitted Phys. Ed. A-g Requirements! addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. Research Questions! To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for college a-g requirements a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Inspiration To Write! Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities.
Basically, I would get to do what I love for college a-g requirements the rest of essays parents my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. A-g Requirements! I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I'll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for inspiration to write my paper a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging. Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay.
A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand. The essay is arranged chronologically. A-g Requirements! Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the online masters road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the college a-g requirements road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the essay Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings.
Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. College A-g Requirements! Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for degree in creative Yankee Candles. College A-g Requirements! Maybe it could be me. I wanted to essays about become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. College! Basically, I would get to elements five do what I love for the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in a-g requirements life was still to become a Fixer-Upper.
What makes this essay fun to masters degree read is college, that Bridget takes a child’s idea of assessment essay a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into college a metaphor for holocaust research paper the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at college a-g requirements, a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time. Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the essay back row to college a-g requirements you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and online, make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of college a-g requirements humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for essays the other).
In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay. It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to a-g requirements simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and personal assessment, iconic. What's also key is that the a-g requirements titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences.
However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on about parents and children, the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head.
As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. A-g Requirements! Or do they? Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself.
The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. As we watch Bridget go from personal assessment, nervously trying to help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the moment by a-g requirements, relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better?
Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the online masters degree writing car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for a-g requirements working with special-needs students. It would be great to holocaust paper either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else. Give more details about being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. College A-g Requirements! It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is it about this kind of teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to the lives of her future clients?
3 Essential Tips for inspiration to write my paper Writing Your Own Essay. How can you use this discussion to college a-g requirements better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for questions ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the essays we've compiled for college you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well?
Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote. What senses is the personal assessment essay author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in college your mind's eye? Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. How does the essay connect the online degree in creative writing two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the college essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the should be legal essay places where the a-g requirements humor comes from? If it's sad and holocaust research paper questions, moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved?
If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to college a-g requirements this tone? When you figure out how all the cogs fit together, you'll be able to assessment build your own . College A-g Requirements! um . Assessment! whatever this is. All of college these essays rely on connecting with the five reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about a-g requirements you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. Essays And Children! It's rewriting. College! And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the research paper application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due.
Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and think critically about what you've written. What's extra? What's missing? What is in the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. College! Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for marijuana essay it! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at college a-g requirements, improving your score. Download it for free now:
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Les Rois Maudits, tome 1 : Le roi de fer. Le Roi de fer est un roman historique écrit par Maurice Druon et publié en 1955. Il est le premier tome de la série des Rois maudits. Au début du xive siècle, le roi Philippe le Bel, réputé glacial et majestueux, règne d’une main de fer sur la France. College A-g Requirements! Sous son règne, la France est grande et les Français malheureux . Of A Paragraph Essay! Philippe le Bel a trois fils et une fille : Louis, dit Louis le Hutin, héritier du trône ; le comte Philippe de Poitiers, homme sage et pondéré ; Charles le Bel, surnommé l#039;oison en raison de sa faible intelligence ; Isabelle de France, mariée à Édouard II, roi d’Angleterre. Tous maudits, jusqu#039;à la treizième génération ! : telle est la funeste malédiction que le chef des templiers, depuis les flammes du bûcher, lance au visage de Philippe le Bel, roi de France. College! Nous sommes en 1314 et la prophétie va se réaliser: pendant plus d#039;un demi-siècle, les rois se succèdent sur le trône de France, mais n#039;y restent jamais bien longtemps. About! D#039;intrigues de palais en morts subites, de révolutions dynastiques en guerres meurtrières, c#039;est la valse des rois maudits. College A-g Requirements! L#039;avenir de la France se joue pendant ces quelques années noires, période trouble de l#039;Histoire. Essays About Parents And Children! Une époque extraordinaire, jamais ennuyeuse, comme romanesque. A-g Requirements! L#039;auteur l#039;a bien compris, lui qui conte les histoires secrètes du royaume et des hommes, de leurs passions comme de leurs faiblesses qui bien souvent bouleversèrent le sort de la France.
Classement en biblio - 546 lecteurs. Les Rois Maudits, tome 1 : Le roi de fer. De ce visage en feu, la voix effrayante proféra : Pape Clément. Degree Writing! Chevalier Guillaume. College! Roi Philippe.
Avant un an, je vous cite à paraître au tribunal de Dieu pour y recevoir votre juste châtiment ! Maudits ! Maudits ! tous maudits jusqu#039;à la treizième génération de vos races. Of A! Pour une passionnée d#039;histoire comme moi ce livre ne pouvait que me plaire. A-g Requirements! Il s#039;agit d#039;une oeuvre riche qui nous fait voyager de la France à l#039;Angleterre en passant par l#039;Italie le tout mêlé d#039;intrigues autant politiques qu#039;amoureuses. Une plongée magnifique dans l#039;histoire de France et celle des Templiers, portée par une très belle écriture. About Parents And Children! Dans ce premier tome, le portrait du roi Philippe Le Bel est d#039;une envergure incroyable. College! Saisissant.
Très Belle Ecriture! Très bon Livre! J#039;ai pris beaucoup de plaisir à découvrir un peu plus Philippe IV le Bel , que je ne connaissais qu#039;à travers ce que j#039;avais lu sur les templiers. Ce livre est à coup sûr un chef-d#039;oeuvre pour les amoureux d#039;histoire. Elements Five Essay! De sa belle plume, l#039;auteur nous fait rencontrer les derniers templiers, et surtout fait le portrait du roi de fer Philippe IV le Bel, tant et si bien qu#039;en finissant le roman, on college a l#039;impression de le connaitre intimement. Une manière tout à fait originale de nous faire découvrir une des périodes méconnues de l#039;histoire de France, le Bas Moyen Âge. C#039;est pas très sexy dit comme ça, mais l#039;auteur arrive à rendre passionnantes les intrigues de la cour, la lutte pour le pouvoir et l#039;honneur. Paper! À travers une multitude de personnages et de points de vue, l#039;auteur parvient à dresser un tableau complet et saisissant de l#039;époque et à ouvrir une fenêtre sur cette période. College! Il y a quelque chose de magique à découvrir ces personnalités qui en général ne sont réduites qu#039;à des dates dans les livres d#039;histoire, prendre vie sous nos yeux avec une réelle humanité qui nous fait sentir si proches d#039;elles. Inspiration My Paper! Le style simple permet de vraiment s#039;immerger dans l#039;histoire et s#039;y attacher et donne envie d#039;en apprendre plus sur cette période.
Une réussite dont je lirai la suite. Les Rois Maudits est l#039;une des fresques historiques les plus enthousiasmantes, les mieux écrites, que j#039;ai lues jusqu#039;ici, avec Fortune de France de Robert Merle ! Le Roi de Fer, qui jette les bases de la saga, est un roman brillantissime, qui nous immerge totalement au temps du roi Philippe le Bel, durant la dernière année de son règne, en 1314, laquelle clôt sept années passées à abattre le puissant Ordre des Chevaliers du Temple, dernier pouvoir à lui tenir tête. College A-g Requirements! Jacques de Molay, le Grand Maître, vient enfin d#039;avouer sous la torture toutes les infamies imputées à sa milice. Maurice Druon prend pour point de départ à son heptalogie la légende selon laquelle Jacques de Molay aurait lancé une malédiction au moment de son exécution à l#039;encontre de ceux qui ont œuvré à sa chute, ainsi qu#039;à l#039;encontre de leurs héritiers. Should Essay! On ne peut oublier la fameuse scène du bûcher d#039;où le vieil homme, possédé par une colère enragée, prononce à travers les flammes qui le ravagent ces paroles saisissantes : ” Pape Clément ! Chevalier Guillaume ! Roi Philippe ! Avant un an, je vous cite à paraître au tribunal de Dieu pour y recevoir votre juste jugement ! Maudits ! Maudits ! Maudits ! Tous maudits jusqu#039;à la treizième génération de vos races ! Deux autres fils conducteurs viennent interagir avec l#039;intrigue principale, voire l#039;influencer : la rivalité pour la succession d’Artois entre Mahaut d’Artois et son neveu Robert d’Artois et l’idylle amoureuse entre le banquier Guccio Baglioni et la noble Marie de Cressay (même si pour l#039;instant, cette dernière intrigue ne semble pas interférer avec l#039;Histoire, mais patience, les pièces du puzzle se mettent doucement en place !^^). L#039;auteur réussit l#039;exploit de brosser toute une galerie de personnages historiques au caractère varié très crédibles : le roi Philippe, majestueux et implacable, son frère Valois vaniteux et brouillon, ses fils aînés et puînés fades et médiocres, les serviteurs de la Couronne Marigny et Nogaret loyaux mais plus royalistes que le roi lui-même, son cousin Artois truculent et revanchard, sa tante Artois calculatrice et autoritaire, Tolomei le banquier siennois rusé et opportuniste. College A-g Requirements! D#039;ailleurs, peut-être que cette profusion de protagonistes pourra gêner au début le lecteur qui découvre seulement ce pan de notre histoire, et qu#039;il aura besoin d#039;un certain temps avant d#039;assimiler les identités et les intérêts privés de chacun. Essay! Car deux clans gravitent, complotent et intriguent autour du roi : d#039;un côté le parti des légistes et des tenants d#039;un état réformateur regroupant Marigny, Nogaret, Philippe de Poitiers, fils cadet du roi, Louis d#039;Evreux demi-frère du roi ; et de l#039;autre côté le parti des barons, favorables au retour d#039;un système politique traditionnel et féodal réuni autour de Charles de Valois, Louis de Navarre et Charles de Bigorre fils du roi, et Robert d#039;Artois. On sent que Maurice Druon s#039;est beaucoup documenté, non seulement sur la situation géopolitique de la France médiévale mais également sur la vie quotidienne de ses habitants (armement, nourriture, hygiène, vêtements, éclairage, système de chauffage. A-g Requirements! ), si bien que l#039;on se sent complètement immergé dans l#039;histoire.
Cette documentation n#039;est jamais pesante mais se fond au contraire très naturellement au récit dans lequel aucun détail n#039;est négligé, jusqu#039;au vocabulaire de vieux français. Malgré les drames humains qui se jouent (la chute des Templiers, la chute des trois brus du roi provoquée par Robert d#039;Artois pour récupérer son comté, les malheurs conjugaux de la reine d#039;Angleterre), certaines scènes et certains dialogues sont vraiment très drôles : par exemple, la scène du conseil où le roi ne cesse de rabrouer son héritier d#039;un sec Taisez-vous, Louis ! suite à ses interventions toutes plus idiotes les unes que les autres ou la scène entre Mahaut et Robert d#039;Artois, accouru lui annoncer l#039;arrestation de ses filles et de sa nièce. ”- . Degree! je veux qu#039;elle aide à sa ruine en allant braire devant le roi, et je veux qu#039;elle en crève de dépit. Lormet baîlla un bon coup. - Elle crèvera, Monseigneur, elle crèvera, soyez-en sûr, vous faites bien tout ce qu#039;il faut pour cela, dit-il. Chaque phrase, chaque mot fait mouche. College A-g Requirements! L#039;auteur sait comme personne renvoyer ses personnages vers la médiocrité, la vanité ou la solitude de leur vie en une formule définitive. Les portraits qu#039;il brosse sont criants de vérité. Personal Assessment! Ainsi, Philippe le Bel est décrit comme un roi dur et majestueux, insensible à l#039;amour, même filial ; et pourtant, il souffre parfois de cette distance qu#039;il a lui-même instaurée.
Mais pour la grandeur de l#039;Etat, il a renoncé à tout bonheur personnel ! Les personnages échappent à tout manichéisme, et même parmi les plus cruels ou les plus retors, il y a quelque chose e eux qui nous touche ou nous empêche de totalement les vouer aux gémonies. Ainsi, Marguerite de Navarre, qui tondue et revêtue de sa robe de bure, trouve encore la force de répondre crânement à sa belle-sœur : ”Moi, si je n#039;ai pas eu le bonheur, au moins j#039;ai eu le plaisir, qui vaut toutes les couronnes du monde, et je ne regrette rien ! On ressent toutes les émotions, tous les doutes, toutes les envies rentrées ou sursauts d#039;orgueil des personnages, tant les mots utilisés par l#039;auteur sont justes et précis. Les + : un contexte historique extrêmement bien resitué et exploité ; des personnages réalistes et captivants ; un style efficace et des dialogues savoureux. Les - : aucun à mes yeux. Le premier tome de la saga dans lequel on college a-g requirements plonge rapidement. Of A! Malgré les nombreux personnages, on college a-g requirements s#039;y retrouve facilement et les annexes à la fin nous apportent un bon complément et une bonne compréhension.
On en apprend beaucoup sur l#039;histoire de France et sur Philippe Le Bel. Les intrigues et les complots se mettent déjà en place ! Je comprends pourquoi Georges RR Martin s#039;en est inspiré pour Game of elements of a essay, thrones ! Très agréable à lire, qu#039;on aime ou pas l#039;histoire. A-g Requirements! On passe un très bon moment de lecture, tout en apprenant beaucoup sur l#039;histoire de France. Un de ces livres, pas si nombreux, lus et relus moultes(*) fois. Holocaust Paper Questions! Style, puissance de l#039;intrigue, personnages, souffle. A-g Requirements! Rien d#039;étonnant si cette série passe pour une des sources d#039;inspiration de Georges R.R. Essays Parents And Children! Martin pour le trône de fer ! Et l#039;on y voit les manœuvres de quelques ambitions personnelles ou velléités de revanche (n#039;est-ce pas, Robert) provoquer des remous . A-g Requirements! historiques.
Je compte prolonger le plaisir avec le livre d#039;Eric le Nabour, Les rois maudits l#039;enquête historique. Masters In Creative! J#039;en salive d#039;avance. (*) je sais, moult, c#039;est invariable, mais je trouve cela plus joli à prononcer. Une saga éblouissante qui vous plonge dans l#039;histoire de France. Si vous adorez l#039;histoire, cette saga est faite pour vous, si ce n#039;est pas le cas, passez votre chemin. College! Ce premier roman nous conte la vie de Philippe le Bel, ses amours, ses batailles, ses divergences familiales, bref une fresque historique digne de ce nom. To Write! Une fresque écrite dans un style très très agréable, des descriptions fournies et pas trop longues et des dialogues dynamiques. magnifique fresque historique qui aura su me charmer au-delà de mes attentes. A-g Requirements! Jamais l#039;histoire ne m#039;a parue aussi facile à appréhender.
La trahison de Philippe le Bel, la malédication de Jacques de Molay. Personal Assessment! Waouh! On découvre la royauté et ses problèmes de l#039;intérieur et. College A-g Requirements! c#039;est génial! J#039;ai hâte de suivre la suite. Pas en diamant parce qu#039;en diamant, pour moi. Marijuana Should Be Legal Essay! il n#039;y a que les livres intemporels dont l#039;histoire me poursuit encore des années après leur lecture. College A-g Requirements! Harry potter 3. Les Rois Maudits, tome 1 : Le roi de fer. Livres ayant des themes similaires. Vos favoris l'ont en bibliotheque. Meilleurs classements dans les Listes Booknode.
9eme Ces livres qui nous font aimer l#039;histoire (53 participants) 9eme Fait reel ! (110 participants) 14eme Livres des Lectures Communes (87 participants) 32eme Litterature et series televisees (261 participants) 192eme Au detour d#039;un chemin. Should Be Legal Essay! (101 participants) Os reis mauditos, Volume 1 : O rei de ferro - Portugais. Veuillez choisir un nouveau mot de passe et indiquer le code secret qui vient d'etre envoye sur votre email.